Edward Sapir > Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech > Subject Index > Page 81
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Edward Sapir (1884–1939).  Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech.  1921.
 

Page 81
 
are characteristic of Hottentot, e.g., gam-gam 24 “to cause to tell” (from gam “to tell”). Or the process may be used to derive verbs from nouns, as in Hottentot khoe-khoe “to talk Hottentot” (from khoe-b “man, Hottentot”), or as in Kwakiutl metmat “to eat clams” (radical element met- “clam”).
  The most characteristic examples of reduplication are such as repeat only part of the radical element. It would be possible to demonstrate the existence of a vast number of formal types of such partial duplication, according to whether the process makes use of one or more of the radical consonants, preserves or weakens or alters the radical vowel, or affects the beginning, the middle, or the end of the radical element. The functions are even more exuberantly developed than with simple duplication, though the basic notion, at least in origin, is nearly always one of repetition or continuance. Examples illustrating this fundamental function can be quoted from all parts of the globe. Initially reduplicating are, for instance, Shilh ggen “to be sleeping” (from gen “to sleep”); Ful pepeu-’do “liar” (i.e., “one who always lies”), plural fefeu-’be (from fewa “to lie”); Bontoc Igorot anak “child,” ananak “children”; kamu-ek “I hasten,” kakamu-ek “I hasten more”; Tsimshian gyad “person,” gyigyad “people”; Nass gyibayuk “to fly,” gyigyibayuk “one who is flying.” Psychologically comparable, but with the reduplication at the end, are Somali ur “body,” plural urar; Hausa suna “name,” plural sunana-ki; Washo 25 gusu “buffalo,” gususu “buffaloes”; Takelma 26 himi-d- “to talk to,” himim-d- “to be accustomed to talk to.” Even
Note 24.  Initial “click” (see page 55, note 15) omitted. [back]
Note 25.  An Indian language of Nevada. [back]
Note 26.  An Indian language of Oregon. [back]

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