from France by tens of thousands, thanks to the cruel bigotry of the French king, Louis XIV.
With the return of order and the dawn of liberty, the city once more began to flourish. Trade increased, the fisheries did well, new buildings were put up, and taxes were paid without grumbling. Addresses of gratitude were sent to the duke, and the citizens were fervent in their praise of Dongan. Even the religious animosities were for the moment softened. The old church in the fort was used every Sunday by the representatives of all three of the leading creeds, the services being held in as many different languages,the Dutch in the morning, the French at midday, and the English, by the Episcopalians, in the afternoon; while Dongan and his few fellow-religionists worshiped in a little chapel. Even the austere Calvinist dominies could not refrain from paying their meed of respect to the new governor.
As soon as the Assembly adjourned, Dongan granted new liberties and privileges to the city itself. In accordance with these new articles, the aldermen were elected by the freeholders in the various wards, the mayor being appointed by the governor. The board of aldermen was a real, not (as in our day) a nominal, legislative body, and enacted by-laws for the government of the city. Some of them were of very stringent character; notably those which provided against any kind