Edward Sapir (18841939). Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech. 1921.
are characteristic of Hottentot, e.g., gam-gam24 to cause to tell (from gam to tell). Or the process may be used to derive verbs from nouns, as in Hottentot khoe-khoe to talk Hottentot (from khoe-b man, Hottentot), or as in Kwakiutl metmat to eat clams (radical element met- clam).
The most characteristic examples of reduplication are such as repeat only part of the radical element. It would be possible to demonstrate the existence of a vast number of formal types of such partial duplication, according to whether the process makes use of one or more of the radical consonants, preserves or weakens or alters the radical vowel, or affects the beginning, the middle, or the end of the radical element. The functions are even more exuberantly developed than with simple duplication, though the basic notion, at least in origin, is nearly always one of repetition or continuance. Examples illustrating this fundamental function can be quoted from all parts of the globe. Initially reduplicating are, for instance, Shilh ggen to be sleeping (from gen to sleep); Ful pepeu-do liar (i.e., one who always lies), plural fefeu-be (from fewa to lie); Bontoc Igorot anak child, ananak children; kamu-ek I hasten, kakamu-ek I hasten more; Tsimshian gyad person, gyigyad people; Nass gyibayuk to fly, gyigyibayuk one who is flying. Psychologically comparable, but with the reduplication at the end, are Somali ur body, plural urar; Hausa suna name, plural sunana-ki; Washo25gusu buffalo, gususu buffaloes; Takelma26himi-d- to talk to, himim-d- to be accustomed to talk to. Even