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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Philippines
 
Flag of Philippines                                Map of Philippines
 
Background:The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during WWII, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. The 20-year rule of Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power" movement in Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts, which prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992 and his administration was marked by greater stability and progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998, but was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA's stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another "people power" movement ("EDSA 2") demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. The Philippine Government faces threats from three terrorist groups on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list, but in 2006 and 2007 scored some major successes in capturing or killing key wanted terrorists. Decades of Muslim insurgency in the southern Philippines have led to a peace accord with one group and an ongoing cease-fire and peace talks with another.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam
Geographic coordinates:13 00 N, 122 00 E
Map references:Southeast Asia
Area:total: 300,000 sq km
land: 298,170 sq km
water: 1,830 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly larger than Arizona
Land boundaries:0 km
Coastline:36,289 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Climate:tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
Terrain:mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m
Natural resources:timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Land use:arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 16.67%
other: 64.33% (2005)
Irrigated land:15,500 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:479 cu km (1999)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 28.52 cu km/yr (17%/9%/74%)
per capita: 343 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
Environment—current issues:uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography—note:the Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait
  
People
  
Population:91,077,287 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 34.5% (male 16,043,257/female 15,415,334)
15-64 years: 61.3% (male 27,849,584/female 28,008,293)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 1,631,866/female 2,128,953) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 22.7 years
male: 22.2 years
female: 23.3 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:1.764% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:24.48 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:5.36 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:-1.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.041 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.994 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.767 male(s)/female
total population: 0.999 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 22.12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 24.85 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 70.51 years
male: 67.61 years
female: 73.55 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:3.05 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:9,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 500 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2008)
Nationality:noun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine
Ethnic groups:Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)
Religions:Roman Catholic 80.9%, Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)
Languages:Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.5%
female: 92.7% (2000 census)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form: Pilipinas
Government type:republic
Capital:name: Manila
geographic coordinates: 14 35 N, 121 00 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:81 provinces and 136 chartered cities
provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Biliran, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu, Compostela, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dinagat Islands, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La Union, Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain Province, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani, Shariff Kabunsuan, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Zambales, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay
chartered cities: Alaminos, Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bago, Baguio, Bais, Balanga, Batac, Batangas, Bayawan, Baybay, Bayugan, Bislig, Bogo, Borongan, Butuan, Cabadbaran, Cabanatuan, Cadiz, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Calapan, Calbayog, Candon, Canlaon, Carcar, Catbalogan, Cauayan, Cavite, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan, Danao, Dapitan, Davao, Digos, Dipolog, Dumaguete, Escalante, El Salvador, Gapan, General Santos, Gingoog, Guihulngan, Himamaylan, Iligan, Iloilo, Isabela, Iriga, Kabankalan, Kalookan, Kidapawan, Koronadal, La Carlota, Lamitan, Laoag, Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Legazpi, Ligao, Lipa, Lucena, Maasin, Makati, Malabon, Malaybalay, Malolos, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Manila, Marawi, Marikina, Masbate, Mati, Meycauayan, Muntinlupa, Munoz, Naga (Camarines Sur), Naga (Cebu), Navotas, Olongapo, Ormoc, Oroquieta, Ozamis, Pagadian, Palayan, Panabo, Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Passi, Puerto Princesa, Quezon, Roxas, Sagay, Samal, San Carlos (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos (in Pangasinan), San Fernando (in La Union), San Fernando (in Pampanga), San Jose, San Jose del Monte, San Juan, San Pablo, Santa Rosa, Santiago, Silay, Sipalay, Sorsogon, Surigao, Tabaco, Tabuk, Tacloban, Tacurong, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Tagum, Talisay (in Cebu), Talisay (in Negros Occidental), Tanauan, Tandag, Tangub, Tanjay, Tarlac, Tayabas, Toledo, Tuguegarao, Trece Martires, Urdaneta, Valencia, Valenzuela, Victorias, Vigan, Zamboanga (2007)
Independence:12 June 1898 (independence proclaimed from Spain); 4 July 1946 (from the US)
National holiday:Independence Day, 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 was date of declaration of independence from Spain; 4 July 1946 was date of independence from US
Constitution:2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
Legal system:based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with consent of Commission of Appointments
elections: president and vice president (Manuel "Noli" DE CASTRO) elected on separate tickets by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 10 May 2004 (next to be held in May 2010)
election results: Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected president; percent of vote - Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO 40%, Fernando POE 37%, three others 23%
Legislative branch:bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected at large by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (as a result of May 2007 election it has 239 seats including 218 members representing districts and 21 sectoral party-list members representing special minorities elected on the basis of 1 seat for every 2% of the total vote but limited to 3 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note - the Constitution prohibits the House of Representatives from having more than 250 members)
elections: Senate - last held on 14 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2010); House of Representatives - elections last held on 14 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2010)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lakas-Kampi 4, LP 4, NPC 3, NP 2, independents 4, others 6; note - there are 23 rather than 24 sitting senators because one senator was elected mayor of Manila; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lakas 86, Kampi 46, NPC 29, LP 21, Party-list 21, others 36
Judicial branch:Supreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age); Court of Appeals; Sandigan-bayan (special court for hearing corruption cases of government officials)
Political parties and leaders:Genuine Opposition or GO (coalition of oppositon parties formed to contest the 2007 elections); Kabalikat Ng Malayang Pilipino or Kampi [Ronaldo PUNO]; Laban Ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]; Lakas Ng Edsa (National Union of Christian Democrats) or Lakas [Jose DE VENECIA]; Liberal Party or LP [Manuel ROXAS]; Nacionalista [Manuel VILLAR]; National People's Coalition or NPC [Frisco SAN JUAN]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL]; People's Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO]; PROMDI [Emilio OSMENA]; Pwersa Ng Masang Pilipino (Party of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA]; Reporma [Renato DE VILLA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:AKBAYAN [Etta ROSALES, Mario AGUJA, and Risa HONTIVEROS-BARAQUIEL]; ALAGAD [Rodante MARROLITA]; ALIF [Acmad TOMAWIS]; An Waray [Horencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Crispin BELTRAN and Rafael MARIANO]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Sunny Rose MADAMBA, Ernesto PABLO, and Edgar VALDEZ]; AVE [Eulogio MAGSAYSAY]; Bayan Muna [Satur OCAMPO, Joel VIRADOR, and Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; BUHAY [Rene VELARDE and Hans Christian SENERES]; BUTIL [Benjamin CRUZ]; CIBAC [Emmanuel Joel VILLANUEVA]; COOP-NATCO [Guillermo CUA]; GABRIELA [Liza MAZA]; Partido Ng Manggagawa [Renato MAGTUBO]; Veterans Federation of the Philippines [Ernesto GIDAYA]
International organization participation:ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Willy C. GAA
chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
FAX: [1] (202) 467-9417
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands), Tamuning (Guam)
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Kristie A. KENNEY
embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita 1000, Manila
mailing address: PSC 500, FPO AP 96515-1000
telephone: [63] (2) 301-2000
FAX: [63] (2) 522-4361
Flag description:two equal horizontal bands of blue (top; representing peace and justice) and red (representing courage); a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side represents equality; the center of the triangle displays a yellow sun with eight primary rays, each representing one of the first eight provinces that sought independence from Spain; each corner of the triangle contains a small, yellow, five-pointed star representing the three major geographical divisions of the country: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao; the design of the flag dates to 1897; in wartime the flag is flown upside down with the red band at the top
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:The Philippine economy grew at its fastest pace in three decades with real GDP growth exceeding 7% in 2007. Higher government spending contributed to the growth, but a resilient service sector and large remittances from the millions of Filipinos who work abroad have played an increasingly important role. Economic growth has averaged 5% since President MACAPAGAL-ARROYO took office in 2001. Nevertheless, the Philippines will need still higher, sustained growth to make progress in alleviating poverty, given its high population growth and unequal distribution of income. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO averted a fiscal crisis by pushing for new revenue measures and, until recently, tightening expenditures. Declining fiscal deficits, tapering debt and debt service ratios, as well as recent efforts to increase spending on infrastructure and social services have heightened optimism over Philippine economic prospects. Although the general macroeconomic outlook has improved significantly, the Philippines continues to face important challenges and must maintain the reform momentum in order to catch up with regional competitors, improve employment opportunities, and alleviate poverty. Longer-term fiscal stability will require more sustainable revenue sources, rather than non-recurring revenues from privatization.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$298.9 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$144.1 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:7.3% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$3,300 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 14.1%
industry: 31.3%
services: 54.6% (2007 est.)
Labor force:36.22 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 35%
industry: 15%
services: 50% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate:7.3% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:30% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 31.2% (2006)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:45.8 (2006)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):2.8% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):14.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $23.96 billion
expenditures: $25.24 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:59.5% of GDP (September 2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassavas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish
Industries:electronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing
Industrial production growth rate:7% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:53.67 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:46.86 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:24,310 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:340,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:34,900 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:353,700 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:152 million bbl (31 December 2006)
Natural gas—production:2.781 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:2.781 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:107.5 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$6.7 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$48.38 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits
Exports—partners:US 18.3%, Japan 16.5%, Netherlands 10.1%, China 9.8%, Hong Kong 7.8%, Singapore 7.3%, Malaysia 5.6%, Taiwan 4.3% (2006)
Imports:$53.96 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic
Imports—partners:US 16.3%, Japan 13.6%, Singapore 8.5%, Taiwan 8%, China 7.1%, South Korea 6.2%, Saudi Arabia 5.8%, Malaysia 4.1%, Thailand 4.1%, Hong Kong 4% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$33.71 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$62.84 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$16.02 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$2.131 billion (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$103.4 billion (2007)
Economic aid—recipient:ODA, $451.4 million in commitments (2006)
Currency (code):Philippine peso (PHP)
Exchange rates:Philippine pesos per US dollar - 46.148 (2007), 51.246 (2006), 55.086 (2005), 56.04 (2004), 54.203 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:3.633 million (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:42.869 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and inter-island service adequate
domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations; cellular communications now dominate the industry; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density exceeds 50 telephones per 100 persons with more than 10 mobile cellular subscribers for every fixed-line subscriber
international: country code - 63; a series of submarine cables together provide connectivity to Asia, US, the Middle East, and Europe; multiple international gateways (2006)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 381, FM 628, shortwave 4 (each shortwave station operates on multiple frequencies in the language of the target audience) (2007)
Television broadcast stations:250 (plus 1,501 CATV networks) (2007)
Internet country code:.ph
Internet hosts:271,609 (2007)
Internet users:4.615 million (2005)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:255 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 84
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 36
under 914 m: 10 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 171
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 68
under 914 m: 99 (2007)
Heliports:2 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 565 km; oil 135 km; refined products 105 km (2007)
Railways:total: 897 km
narrow gauge: 897 km 1.067-m gauge (492 km are in operation) (2006)
Roadways:total: 200,037 km
paved: 19,804 km
unpaved: 180,233 km (2003)
Waterways:3,219 km (limited to vessels with draft less than 1.5 m) (2007)
Merchant marine:total: 383 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,542,681 GRT/6,164,312 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 75, cargo 120, chemical tanker 16, container 5, liquefied gas 5, livestock carrier 16, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 66, petroleum tanker 34, refrigerated cargo 14, roll on/roll off 13, vehicle carrier 12
foreign-owned: 135 (Bermuda 31, China 2, Greece 3, Hong Kong 2, Japan 69, Malaysia 2, Netherlands 22, Norway 2, Singapore 1, UAE 1)
registered in other countries: 34 (Australia 1, Bahamas 1, Belize 1, Comoros 1, Cyprus 1, Ecuador 1, Hong Kong 10, Indonesia 1, Panama 12, Singapore 4, St Vincent and The Grenadines 1) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Liman, Manila, Nasipit Harbor
  
Military
  
Military branches:Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Philippine Air Force (Hukbomg Himpapawid ng Pilipinas) (2008)
Military service age and obligation:18-25 years of age (officers 21-29) for compulsory and voluntary military service; applicants must be single male or female Philippine citizens (2007)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 20,131,179
females age 18-49: 20,009,526 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 15,170,096
females age 18-49: 16,931,191 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 907,542
females age 18-49: 878,712 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:0.9% (2005 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:Philippines claims sovereignty over certain of the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf; maritime delimitation negotiations continue with Palau
Refugees and internally displaced persons:IDPs: 60,000 (fighting between government troops and MILF and Abu Sayyaf groups) (2006)
Illicit drugs:domestic methamphetamine production has been a growing problem in recent years despite government crackdowns; major consumer of amphetamines; longstanding marijuana producer mainly in rural areas where Manila's control is limited

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