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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Pakistan
 
Flag of Pakistan                                Map of Pakistan
 
Background:The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal (Mongol) Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Geographic coordinates:30 00 N, 70 00 E
Map references:Asia
Area:total: 803,940 sq km
land: 778,720 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:total: 6,774 km
border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
Coastline:1,046 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate:mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Terrain:flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Natural resources:land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use:arable land: 24.44%
permanent crops: 0.84%
other: 74.72% (2005)
Irrigated land:182,300 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:233.8 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 169.39 cu km/yr (2%/2%/96%)
per capita: 1,072 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)
Environment—current issues:water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography—note:controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent
  
People
  
Population:164,741,924 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 36.9% (male 31,264,576/female 29,507,174)
15-64 years: 58.8% (male 49,592,033/female 47,327,161)
65 years and over: 4.3% (male 3,342,650/female 3,708,330) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 20.9 years
male: 20.7 years
female: 21 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:1.828% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:27.52 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:8 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:-1.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.048 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.901 male(s)/female
total population: 1.045 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 68.84 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 68.94 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 68.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 63.75 years
male: 62.73 years
female: 64.83 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:3.71 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:74,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:4,900 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)
Nationality:noun: Pakistani(s)
adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groups:Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants)
Religions:Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3%
Languages:Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski and other 8%
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 49.9%
male: 63%
female: 36% (2005 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
conventional short form: Pakistan
local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
local short form: Pakistan
former: West Pakistan
Government type:federal republic
Capital:name: Islamabad
geographic coordinates: 33 42 N, 73 10 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas
Independence:14 August 1947 (from British India)
National holiday:Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
Constitution:12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003; suspended 3 November 2007; restored with amendments on 15 December 2007
Legal system:based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
Executive branch:chief of state: President Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 20 June 2001)
note: following an October 1999 military coup, General Pervez MUSHARRAF suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; in May 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court validated the 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority for three years following the coup; in June 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself president, replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; an April 2002 referendum extended MUSHARRAF's presidency by five years
head of government: caretaker Prime Minister Mohammedmian SOOMRO (since 16 November 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: the president is elected by secret ballot (1,170 votes total) through an Electoral College comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and the provincial assemblies for a five-year term; the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly
election results: MUSHARRAF reelected on 6 October 2007 (next election to be held in October 2012); MUSHARRAF 671 votes; Wajihuddin AHMED 8 votes; 6 votes invalid
Legislative branch:bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; one half are elected every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members elected by popular vote; 60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held in March 2006 (next to be held in March 2009); National Assembly - last held 18 February 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PML 39, MMA 18, PPPP 9, MQM 6, PML/N 4, PkMAP 3, PPP/S 3, ANP 2, BNP/A 1, BNP/M 1, JWP 1, PML/F 1, independents 12; National Assembly results - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Judicial branch:Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court
Political parties and leaders:Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party/Hayee Group or BNP/H [Dr. Hayee BALUCH]; Baluch National Party/Awami or BNP/A [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Baluch National Party-Mengal or BNP/M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami ul-HAQ faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement, or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI] (merged with PML); Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; note - as of May 2004, the PML/Q changed its name to PML and absorbed the PML/J, PML/Z, and NA; Pakistan People's Party or PPP/S [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali ZARDANI, co-chairman]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i-Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]
note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently
Political pressure groups and leaders:military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential
International organization participation:ADB, ARF, C (reinstated 2004), CP, ECO, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Mahmud Ali DURRANI
chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500
FAX: [1] (202) 686-1544
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Sunnyvale (California)
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200
telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000
FAX: [92] (51) 2276427
consulate(s) general: Karachi
consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar
Flag description:green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and a costly, ongoing confrontation with neighboring India. However, IMF-approved government policies, bolstered by generous foreign assistance and renewed access to global markets since 2001, have generated solid macroeconomic recovery the last five years. The government has made substantial macroeconomic reforms since 2000, most notably privatizing the banking sector. Poverty levels have decreased by 10% since 2001, and Islamabad has steadily raised development spending in recent years, including a 52% real increase in the budget allocation for development in FY07, a necessary step toward reversing the broad underdevelopment of its social sector. The fiscal deficit - the result of chronically low tax collection and increased spending, including reconstruction costs from the October 2005 earthquake - appears manageable for now. GDP growth, spurred by gains in the industrial and service sectors, remained in the 6-8% range in 2004-07. Inflation remains the biggest threat to the economy, jumping to more than 9% in 2005 before easing to 6.9% in 2007. The central bank is pursuing tighter monetary policy while trying to preserve growth. Foreign exchange reserves are bolstered by steady worker remittances, but a growing current account deficit - driven by a widening trade gap as import growth outstrips export expansion - could draw down reserves and dampen GDP growth in the medium term.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$446.1 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$106.3 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:6.3% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$2,600 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 19.6%
industry: 26.8%
services: 53.7% (2007 est.)
Labor force:49.18 million
note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 42%
industry: 20%
services: 38% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:7.5% plus substantial underemployment (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:24% (FY05/06 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.3% (2002)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:30.6 (2002)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):6.9% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):21.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $23.17 billion
expenditures: $29.74 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:53.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Industries:textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Industrial production growth rate:6.8% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:89.82 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:67.06 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:68,220 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:345,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:23,230 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:278,900 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:289.2 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:29.54 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:29.54 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:764.6 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-6.477 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$20.58 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Exports—partners:US 21%, UAE 9%, Afghanistan 7.7%, China 5.3%, UK 5.1% (2006)
Imports:$30.99 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports—partners:China 13.8%, Saudi Arabia 10.5%, UAE 9.7%, US 6.5%, Japan 5.7%, Kuwait 4.7%, Germany 4.2% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$16.03 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$40.32 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$14.67 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$885 million (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$45.52 billion (2006)
Economic aid—recipient:$1.666 billion (2005)
Currency (code):Pakistani rupee (PKR)
Exchange rates:Pakistani rupees per US dollar - 60.6295 (2007), 60.35 (2006), 59.515 (2005), 58.258 (2004), 57.752 (2003)
Fiscal year:1 July - 30 June
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:5.24 million (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:63.16 million (2007)
Telephone system:general assessment: the telecom infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments into fixed-line and mobile networks; mobile cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, reaching some 63 million in mid-2007, up from only about 300,000 in 2000; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; main line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting main line service to rural areas
domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks
international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2006)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 31, FM 68, shortwave NA (2006)
Television broadcast stations:20 (5 state-run channels and 15 privately-owned satellite channels) (2006)
Internet country code:.pk
Internet hosts:164,067 (2007)
Internet users:12 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:146 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 92
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 29
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 10 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 54
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 24 (2007)
Heliports:18 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 10,398 km; oil 2,076 km (2007)
Railways:total: 8,163 km
broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 258,340 km
paved: 167,146 km (includes 711 km of expressways)
unpaved: 91,194 km (2004)
Merchant marine:total: 14 ships (1000 GRT or over) 325,254 GRT/536,876 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 10, petroleum tanker 3
registered in other countries: 12 (Comoros 2, Hong Kong 1, North Korea 1, Malta 2, Panama 5, St Vincent and The Grenadines 1) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
  
Military
  
Military branches:Army (includes National Guard), Navy (includes Marines and Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2007)
Military service age and obligation:16 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age of 18; the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female pilots and sailors (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 39,028,014
females age 16-49: 36,779,584 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 29,428,747
females age 16-49: 28,391,887 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 1,969,055
females age 16-49: 1,849,254 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:3.2% (2006; 3% 2007 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan, with UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly more than a million, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has proposed and Afghanistan protests construction of a fence and laying of mines along portions of their porous border; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to monitor and control the border with Afghanistan and to stem terrorist or other illegal activities
Refugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 1,084,208 (Afghanistan)
IDPs: undetermined (government strikes on Islamic militants in South Waziristan), 34,000 (October 2005 earthquake; most of those displaced returned to their home villages in the spring of 2006) (2006)
Illicit drugs:opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 800 hectares in 2005 yielding a potential production of 4 metric tons of pure heroin; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that force eradication - fines and arrests will take place if the ban on poppy cultivation is not observed; key transit point for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Western markets, the Gulf States, and Africa; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems

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