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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Tajikistan
 
Flag of Tajikistan                                Map of Tajikistan
 
Background:The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbekistan SSR to newly formed Tajikistan SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Sughd province. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and it is now in the process of strengthening its democracy and transitioning to a free market economy after its 1992-97 civil war. There have been no major security incidents in recent years, although the country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development and security assistance, which could create jobs and increase stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO's Partnership for Peace.
  
Geography
  
Location:Central Asia, west of China
Geographic coordinates:39 00 N, 71 00 E
Map references:Asia
Area:total: 143,100 sq km
land: 142,700 sq km
water: 400 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Terrain:Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
Natural resources:hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use:arable land: 6.52%
permanent crops: 0.89%
other: 92.59% (2005)
Irrigated land:7,220 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:99.7 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 11.96 cu km/yr (4%/5%/92%)
per capita: 1,837 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:earthquakes and floods
Environment—current issues:inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
  
People
  
Population:7,076,598 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 35% (male 1,261,247/female 1,218,686)
15-64 years: 61.2% (male 2,145,300/female 2,184,519)
65 years and over: 3.8% (male 113,186/female 153,660) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 21.3 years
male: 20.8 years
female: 21.8 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:1.895% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:27.33 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:7.05 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:-1.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.035 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.982 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.737 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 43.64 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 48.73 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 38.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 64.61 years
male: 61.6 years
female: 67.78 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:3.09 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:less than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 100 (2001 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2008)
Nationality:noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groups:Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)
Religions:Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi'a Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
Languages:Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.5%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.2% (2000 census)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:republic
Capital:name: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 35 N, 68 48 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* [Gorno-Badakhshan] (Khorugh), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Independence:9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Constitution:6 November 1994
Legal system:based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMONOV reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMONOV 79.3%, Olimzon BOBOYEV 6.2%, other 14.5%
Legislative branch:bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; to serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 25 March 2005 for the National Assembly (next to be held in February 2010) and 27 February and 13 March 2005 for the Assembly of Representatives (next to be held in February 2010)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDPT 29, CPT 2, independents 3; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 74.9%, CPT 13.6%, Islamic Revival Party 8.9%, other 2.5%; seats by party - PDPT 51, CPT 5, Islamic Revival Party 2, independents 5
Judicial branch:Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir KARAKULOV]; Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV (imprisoned October 2005); Rahmatullo VALIYEV, deputy]; Islamic Revival Party [Muhiddin KABIRI]; Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimzon BOBOYEV]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Abdualim GHAFFOROV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders:unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party [Hikmatullo NASREDDINOV]; Party of Justice [Abdurahim KARIMOV]; People's Unity Party [Abdumalik ABDULLOJONOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Mirhuseyn NAZRIYEV]; note - this is a SPT that was disbanded, another pro-government SPT (listed above under political parties) replaced it; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]
International organization participation:ADB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Abdujabbor SHIRINOV
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Tracey Ann JACOBSON
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
Flag description:three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Only 7% of the land area is arable; cotton is the most important crop. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. While Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997, nearly two-thirds of the population continues to live in abject poverty. Economic growth reached 10.6% in 2004, but dropped to 8% in 2005, 7% in 2006, and 7.2% in 2007. Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, weak governance, widespread unemployment, and the external debt burden. Continued privatization of medium and large state-owned enterprises could increase productivity. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002 including a $250 million write-off of Tajikistan's $300 million debt. Tajikistan ranks third in the world in terms of water resources per head. Russian investment in the Sangtuda I hydropower dam, set to go online late 2007 or early 2008, will increase production of electricity for domestic consumption. The completion of Sangtuda II and Rogun dams would substantially add to electricity output, which could also be exported for profit. If finished, Rogun will be the world's tallest dam. Tajikistan was also the recipient of substantial infrastructure development credits from the Shanghai Cooperation Organization to improve roads and an electricity transmission network. To help increase north-south trade, the US funded a $36 million bridge which opened in August 2007 and links Tajikistan and Afghanistan.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$11.87 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$3.353 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:7.2% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$1,600 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 23.6%
industry: 30.6%
services: 45.8% (2007 est.)
Labor force:3.7 million (2003)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 67.2%
industry: 7.5%
services: 25.3% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:12% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:64% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 25.6% (2003)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:32.6 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):9.8% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):13.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $614.8 million
expenditures: $756.9 million (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries:aluminum, zinc, lead; chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Industrial production growth rate:5% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:16.89 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:14.66 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:4.257 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:4.508 billion kWh (2005)
Oil—production:282.1 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:30,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:305.8 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:29,480 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:12 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:39.32 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:1.371 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:1.333 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:5.432 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-102 million (2007 est.)
Exports:$1.736 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports—partners:Netherlands 40.7%, Turkey 31.7%, Iran 5.4%, Uzbekistan 4.8%, Russia 4.7% (2006)
Imports:$2.357 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports—partners:Russia 24.6%, Kazakhstan 10.8%, Uzbekistan 10.2%, China 8.6%, Azerbaijan 8% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$301 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$1.308 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$NA
Economic aid—recipient:$241.4 million from US (2005)
Currency (code):somoni (TJS)
Exchange rates:Tajikistani somoni per US dollar - 3.4418 (2007), 3.3 (2006), 3.1166 (2005), 2.9705 (2004), 3.0614 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:280,200 (2005)
Telephones—mobile cellular:265,000 (2005)
Telephone system:general assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not linked to the national network
domestic: the domestic telecommunications network has historically been under funded and poorly maintained; main line availability has not changed significantly since 1998; cellular telephone use is growing but coverage remains limited
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat (2006)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 8, FM 10, shortwave 2 (2002)
Television broadcast stations:6 (2006)
Internet country code:.tj
Internet hosts:2,050 (2007)
Internet users:19,500 (2005)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:26 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 18
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 8
under 914 m: 8 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2007)
Railways:total: 482 km
broad gauge: 482 km 1.520-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 27,767 km (2000)
Waterways:200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2006)
  
Military
  
Military branches:Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Force (2008)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 1,556,415
females age 18-49: 1,568,780 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 1,244,941
females age 18-49: 1,297,891 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 87,846
females age 18-49: 85,869 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:3.9% (2005 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
Illicit drugs:major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates

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