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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Portugal
 
Flag of Portugal                                Map of Portugal
 
Background:Following its heyday as a world power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence in 1822 of Brazil as a colony. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
Geographic coordinates:39 30 N, 8 00 W
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 92,391 sq km
land: 91,951 sq km
water: 440 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:total: 1,214 km
border countries: Spain 1,214 km
Coastline:1,793 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Terrain:mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m
Natural resources:fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use:arable land: 17.29%
permanent crops: 7.84%
other: 74.87% (2005)
Irrigated land:6,500 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:73.6 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 11.09 cu km/yr (10%/12%/78%)
per capita: 1,056 cu m/yr (1998)
Natural hazards:Azores subject to severe earthquakes
Environment—current issues:soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
Environment—international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification
Geography—note:Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
  
People
  
Population:10,642,836 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 16.5% (male 914,480/female 837,525)
15-64 years: 66.3% (male 3,501,206/female 3,551,706)
65 years and over: 17.3% (male 757,220/female 1,080,699) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 38.8 years
male: 36.7 years
female: 41 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:0.334% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:10.59 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:10.56 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:3.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.092 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.986 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.701 male(s)/female
total population: 0.946 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 4.92 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 77.87 years
male: 74.6 years
female: 81.36 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.48 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.4% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:22,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 1,000 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese
Ethnic groups:homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal
Religions:Roman Catholic 84.5%, other Christian 2.2%, other 0.3%, unknown 9%, none 3.9% (2001 census)
Languages:Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official - but locally used)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.3%
male: 95.5%
female: 91.3% (2003 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal
Government type:parliamentary democracy
Capital:name: Lisbon
geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
Independence:1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)
National holiday:Portugal Day (Day of Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died
Constitution:adopted 2 April 1976; effective 25 April 1976; revised many times
Legal system:based on civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 March 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa (since 12 March 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Anibal CAVACO SILVA elected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO SILVA 50.6%, Manuel ALEGRE 20.7%, Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES 14.3%, Jeronimo DE SOUSA 8.5%, Franciso LOUCA 5.3%
Legislative branch:unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 February 2005 (next to be held in Fall 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - PS 45.1%, PSD 28.7%, CDU 7.6%, PP 7.3%, BE 6.4%, other 4.9%; seats by party - PS 121, PSD 75, CDU 14, PP 12, BE 8
Judicial branch:Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura)
Political parties and leaders:Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Green Ecologist Party or PEV [leadership commission elected by members]; Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Jose SOCRATES Carvalho Pinto de Sousa]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Luis Filipe MENEZES]; The Left Bloc or BE [Franciso Anacleto LOUCA]; Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes PEV and PCP)
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:ABEDA, ADB (nonregional members), AfDB, Australia Group, BIS, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIT, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Joao DE VALLERA
chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 350-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), San Francisco
consulate(s): New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island)
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas E. STEPHENSON
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon
mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)
Flag description:two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community in 1986. Over the past two decades, successive governments have privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU member economies. Economic growth had been above the EU average for much of the 1990s, but fell back in 2001-07. GDP per capita stands at roughly two-thirds of the EU-27 average. A poor educational system, in particular, has been an obstacle to greater productivity and growth. Portugal has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a target for foreign direct investment. The budget deficit surged to an all-time high of 6% of GDP in 2005, but the government estimates it at 3% in 2007 - a year ahead of Portugal's targeted schedule - thanks partly to deficit-cutting efforts. Nonetheless, the government faces tough choices in its attempts to boost Portugal's economic competitiveness while keeping the budget deficit within the eurozone's 3%-of-GDP ceiling.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$232 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$219.5 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:1.7% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$21,800 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 7.9%
industry: 25.9%
services: 66.2% (2007 est.)
Labor force:5.62 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 10%
industry: 30%
services: 60% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:8% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:38 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):2.4% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):21% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $92.35 billion
expenditures: $99.59 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:65.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, swine, poultry, dairy products; fish
Industries:textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metals and metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; rubber and plastic products; ceramics; electronics and communications equipment; rail transportation equipment; aerospace equipment; ship construction and refurbishment; wine; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:1.8% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:43.69 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:46.3 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:2.802 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:9.626 billion kWh (2005)
Oil—production:4,032 bbl/day (2005)
Oil—consumption:335,400 bbl/day (2005)
Oil—exports:43,070 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:361,300 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:4.125 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:4.281 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-18.53 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$50.72 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:clothing and footwear, machinery, chemicals, cork and paper products, hides
Exports—partners:Spain 26.5%, Germany 12.9%, France 12%, UK 6.7%, US 6.1% (2006)
Imports:$72.19 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum, textiles, agricultural products
Imports—partners:Spain 29%, Germany 13.1%, France 8.1%, Italy 5.6%, Netherlands 4.4% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$10.4 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$415.5 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$85.52 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$54.85 billion (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$66.98 billion (2005)
Economic aid—donor:ODA, $271 million (1995)
Currency (code):euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Exchange rates:euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:4.231 million (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:12.226 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has achieved a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities
domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations
international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region) is planned (1998)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 47, FM 172 (many are repeaters), shortwave 2 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:62 (plus 166 repeaters; includes Azores and Madeira Islands) (1995)
Internet country code:.pt
Internet hosts:836,616 (2007)
Internet users:3.213 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:66 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 44
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 12 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 21 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 1,098 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2007)
Railways:total: 2,786 km
broad gauge: 2,603 km 1.668-m gauge (1,351 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 183 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 78,470 km
paved: 67,484 km (includes 2,002 km of expressways)
unpaved: 10,986 km (2004)
Waterways:210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2006)
Merchant marine:total: 117 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,022,783 GRT/1,287,951 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 10, cargo 37, carrier 1, chemical tanker 16, container 6, liquefied gas 9, passenger 10, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 10
foreign-owned: 80 (Belgium 9, Denmark 3, Germany 22, Greece 4, Italy 11, Japan 10, Malta 1, Mexico 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 3, Spain 10, Sweden 2, Switzerland 2, US 1)
registered in other countries: 15 (Cyprus 1, Hong Kong 1, Malta 3, Panama 9, St Vincent and The Grenadines 1) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines
  
Military
  
Military branches:Army, Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP), National Republican Guard (Guarda Nacional Republicana) (2005)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for voluntary military service; compulsory military service ended in 2004; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties (2005)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 2,435,042
females age 18-49: 2,405,816 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 1,952,819
females age 18-49: 1,977,264 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 67,189
females age 18-49: 60,626 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:2.3% (2005 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
Illicit drugs:seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

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