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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Namibia
 
Flag of Namibia                                Map of Namibia
 
Background:South Africa occupied the German colony of South-West Africa during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II, when it annexed the territory. In 1966 the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that was soon named Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Namibia has been governed by SWAPO since the country won independence in 1990. Hifikepunye POHAMBA was elected president in November 2004 in a landslide victory replacing Sam NUJOMA who led the country during its first 14 years of self rule.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa
Geographic coordinates:22 00 S, 17 00 E
Map references:Africa
Area:total: 825,418 sq km
land: 825,418 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly more than half the size of Alaska
Land boundaries:total: 3,936 km
border countries: Angola 1,376 km, Botswana 1,360 km, South Africa 967 km, Zambia 233 km
Coastline:1,572 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic
Terrain:mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Konigstein 2,606 m
Natural resources:diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, silver, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, tungsten, zinc, salt, hydropower, fish
note: suspected deposits of oil, coal, and iron ore
Land use:arable land: 0.99%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 99% (2005)
Irrigated land:80 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:45.5 cu km (1991)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.3 cu km/yr (24%/5%/71%)
per capita: 148 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:prolonged periods of drought
Environment—current issues:very limited natural fresh water resources; desertification; wildlife poaching; land degradation has led to few conservation areas
Environment—international agreements:party to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:first country in the world to incorporate the protection of the environment into its constitution; some 14% of the land is protected, including virtually the entire Namib Desert coastal strip
  
People
  
Population:2,055,080
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 37.7% (male 390,448/female 383,698)
15-64 years: 58.6% (male 606,239/female 597,512)
65 years and over: 3.8% (male 34,926/female 42,257) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 20.2 years
male: 20.1 years
female: 20.3 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:0.478% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:23.52 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:19.15 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.018 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.015 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.827 male(s)/female
total population: 1.008 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 47.23 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 51.03 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 43.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 43.11 years
male: 44.39 years
female: 41.79 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:2.94 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:21.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:210,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:16,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2008)
Nationality:noun: Namibian(s)
adjective: Namibian
Ethnic groups:black 87.5%, white 6%, mixed 6.5%
note: about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the Kavangos tribe; other ethnic groups includes Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, Bushmen 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%
Religions:Christian 80% to 90% (Lutheran 50% at least), indigenous beliefs 10% to 20%
Languages:English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%, indigenous languages 1% (includes Oshivambo, Herero, Nama)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85%
male: 86.8%
female: 83.5% (2001 census)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Namibia
conventional short form: Namibia
local long form: Republic of Namibia
local short form: Namibia
former: German Southwest Africa, South-West Africa
Government type:republic
Capital:name: Windhoek
geographic coordinates: 22 34 S, 17 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April
Administrative divisions:13 regions; Caprivi, Erongo, Hardap, Karas, Khomas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Okavango, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa
Independence:21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)
National holiday:Independence Day, 21 March (1990)
Constitution:ratified 9 February 1990, effective 12 March 1990
Legal system:based on Roman-Dutch law and 1990 constitution
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Hifikepunye POHAMBA (since 21 March 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Nahas ANGULA (since 21 March 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 November 2004 (next to be held in November 2009)
election results: Hifikepunye POHAMBA elected president; percent of vote - Hifikepunye POHAMBA 76.4%, Den ULENGA 7.3%, Katuutire KAURA 5.1%, Kuaima RIRUAKO 4.2%, Justus GAROEB 3.8%, other 3.2%
Legislative branch:bicameral legislature consists of the National Council (26 seats; two members are chosen from each regional council to serve six-year terms) and the National Assembly (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: National Council - elections for regional councils to determine members of the National Council held 29-30 November 2004 (next to be held in November 2010); National Assembly - last held 15-16 November 2004 (next to be held in November 2009)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SWAPO 89.7%, UDF 4.7%, NUDO 2.8%, DTA 1.9%, other 0.9%; seats by party - SWAPO 24, UDF 1, DTA 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - SWAPO 76.1%, COD 7.3%, DTA 5.1%, NUDO 4.2%, UDF 3.6%, RP 1.9%, MAG 0.8%, other 1.0%; seats by party - SWAPO 55, COD 5, DTA 4, NUDO 3, UDF 3, RP 1, MAG 1
note: the National Council is primarily an advisory body
Judicial branch:Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission)
Political parties and leaders:Congress of Democrats or COD [Ben ULENGA]; Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [Katuutire KAURA]; Monitor Action Group or MAG [Jurie VILJOEN]; National Democratic Movement for Change or NamDMC; National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Kuaima RIRUAKO]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Hidipo HAMUTENYA]; Republican Party or RP [Henk MUDGE]; South West Africa National Union or SWANU [Rihupisa KANDANDO]; South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Hifikepunye POHAMBA]; United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus GAROEB]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Patrick NANDAGO
chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 986-0443
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador G. Dennise MATHIEU
embassy: 14 Lossen Street, Windhoek
mailing address: Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek
telephone: [264] (61) 295-8500
FAX: [264] (61) 295-8603
Flag description:a wide red stripe edged by narrow white stripes divides the flag diagonally from lower hoist corner to upper fly corner; the upper hoist-side triangle is blue and charged with a yellow, 12-rayed sunburst; the lower fly-side triangle is green
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:The economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for 8% of GDP, but provides more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa, the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium, and the producer of large quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver, and tungsten. The mining sector employs only about 3% of the population while about half of the population depends on subsistence agriculture for its livelihood. Namibia normally imports about 50% of its cereal requirements; in drought years food shortages are a major problem in rural areas. A high per capita GDP, relative to the region, hides one of the world's most unequal income distributions. The Namibian economy is closely linked to South Africa with the Namibian dollar pegged one-to-one to the South African rand. Increased payments from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) put Namibia's budget into surplus in 2007 for the first time since independence, but SACU payments will decline after 2008 as part of a new revenue sharing formula. Increased fish production and mining of zinc, copper, uranium, and silver spurred growth in 2003-07, but growth in recent years was undercut by poor fish catches and high costs for metal inputs.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$10.67 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$6.707 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:4.5% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$5,200 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 10.6%
industry: 30.8%
services: 58.6% (2007 est.)
Labor force:660,000 (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 47%
industry: 20%
services: 33% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:5.3% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line:the UNDP's 2005 Human Development Report indicated that 34.9% of the population live on $1 per day and 55.8% live on $2 per day
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 0.5%
highest 10%: 64.5% (2003)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:70.7 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):6.7% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):29.1% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $2.561 billion
expenditures: $2.483 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:23.9% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:millet, sorghum, peanuts, grapes; livestock; fish
Industries:meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products; mining (diamonds, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)
Industrial production growth rate:4.6% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:1.688 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:2.863 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:78 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:1.567 billion kWh; note - electricity supplied by South Africa (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:18,400 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:17,580 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:59.75 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$1.065 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$2.87 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium; cattle, processed fish, karakul skins
Exports—partners:South Africa 33.4%, US 4% (2006)
Imports:$2.82 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:foodstuffs; petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports—partners:South Africa 85.2%, US (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$750 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$1.429 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:$541.8 million (2006)
Economic aid—recipient:ODA, $123.4 million (2005 est.)
Currency (code):Namibian dollar (NAD); South African rand (ZAR)
Exchange rates:Namibian dollars per US dollar - 7.18 (2007), 6.7649 (2006), 6.3593 (2005), 6.4597 (2004), 7.5648 (2003)
Fiscal year:1 April - 31 March
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:138,900 (2005)
Telephones—mobile cellular:495,000 (2005)
Telephone system:general assessment: good system with a combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity of about 30 per 100 persons
domestic: core fiber-optic network links most centers and connections are now digital; Namibia's first mobile-phone network, launched in 1994, provides coverage to 86 percent of Namibia by area
international: country code - 264; fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to the South African Far East (SAFE) submarine cable through South Africa; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
Radio broadcast stations:AM 2, FM 39, shortwave 4 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:2 (2007)
Internet country code:.na
Internet hosts:3,717 (2007)
Internet users:80,600 (2005)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:137 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 21
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 116
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 72
under 914 m: 20 (2007)
Railways:total: 2,382 km
narrow gauge: 2,382 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 42,237 km
paved: 5,406 km
unpaved: 36,831 km (2002)
Merchant marine:total: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 2,265 GRT/3,605 DWT
by type: cargo 1 (2007)
Ports and terminals:Luderitz, Walvis Bay
  
Military
  
Military branches:Namibian Defense Force: Army, Navy, Air Wing (2006)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for voluntary military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 441,293 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 217,118 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:3.7% (2006)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border; managed dispute with South Africa over the location of the boundary in the Orange River; Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
Refugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 11,900 (Angola) (2006)

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