Roget's Int'l Thesaurus
Fowler's King's English
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Prose and Poetry: Sir Thomas North to Michael Drayton
Endimion and Phbe
INDEX OF ALL CHAPTERS
The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes
Volume IV. Prose and Poetry: Sir Thomas North to Michael Drayton.
His next work, in its first form, showed once more the influence of Daniel. In 1594, sonnet sequences were in the height of fashion.
Astrophel and Stella
had found its way into print in 1591; but it was not till some years later that Draytons sonnets were to show the influence of Sidney. When he published
in 1594, his model was rather Daniel, of whose
three editions had appeared in 1592. In 1594,
consisted of fifty-one sonnets, which, as we learn from the additional dedicatory sonnet to Anthony Cooke, had long slept in sable night. The form of sonnet which Drayton principally affects is the typically Elizabethan form of three quatrains and a final couplet, not the strict Petrarchian form. Of these fifty-one sonnets, however, two consist of four quatrains with a final couplet, two are written mainly in alexandrines, which are also scattered through certain other sonnets, and, in eighteen, each quatrain is rimed not
but on the rarer principle of
Any independence which these and a few other variations may be thought to show can find little counterpart in the material of the sonnets of
In this earliest edition, it is very seldom that the poet shakes himself free of the conventions of the day, or so uses them as to convey an impression of the sincerity with which, of course, their use is never incompatible. Of two sonnets which connect Idea with the river Ancor, the first (Amour
) has a personal touch, the second (Amour
) displays the knowledge of the streams of England which was to stand Drayton in good stead in the future; but Amour
is alone among these early efforts in its simple, convincing force and directness.
If chaste and pure devotion of my youth,
Or glorie of my Aprill-springing yeares,
Unfained love in naked simple truth,
A thousand vowes, a thousand sighes and teares;
Or if a world of faithful service done,
Words, thoughts, and deeds devoted to her honor,
Or eyes that have beheld her as theyr sunne,
With admiration ever looking on her:
A lyfe that never joyed but in her love,
A soule that ever hath adord her name,
A fayth that time nor fortune could not move,
A Muse that unto heaven hath raised her fame.
Though these, nor these deserve to be imbraced,
Yet faire unkinde, too good to be disgraced.
The fact that the couplet shows Draytons weakness in grammar cannot undo the effect of the quatrains. It is, however, in scattered lines and passages rather than in any complete sonnet that the value of the earliest
will be found to lie. Into the vexed question of the genuineness of the sentiments expressed in these and other Elizabethan sonnets, this is not the place to enter. It is, perhaps, generally recognised that the adoption of a poetic convention does not necessarily denote insincerity in the poet; and the question is not whether or whence he borrowed his conventions, but whether he has subdued them to his own genius. The fact that Drayton borrowed, as it appears, the title of Idea (and, as it also appears, little, if anything, else) from a French poet,
and his material and machinery from the poetical stores of his day, does not prove that these
of 1594 are a mere literary exercise. Nor does the mention of the river Ancor in two of the sonnets prove them sincere outpourings of his heart. The workmanship proves that Drayton was not yet poet enough to subdue the conventions of form to the matter of his own thoughts and emotions; and it is therefore that his earliest sonnets stumble and leave us cold.
was much admired. Eleven new issues were called for between its first publication and the authors death in 1631. On none of his productions did Drayton spend so much care in revision. The issues of 1599, 1600,
1602, 1605 and 1619, are all new editions, in which new sonnets are constantly included and old ones rearranged, omitted altogether, or polished, sometimes almost beyond recognition.
It is not always possible to agree with Draytons own ideas of improvement; but the general result of all this care is that, as time goes on, the character of the collection changes. The rather heavy, elaborate model provided by Daniel gives place to the simpler and more direct style of Sidney. Conventions disappear, or are turned to good account; and, though there is, in the general opinion, only one masterpiece among all Draytons sonnets, the edition of 1619 includes few sonnets that have not something masterly in them. The masterpiece referred to is the well-known sonnet: Since theres no helpe, Come let us kisse and part. It suggests, irresistibly, a record of a definite moment in the actual relations between the poet and some woman; and, in general, it may be said that the sonnets, as time goes on, bear less and less the mark of the literary exercise and more and more that of the expression of geniune feeling. It is true that, in the editions of 1599, 1602 and 1605, Drayton introduced two sonnets: Into these loves who but for passion looks, and Many there be excelling in this kind, in which the reader is warned that
My verse is the true image of my mind,
Ever in motion, still desiring change,
To choyce of all varietie inclind,
And in all humours sportively I range;
My wanton verse nere keepes one certain stay,
But now, at hand; then, seekes invention far,
And with each little motion runnes astray,
Wilde, madding, jocond, and irreguler;
but such statements, it may be submitted, mean nothing more than that love is not the only subject of which he intends to treat; while such sonnets as Since theres no helpe; How many paltry, foolish, painted things; An evill spirit your beauty haunts me still; Whilst thus my pen strives to eternize thee, compel a belief in their sincerity.
Much has been written, and much more, doubtless, will be written, on the relation of Draytons sonnets to Shakespeares. It has been well said that
the question which of the two was the lender is insoluble, so long as we only know that some of Shakespeares sonnets were in private circulation in 1598, while two were printed by Jaggard in 1599, and the rest not till ten years later.
. Claude de Pontoux, author of
1579. See Vol. III of the present work, p. 300; and, on the Elizabethan use of the Platonic idea, see Elton, p. 47 and references.
Daniels Delia and Draytons Idea;
ed. Esdaile, A., p. 149.
. Elton, pp. 2079, gives a table of one hundred and seven sonnets in the five editions. Brett, pp. 155, prints one hundred and eight (the extra sonnet being that to Sir Walter Aston, 1605) in their earliest forms, without variants; and, in an appendix, pp. 250, 251, gives three complimentary sonnets prefixed to works of other authors.
. Elton, p. 56. See the whole passage, which inclines slightly to the view that Drayton was the borrower. See also Beeching,
Sonnets of Shakespeare,
INDEX OF ALL CHAPTERS
Endimion and Phbe