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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
San Marino
 
Flag of San Marino                                Map of San Marino
 
Background:The third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marino in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy; social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Geographic coordinates:43 46 N, 12 25 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 61.2 sq km
land: 61.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area—comparative:about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km
Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
Terrain:rugged mountains
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 755 m
Natural resources:building stone
Land use:arable land: 16.67%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 83.33% (2005)
Irrigated land:NA
Natural hazards:NA
Environment—current issues:NA
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution
Geography—note:landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines
  
People
  
Population:29,615 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 16.8% (male 2,573/female 2,404)
15-64 years: 66.1% (male 9,388/female 10,178)
65 years and over: 17.1% (male 2,190/female 2,882) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 40.9 years
male: 40.6 years
female: 41.3 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:1.219% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:9.89 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:8.27 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:10.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.922 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.915 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 5.53 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.96 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 81.8 years
male: 78.33 years
female: 85.57 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.34 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:NA
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:NA
HIV/AIDS—deaths:NA
Nationality:noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese
Ethnic groups:Sammarinese, Italian
Religions:Roman Catholic
Languages:Italian
Literacy:definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95%
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino
Government type:republic
Capital:name: San Marino
geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle
Independence:3 September AD 301
National holiday:Founding of the Republic, 3 September (AD 301)
Constitution:8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution
Legal system:based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Mirko TOMASSONI and Captain Regent Alberto SELVA (for the period 1 October 2007-31 March 2008)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Fiorenzo STOLFI (since 27 July 2006)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term
elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in September 2007 (next to be held in March 2008); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held 27 July 2006 (next to be held by 2011)
election results: Mirko TOMASSONI and Alberto SELVA elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Fiorenzo STOLFI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA
note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles
Legislative branch:unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 4 June 2006 (next to be held by June 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - PDCS 32.9%, Party of Socialists and Democrats 31.9%, AP 11.9%, United Left 8.7%, New Socialist Party 5.4%, other parties 9.2%; seats by party - PDCS 21, Party of Socialists and Democrats 20, AP 7, United Left 5, New Socialist Party 3, others 4; note - following a government reshuffle on 28 NOvember 2007, a splinter party of the PDCS joined the center-left coalition formed by the Party of Socialists and Democrats, the APDS, and the United Left strengthening the government's parliamentary majority to 36 seats out of 60
Judicial branch:Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII
Political parties and leaders:Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Ideas in Movement or IM [Alessandro ROSSI]; National Alliance or AN [Glauco SANSOVINI]; New Socialist Party [Augusto CASALI]; Party of Socialists and Democrats [Claudio FELICI]; San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Pier Marino MENICUCCI]; San Marino Popular Alliance of Democrats or AP [Roberto GIORGETTI]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Alberto CECCHETTI]; Socialists for Reform or SR [Renzo GIARDI]; United Left
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:CE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO
Diplomatic representation in the US:San Marino does not have an embassy in the US
honorary consulate(s) general: New York, Washington, DC
honorary consulate(s): Detroit, Honolulu
Diplomatic representation from the US:the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino
Flag description:two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In 2006 more than 2.1 million tourists visited San Marino. The key industries are banking, clothing and apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies much of its food.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$850 million (2004 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$1.048 billion (2004)
GDP—real growth rate:4.6% (2004 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$34,100 (2004 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Labor force:20,470 (2004)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 0.2%
industry: 40.1%
services: 59.7% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:3.8% (2004)
Population below poverty line:NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):-1.5% (2006)
Budget:revenues: $709.6 million
expenditures: $672.3 million (2004)
Agriculture—products:wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides
Industries:tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
Industrial production growth rate:5.6% (2005 est.)
Exports:$1.291 billion (2004)
Exports—commodities:building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics
Imports:$2.035 billion (2004)
Imports—commodities:wide variety of consumer manufactures, food
Debt—external:$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:$NA
Economic aid—recipient:$NA
Currency (code):euro (EUR)
Exchange rates:euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:21,000 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:17,390 (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: adequate connections
domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 130 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network
Radio broadcast stations:AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:1 (San Marino residents also receive broadcasts from Italy) (1997)
Internet country code:.sm
Internet hosts:3,344 (2007)
Internet users:15,400 (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Roadways:total: 104 km
paved: 104 km (2003)
  
Military
  
Military branches:no regular military forces; Voluntary Military Force (Corpi Militari Voluntar) performs ceremonial duties and limited police functions (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 6,331 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 5,107 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 135 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:NA
Military—note:defense is the responsibility of Italy
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:none

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