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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Uzbekistan
 
Flag of Uzbekistan                                Map of Uzbekistan
 
Background:Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
  
Geography
  
Location:Central Asia, north of Afghanistan
Geographic coordinates:41 00 N, 64 00 E
Map references:Asia
Area:total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Coastline:0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Maritime claims:none (doubly landlocked)
Climate:mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Terrain:mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Natural resources:natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use:arable land: 10.51%
permanent crops: 0.76%
other: 88.73% (2005)
Irrigated land:42,810 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:72.2 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 58.34 cu km/yr (5%/2%/93%)
per capita: 2,194 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:NA
Environment—current issues:shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
  
People
  
Population:27,780,059 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 32.4% (male 4,587,338/female 4,416,014)
15-64 years: 62.8% (male 8,636,226/female 8,817,633)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 543,417/female 779,431) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 22.9 years
male: 22.3 years
female: 23.5 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:1.732% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:26.46 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:7.73 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:-1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.039 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.979 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.697 male(s)/female
total population: 0.982 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 68.89 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 73.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 64.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 64.98 years
male: 61.57 years
female: 68.56 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:2.88 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:11,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 500 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani
Ethnic groups:Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Religions:Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Languages:Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.3%
male: 99.6%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: Ozbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type:republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Capital:name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 20 N, 69 18 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Viloyati, Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence:1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Constitution:adopted 8 December 1992
Legal system:based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)
head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held 23 December 2007 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president
election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Aslidden RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom TASHMUKHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%
Legislative branch:bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 84 members are elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; to serve five-year terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 26 December 2004 and 9 January 2005 (next to be held December 2009)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 41, NDP 32, Fidokorlar 17, MTP 11, Adolat 9, unaffiliated 10
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV
Judicial branch:Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)
Political parties and leaders:Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Dilorom TASHMUHAMMEDOVA]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Hurshid DOSMUHAMMEDOV]; Fidokorlar National Democratic Party (Self-Sacrificers) [Ahtam TURSUNOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Adham SHADMANOV; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Asliddin RUSTAMOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Agrarian and Entrepreneurs' Party [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Committee for the Protection of Human Rights [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 December 1992; Ezgulik Human Rights Society [Vasila INOYATOVA]; Free Farmers' Party or Ozod Dehqonlar [Nigora KHIDOYATOVA]; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Talib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Organization of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Mazlum; Sunshine Coalition [Sanjar UMAROV, chairman]
International organization participation:ADB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Abdulaziz KAMILOV
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Richard B. NORLAND
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and 12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it relies heavily on cotton production as the major source of export earnings. Other major export earners include gold, natural gas, and oil. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Potential investment by Russia and China in Uzbekistan's gas and oil industry may boost growth prospects. In November 2005, Russian President Vladimir PUTIN and Uzbekistan President KARIMOV signed an "alliance," which included provisions for economic and business cooperation. Russian businesses have shown increased interest in Uzbekistan, especially in mining, telecom, and oil and gas. In 2006, Uzbekistan took steps to rejoin the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and the Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC), both organizations dominated by Russia. Uzbek authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek tax laws and have frozen their assets. US firms have not made major investments in Uzbekistan in the last six years.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$62.27 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$20.18 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:8.1% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$2,200 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 27.3%
industry: 30.3%
services: 42.4% (2007 est.)
Labor force:14.6 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 44%
industry: 20%
services: 36% (1995)
Unemployment rate:0.8% officially by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:33% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:36.8 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):16% officially, but 38% based on analysis of consumer prices (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $6.584 billion
expenditures: $6.652 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:24.1% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Industries:textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, gold, petroleum, natural gas, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate:12% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:49 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity—consumption:47 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity—exports:6.8 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity—imports:10.5 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Oil—production:124,900 bbl/day (2005)
Oil—consumption:155,000 bbl/day (2005)
Oil—exports:6,941 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:11,230 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:594 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:62.5 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:48.4 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas—exports:12.5 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:1.798 trillion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$3.045 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$6.58 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:cotton, gold, energy products, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles
Exports—partners:Russia 23.7%, Poland 11.6%, China 10.4%, Turkey 7.6%, Kazakhstan 5.9%, Ukraine 4.7%, Bangladesh 4.3% (2006)
Imports:$4.57 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and non-ferrous metals
Imports—partners:Russia 27.6%, South Korea 15.1%, China 10.3%, Germany 7.8%, Kazakhstan 7.2%, Ukraine 4.7%, Turkey 4.5% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$5.6 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$5.398 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:$36.89 million (2005)
Economic aid—recipient:$172.3 million from the US (2005)
Currency (code):Uzbekistani soum (UZS)
Exchange rates:Uzbekistani soum per US dollar - 1,263.8 (2007), 1,219.8 (2006), 1,020 (2005), 971.265 (2004), 771.029 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:1.793 million (2005)
Telephones—mobile cellular:5.8 million (2007)
Telephone system:general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization
domestic: the main line telecommunications system is dilapidated and telephone density is low; the state-owned telecom company, Uzbektelecom, is using a US$110 million loan from the Japanese government to improve main line services; mobile services are growing swiftly, with the subscriber base more than doubling in 2007 to 5.8 million
international: country code - 998; linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications (2006)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 3 (2006)
Television broadcast stations:8 (includes 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent; approximately 20 stations in regional capitals) (2006)
Internet country code:.uz
Internet hosts:11,832 (2007)
Internet users:1.7 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:54 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 33
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 19 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 9,725 km; oil 868 km (2007)
Railways:total: 3,950 km
broad gauge: 3,950 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2006)
Roadways:total: 81,600 km
paved: 71,237 km
unpaved: 10,363 km (1999)
Waterways:1,100 km (2006)
Ports and terminals:Termiz (Amu Darya)
  
Military
  
Military branches:Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months (2004)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 6,340,220
females age 18-49: 6,432,072 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 4,609,621
females age 18-49: 5,383,233 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 324,722
females age 18-49: 317,062 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:2% (2005 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
Refugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 39,202 (Tajikistan)
IDPs: 3,400 (forced population transfers by government from villages near Tajikistan border) (2006)
Trafficking in persons:current situation: Uzbekistan is a source and, to a lesser extent, a transit country for women trafficked to Asia and the Middle East for the purpose of sexual exploitation; women from other Central Asian countries and China are trafficked through Uzbekistan; men are trafficked for purposes of forced labor in the construction and agricultural industries to Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan; men and women are also trafficked within the country
tier rating: Tier 3 - Uzbekistan is placed on Tier 3 because it failed to fulfill commitments by the country to take additional steps during 2005, including the adoption of comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation, criminal code amendments to raise trafficking penalties, support to the country's first trafficking shelter, and approval of a national action plan
Illicit drugs:transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan

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