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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Turks and Caicos Islands
 
Flag of Turks and Caicos Islands                                Map of Turks and Caicos Islands
 
Background:The islands were part of the UK's Jamaican colony until 1962, when they assumed the status of a separate crown colony upon Jamaica's independence. The governor of The Bahamas oversaw affairs from 1965 to 1973. With Bahamian independence, the islands received a separate governor in 1973. Although independence was agreed upon for 1982, the policy was reversed and the islands remain a British overseas territory.
  
Geography
  
Location:Caribbean, two island groups in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of The Bahamas, north of Haiti
Geographic coordinates:21 45 N, 71 35 W
Map references:Central America and the Caribbean
Area:total: 430 sq km
land: 430 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area—comparative:2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:0 km
Coastline:389 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate:tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry
Terrain:low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Blue Hills 49 m
Natural resources:spiny lobster, conch
Land use:arable land: 2.33%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.67% (2005)
Irrigated land:NA
Natural hazards:frequent hurricanes
Environment—current issues:limited natural fresh water resources, private cisterns collect rainwater
Geography—note:about 40 islands (eight inhabited)
  
People
  
Population:21,746 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 31.3% (male 3,466/female 3,345)
15-64 years: 64.8% (male 7,398/female 6,690)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 394/female 453) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 27.7 years
male: 28.4 years
female: 26.9 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:2.722% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:21.48 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:4.23 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:9.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.036 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.106 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.073 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 14.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 74.95 years
male: 72.69 years
female: 77.32 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:3.02 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:NA
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:NA
HIV/AIDS—deaths:NA
Nationality:noun: none
adjective: none
Ethnic groups:black 90%, mixed, European, or North American 10%
Religions:Baptist 40%, Anglican 18%, Methodist 16%, Church of God 12%, other 14% (1990)
Languages:English (official)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1970 est.)
People—note:destination and transit point for illegal Haitian immigrants bound for the Turks and Caicos Islands, The Bahamas, and the US
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turks and Caicos Islands
abbreviation: TCI
Dependency status:overseas territory of the UK
Government type:NA
Capital:name: Grand Turk (Cockburn Town)
geographic coordinates: 21 28 N, 71 08 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:none (overseas territory of the UK)
Independence:none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday:Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)
Constitution:Turks and Caicos Islands Constitution Order 2006 (effective 9 August 2006)
Legal system:based on laws of England and Wales, with a few adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Richard TAUWHARE (since 11 July 2005)
head of government: Premier Michael Eugene MISICK (since 15 August 2003); note - the office of premier was created in the 2006 constitution
cabinet: Cabinet consists of the governor, the premier, six ministers appointed by the governor from among the members of the House of Assembly, and the attorney general
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is appointed premier by the governor
Legislative branch:unicameral House of Assembly (21 seats of which 15 are popularly elected; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 9 February 2007 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - PNP 60%, PDM 40%; seats by party - PNP 13, PDM 2
Judicial branch:Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders:People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Floyd SEYMOUR]; Progressive National Party or PNP [Michael Eugene MISICK]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), UPU
Diplomatic representation in the US:none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US:none (overseas territory of the UK)
Flag description:blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the colonial shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield is yellow and contains a conch shell, lobster, and cactus
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:The Turks and Caicos economy is based on tourism, offshore financial services, and fishing. Most capital goods and food for domestic consumption are imported. The US is the leading source of tourists, accounting for more than three-quarters of the 175,000 visitors that arrived in 2004. Major sources of government revenue also include fees from offshore financial activities and customs receipts.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$216 million (2002 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$NA
GDP—real growth rate:4.9% (2000 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$11,500 (2002 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Labor force:4,848 (1990 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:note: about 33% in government and 20% in agriculture and fishing; significant numbers in tourism, financial, and other services
Unemployment rate:10% (1997 est.)
Population below poverty line:NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):4% (1995)
Budget:revenues: $47 million
expenditures: $33.6 million (1997-98 est.)
Agriculture—products:corn, beans, cassava (tapioca), citrus fruits; fish
Industries:tourism, offshore financial services
Industrial production growth rate:NA%
Electricity—production:11.57 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:10.76 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:80 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:83.55 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Exports:$169.2 million (2000)
Exports—commodities:lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells
Exports—partners:US, UK (2006)
Imports:$175.6 million (2000)
Imports—commodities:food and beverages, tobacco, clothing, manufactures, construction materials
Imports—partners:US, UK (2006)
Debt—external:$NA
Economic aid—recipient:$4.1 million (1997)
Currency (code):US dollar (USD)
Exchange rates:the US dollar is used
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:5,700 (2002)
Telephones—mobile cellular:1,700 (1999)
Telephone system:general assessment: fully digital system with international direct dialing
domestic: full range of services available; GSM wireless service available
international: country code - 1-649; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber optic telecommunications submarine cable provides connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 2, FM 7, shortwave 0 (2003)
Television broadcast stations:0 (broadcasts received from The Bahamas; 2 cable television networks) (2003)
Internet country code:.tc
Internet hosts:2,310 (2007)
Internet users:NA
  
Transportation
  
Airports:8 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Roadways:total: 121 km
paved: 24 km
unpaved: 97 km (2003)
Merchant marine:registered in other countries: 1 (Panama 1) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Grand Turk, Providenciales
  
Military
  
Military—note:defense is the responsibility of the UK
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:have received Haitians fleeing economic and civil disorder
Illicit drugs:transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe

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