Edward Sapir (18841939). Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech. 1921.
more commonly than simple duplication, this partial duplication of the radical element has taken on in many languages functions that seem in no way related to the idea of increase. The best known examples are probably the initial reduplication of our older Indo-European languages, which helps to form the perfect tense of many verbs (e.g., Sanskrit dadarsha I have seen, Greek leloipa I have left, Latin tetigi I have touched, Gothic letot I have let). In Nootka reduplication of the radical element is often employed in association with certain suffixes; e.g., hluch- woman forms hluhluch-ituhl to dream of a woman, hluhluch-kok resembling a woman. Psychologically similar to the Greek and Latin examples are many Takelma cases of verbs that exhibit two forms of the stem, one employed in the present or past, the other in the future and in certain modes and verbal derivatives. The former has final reduplication, which is absent in the latter; e.g., al-yebeb-in I show (or showed) to him, al-yeb-in I shall show him.
We come now to the subtlest of all grammatical processes, variations in accent, whether of stress or pitch. The chief difficulty in isolating accent as a functional process is that it is so often combined with alternations in vocalic quantity or quality or complicated by the presence of affixed elements that its grammatical value appears as a secondary rather than as a primary feature. In Greek, for instance, it is characteristic of true verbal forms that they throw the accent back as far as the general accentual rules will permit, while nouns may be more freely accented. There is thus a striking accentual difference between a verbal form like eluthemen we were released, accented on the second syllable of the word, and its participial derivative lutheis released,