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The Drama to 1642, Part Two
The Elizabethan Theatre
> The Swan
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The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes
Volume VI. The Drama to 1642, Part Two.
The Elizabethan Theatre
§ 15. The Swan.
In 1589, Francis Langley, who held a small office at court, purchased the manor of Paris garden. In November, 1594, we find the lord mayor protesting against his intention to build a playhouse on his property. The project was not dismissed; but it is not certain when the Swan playhouse was built. It may have been open in 1596. The Swan was used for plays, at any rate until 1620, and was still standing, though in a dilapidated state, in 1632. Dramatically, its history is unimportant; but the house has acquired notoriety from the fact that a contemporary drawing, or copy of a drawing, of its interiorthe earliest view known of the interior of a playhouseis in existence. Probably in or about the summer of 1596, John de Witt, a Dutchman, visited London. (It may be noted here that much of our information concerning the London playhouses of the day comes from foreigners, to whom they were objects of great interest and surprise.) The drawing in question was discovered in the library at Utrecht, in the commonplace book of another Dutchman, Arend von Buchell, accompanied by a descriptive passage headed
Ex observationibus Londinensibus Johannis De Witt.
The passage, with the drawing, may have been copied from a now lost letter or journal written by de Witt. The drawing, a rough sketch, must be used, therefore, with caution; but so many of its details correspond with the details of the Swan found in the contract for the building of the Hope, which was to be like it in many respects, that it may be taken as giving a rough idea of the general plan of an Elizabethan public playhouse.
The drawing is made from a point which, roughly speaking, would correspond to the position of a man sitting in the middle of the front row of the upper circle of a large modern theatre, or the gallery of a small one.
The main features of the playhouse are clear enough. It is a tall, round (or, possibly, oval)
structure some fifty feet high,
with three roofed galleries, divided into rooms, or boxes, running right round it and interrupted only by the tirehouse behind the stage. The yard is open to the sky; there are no seats in it, and the audience can stand close to the stage on three sides, finding it probably between waist-high and shoulder-high. The description accompanying the drawing states that the building would hold
tres mille homines in sedilibus
three thousand persons in the
or galleries. Calculations have been made
to prove that, if de Witt is rightly reported and meant what he said, and if the number of rows in the three galleries be taken to be eleven, a house two thirds of the size of the present Drury Lane theatre would be required to afford sitting accommodation for that number of spectators, if every seat in the entire circle was full; while the open yard would give standing room to a great many more. The number 3000, moreover, is not so surprising as appears at first sight; and that the Swan theatre should provide room for 1 1/2 per cent. of the total population of London and Westminster does not seem fantastic, when it is remembered that, according to John Taylor, three or four thousand persons daily crossed the river to Bankside in the days when the Globe, Rose and Swan were all open as playhouses, and bear-baiting, also, was in progress. A difficulty is caused by de Witts statement that the Swan was built of flint-stones heaped together and supported by wooden columns, painted so like marble as to deceive the shrewdest eye.
In no extant specification, not even that of the Hope, is there any mention of stone, and another foreigner, who visited London two years later, expressly states that all the playhouses on Bankside were of woodsometimes, as we know from other sources,
plastered over. Various suggestions have been made for getting round de Witts statement. It is simpler to believe him correct and to suppose that, in this feature (as, perhaps, in another to be dealt with later) the Swan was exceptional.
The extant contract with the builder
shows that the Hope on Bankside, which had been a bear-house, was newly built as a playhouse by Henslowe and Jacob Meade in 1613. Possibly, the burning of the Globe in that year induced Henslowe to try for the Bankside public once more. The house was occupied by the lady Elizabeths and the Princes companies, and Ben Jonsons
which was acted there in 1614, informs us that it was a dirty and evil-smelling place. In 1616 apparently, it fell out of use as a playhouse. As the contract states, it was of the same size as the Swan and the roof over the galleries was tiled, not thatched. Vischers
View of London
(1616) shows it octagonal outside; but Hollar (1647) makes it round. It was of wood, with a brick foundation.
. All reproductions of this drawing (e.g. in Ordish,
Early London Theatres,
p. 265) having beneath them the words
Ex observationibus Londinensibus Johannis De Witt,
taken from the manuscript, are made, not from the original, but from the engraving published by Gaedertz in his
Zur Kenntnisder altenglischen Bühne,
Bremen, 1888. For a full-sized reproduction direct from the original, see Wheatley,
On a contemporary drawing of the Interior of the Swan Theatre,
N. S. S. 1888; and for a reproduction on a reduced scale,
The Quarterly Review,
April, 1908, facing p. 450. The engraving is fairly accurate; but the lines indicating the part of the circumference of the playhouse furthest from the tirehouse have been omitted, to make room for the misplaced words mentioned above.
. That is, round, or oval, inside. In Vischer,
View of London,
1610, it appears twelve-sided. See, also, the 1627 map of the manor of old Paris garden in Furnivalls
vol. II, facing p. i.
. For a calculation of the measurements, see Wheatley,
. In Wheatley,
But see Greg,
vol. II, p. 134, note I.
. E. g., contract for the Fortune:
. Printed in Greg,
pp. 19 f.
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