A. PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS
This bibliography is intended only to indicate the sources of information on the general history of mathematics and physics during the period and to refer to the more important works, without attempting a list of references suitable to special or technical histories. And, in accordance with the plan of the work, books by living writers are, as a rule, omitted.
(a). Books and Articles dealing generally with Scientific Work and Discovery
On scientific writers in the last half of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century: Brougham, Henry, lord, Lives of Men of
Science of the time of George III, 1845.
On the history of the steam-engine: see the article in The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edn. vol. XV.
On the history of optical discoveries from the time of Sir Isaac Newton to about 1850; Brewster, Sir D., Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton, 2 vols., 1855.
On the history of astronomy during this period: Herschel, Sir John, Outlines of Astronomy, 7th edn., 1864; Berry, A., History of Astronomy, 1898; Ball, Sir R. S., The Story of the Heavens, 1892; Clerke, A. M., History of Astronomy during the nineteenth century, 2nd edn., 1887, and Modern Cosmogonies, 1905.
On the general progress in physical science during the first half of the nineteenth century to about 1875: Nichol, John Pringle (18041859). A Cyclopaedia of the Physical Sciences, 1857; see, also, Gilfillan, G., Galleries of Literary Portraits, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1857; Herschel, Sir John F. W., Familiar Lectures on Scientific Subjects, 1867, and Tait, P. G., Recent Advances in Physical Science, 1876; and, on the progress in later times, Whetham, W. C. D., Recent Developments of Physical Science, 1904.
On theories of the ether with special reference to optics and electricity: Whittaker, E. T., History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, Dublin, 1910.
As indicating the normal instruction given in elementary pure mathematics, reference may be made, for the early Victorian years, to the textbooks by Peacock, G., for the middle of the period, to those by Todhunter, I., and, for later years, to those by Smith, C. and to Caseys Sequel to Euclids Elements.
(b). Works dealing with the Discoveries of some of the more prominent Mathematicians and Physicists of this Period
Adams, J. C. Scientific Papers. 2 vols. Cambridge, 18961900.
Airy, Sir G. B. Autobiography. Cambridge, 1896.
Babbage, Charles (17921871). Passages from the Life of a Philosopher. 1864.
Ball, Sir R. S. The Theory of Screws. Cambridge, 1900.
Boole, G. Mathematical Analysis of Logic. Cambridge, 1847.
An Investigation of the Laws of Thought. 1854.
Differential Equations. 2 vols. Cambridge, 185965.
Calculus of Finite Differences. Cambridge, 1860.
Booth, James (18061878). A Treatise on Some New Geometrical Methods. 18737.
Bradley, J. Miscellaneous Works and Correspondence. 2 vols. Oxford, 1832, 1833.
Brewster, Sir David (17811868). Treatise on Optics. 1831.
Cavendish, H. Electrical Researches. Cambridge, 1879. [A supplementary volume of papers is in preparation.]
Cayley, A. Collected Papers. 14 vols. Cambridge, 188998.
Clifford, William Kingdon (18451879). Lectures and Essays. Ed. Pollock, F., and Stephen, L. 1879.
Mathematical Papers. Ed. Tucker, R. and Smith, H. J. S. 1882.
The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences. Ed. Pearson, K. 1885.
Dalton, J. Memoirs, etc. 1856.
Darwin, Sir G. H. Scientific Papers. 5 vols. Cambridge, 190716.
De Morgan, A. Memoir by his Wife. 1882.
Faraday, M. Life and Letters. 2 vols. 1870.
Experimental Researches in Electricity. 3 vols. 183955.
FitzGerald, G. F. (18511901). Scientific Writings. Ed. Larmor, Sir J. Dublin, 1902.
Green, G. Mathematical Papers. 1871.
Grove, Sir W. R. (181196). The Correlation of Physical Forces. 6th edn. 1874.
Hamilton, Sir W. R. Life. 2 vols. Dublin, 18825.
Systems of Rays. Dublin, 182833.
Elements of Quaternions. 2 vols. 1866.
Herschel, Sir W. Scientific Papers. 2 vols. 1912.
Huggins, Sir William (18241910). Scientific Papers. 1909.
Hutton, Charles (17371823). For works see D. of N. B.
Joly, C. J. (18641906). A Manual of Quaternions. 1905.
Joule, J. P. Scientific Papers. 2 vols. 18847.
Kelvin, Lord. Mathematical and Physical Papers. 6 vols. Cambridge, 18821911.
Baltimore Lectures. 1904.
Lardner, Dionysius (17931859). Lectures on the Steam Engine. 1828.
ed. The Cabinet Cyclopedia, 133 vols. 182946.
MacCullagh, J. Collected Works. Dublin, 1880.
Maclaurin, C. Geometria Organica. 1720.
Algebra, 4th edn. 1796.
Treatise on Fluxions. 2nd edn. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1801.
Maxwell, J. Clerk, Life of. 1882.
The Theory of Heat. 1871.
Matter and Motion. 1876.
Electricity and Magnetism. 2 vols. 3rd edn. Cambridge, 1904.
Scientific Papers. 2 vols. Cambridge, 1890.
Priestley, J. For full bibliography, see D. of N. B.
Routh, E. J. Analytical Statics. 2 vols. Cambridge, 18912.
Dynamics of a System of Rigid Bodies. 8th edn. 1892.
Rumford, Count. Works. 6 vols. Boston, 18705.
Salmon, G. Conic Sections. 6th edn. Dublin, 1879.
Higher Plane Curves. 3rd edn. Dublin, 1879.
Geometry of Three Dimensions. 4th edn. Dublin, 1882.
Higher Algebra. 4th edn. Dublin, 1885.
Smith, H. J. S. Collected Papers. 2 vols. Oxford, 1894.
Somerville, Mary (17801872). The Connection of the Physical Sciences, 1834, and many later edns.
Stokes, Sir G. G. Memoirs and Scientific Correspondence. 2 vols. Cambridge, 1907.
Mathematical and Physical Papers. 5 vols. Cambridge, 18801905.
Sylvester, J. J. Collected Papers. 4 vols. Cambridge, 190412.
Tait, P. G. Scientific Papers. 2 vols. Cambridge, 18981900.
Life and Works. Cambridge, 1911.
Thompson, B., see Rumford, Count.
Thomson, Sir W., see Kelvin, Lord.
Thomson, W. and Tait, P. G. Natural Philosophy. Oxford, 1873.
Tyndall, J. Heat as a Mode of Motion. 3rd edn. 1868.
Wheatstone, Sir C. Scientific Papers. 1879.
Whewell, W. Writings and Correspondence. 1876.
Life and Letters. 1881.
Young, T. Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts. 2 vols. 1807.
Miscellaneous Works and Life. 3 vols. 1855.
W. W. ROUSE BALL.
B. THE LITERATURE OF CHEMISTRY
Black, Joseph. Experiments upon Magnesia Alba, Quick-Lime, and other Alcaline Substances. 1755. Republished in 1893 as no. 1 of Alembic Club Reprints. Edinburgh, Clay, Wm. F.
Lectures on the Elements of Chemistry. Edinburgh, 1803.
Cavendish, Henry. Experiments on Air. Philos. Transactions. 17845.
Republished as no. 3 of Alembic Club Reprints. Edinburgh, 1893.
Couper, A. S. On a new chemical theory. Philosophical Magazine. 1858.
Dalton, John. A New System of Chemical Philosophy. Pts. I and II. Manchester, 180810.
Meteorological Observations and Essays. Manchester, 1834 (2nd edn). Extracts from the New System, together with memoirs by Avogadro, Gay-Lussac, Thomson and Wollaston form nos. 2 and 4 of Alembic Club Reprints, Edinburgh, 1893.
Memoirs of the Life and Scientific Researches of John Dalton, by Henry, W. C. 1854.
Daniell, J. F. An introduction to the study of chemical philosophy, being a preparatory view of the forces which concur in the production of chemical phenomena. 1839.
Davy, Sir Humphry. The Collected Works of, edited by his brother Dr. John Davy. 9 vols. 183940.
Fragmentary Remains. Ed. Davy, J. 1858.
Outlines of a course of lectures on chemical philosophy. 1804.
Davys memoirs, The decomposition of the fixed alkalis and alkaline earths, and The elementary nature of chlorine, are rptd. as nos. 6 and 9 of Alembic Club Reprints, Edinburgh, 1894.
Humphry Davy, poet and philosopher, by Thorpe, T. E. 1896.
Guye, P. A. Humphry Davy. Geneva, 1907.
Faraday, Michael. Experimental researches in Electricity: rptd. from Philosophical Transactions. 3 vols. 183955.
Gladstone J. H. The Life of Faraday. 1872.
Jones, H. Bence. The Life and Letters of Faraday. 1870. 2 vols.
Frankland, Sir Edward. Lecture notes for Chemical Students. 1866.
Experimental researches in pure, applied, and physical Chemistry. 1877.
Graham, Thomas. Elements of Chemistry. 1842.
Chemical and physical researches (collected edn.). Edinburgh, 1876.
Mansfield, C. B. (18191855). The Theory of Salts. 1865.
Newlands, J. A. R. Relations between the equivalents of the Elements. Chemical News, 1863, 1864, 1865.
On the discovery of the periodic law, and on relations among the atomic weights. 1884.
Perkin, Sir William Henry. The history of alizarin and allied colouring matters, and their production from coal-tar. 1879.
Rotatory polarisation by chemical substances under magnetic influence. Chem. Soc. Journal. 1882, 1884.
Priestley, Joseph. Experiments and Observations on different kinds of air. 3 vols. 17757.
Continuation of above. 2 vols. 177981.
Memoirs to the year 1795; written by himself; with a continuance to the time of his decease by his son Joseph Priestley. 1809.
Prout, William. On the relations between the specific gravities of bodies in their gaseous state and the weights of their atoms. Thomsons Annals of Philosophy. 1815, 1816.
An attempt to establish the principles of chemistry by experiment. 1825.
Williamson, Alexander William. On the Atomic Theory. 1869.
Etherification. Philosophical Magazine. 1850.
Constitution of Salts. Chem. Soc. Journal. 1851.
Wollaston, William Hyde. On super-acid and sub-acid salts. Philosophical Transactions. 1808.
Rptd. in no. 2 of Alembic Club Reprints, Edinburgh, 1899.
M. M. PATTISON MUIR.
(a) Particular Writers
For earlier writers on science see, ante, bibliography to Chap. XV, Vol. VIII.
Ashmole, Elias. Memoirs
drawn up by himself by way of diary; with an appendix of original letters. 1717.
Babington, William. A systematic arrangement of minerals
reduced to the form of tables. 1795.
A new System of Mineralogy in the form of a Catalogue, after the manner of Baron Borns systematic catalogue of the collection of fossils of Eléonore de Raab. 1799.
of the genuine and valuable collection of minerals of a gentleman deceased. 1805.
Balfour, Francis Maitland. A treatise on Comparative Embryology. 2 vols. 1880, 81.
Banks, Sir Joseph. A collection of plants engraved under the direction of Sir J. B.: with the name of the plant supplied in MS. at foot of every plate. 3 vols. L. P. [1800?]. [B. M. press mark 10. Tab. 42.]
A short account of the cause of the disease in corn called by farmers the blight, the mildew and the rust. 1805. Re-edited with marginal annotations pointing out a remedy
by an Agriculturist F. R. S. and F. S. A. [Hammer, Sir Thomas]. 1807.
Catalogue of Books brought from Iceland and given to the British Museum by Joseph Banks, Esq. . [In MS. throughout; B. M. press mark 980. h. 32.]
Maiden, J. H. Sir Joseph Banks: the Father of Australia. 1909.
Smith, E. The Life of Sir Joseph Banks. 1911.
Bell, Sir Charles (17741842). A proposal submitted to the consideration of the managers of the Royal Infirmary, for the establishment of a Museum, etc. Edinburgh, 1804.
The Hand; its mechanism and vital endowments as evincing design. (Bridgewater treatise IV.) 1833.
Bentham, Jeremy. See, ante, bibliography to Chap. III, Vol. XI.
Berkeley, Miles Joseph. Phytophthora infestans. 1846.
Outlines of British Fungology; containing characters of above a thousand species of Fungi, and a complete list of all that have been described as natives of the British Isles. 1860.
Handbook of British Mosses. 1863.
Binney, Edward William. Observations on the Structure of Fossil Plants found in the carboniferous strata. [With twenty-four plates.] (Palaeontographical Society.) 1848.
Bradley, Richard. For works see D. of N. B.
Brown, Robert. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of R. B. 2 vols. 1846, 7.
Buckland, Francis Trevelyan (18261880). Notes on Seal Fisheries. (Sketches in Natural History with reference to the Fur Trade.) [1874?]
Natural History papers, etc. 1877.
Buckland, William. Reliquiae Diluvianae; or, observations on the organic remains contained in caves, fissures and diluvial gravel. 1823.
Carpenter, William Benjamin. Principles of general and comparative Physiology. 1839.
Principles of Human Physiology. Second edn. 1844.
Zoology. New edn. revised by Dallas, W. S. (Bohns Scientific library.) 1847.
Chambers, Robert. See, ante, bibliography to Chap. III, Vol. XIV.
Curtis, William. Practical observations on the British grasses best adapted to the laying down, or improving of meadows and pastures. To which is added an enumeration of the British grasses. Second edn. with additions. 1790.
Lectures on Botany. 1805.
Darwin, Charles Robert. Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the various countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle. 1839.
The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs. Being the first part of the Geology of the Voyage of the Beagle
1832 to 1836. 1842.
On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. 1859.
The Foundations of the Origin of Species. Two essays written in 1842 and 1844 by C. D. Ed. by his son Darwin, Sir Francis. Cambridge, 1909.
The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication
. 2 vols. 1868.
The Descent of Man, and selection in relation to sex
. 2 vols. 1871.
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals
Formation of Vegetable Mould through the action of Worms. 1881.
Darwin, Francis (ed.). The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter ed. by his son, D., Sir F. 3 vols. 1887.
Darwin and Modern Science. Essays in Commemoration of the Centenary of the Birth of C. D., etc. Ed. Seward, A. C. Cambridge, 1909.
Geikie, Sir A. Charles Darwin as Geologist. Cambridge, 1909.
Order of the Proceedings at the Darwin Celebration held at Cambridge, June 2224, 1909. Cambridge, 1909.
Poulton, E. B. Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection. 1896.
Charles Darwin and the Origin of Species: addresses, etc., in America and England in the year of the two anniversaries. 1909.
Darwin, Erasmus. See, ante, bibliography to Chap. VIII, Vol. XI.
De la Beche, Sir Henry Thomas. A Geological Manual. 1831.
Researches in theoretical Geology. 1834.
Report on the Geology of Cornwall, Devon and West Somerset. 1839.
Dillenius, Joannes Jacobus. Catalogus plantarum circa Gissam sponte nascentium. 1718.
Hortus Elthamensis. 1732.
cum appendice et indice synonymorum. Oxford, 1741.
Druce, G. C. The Dillenian Herbaria
together with a biographical sketch of Dillenius, selections from his correspondence, etc. 1907.
Flower, Sir William Henry. An Introduction to the Osteology of the Mammalia. 1870.
Essays on Museums and other subjects connected with natural history. 1898.
Forbes, Edward. A history of British starfishes and other animals of the class Echinodermata. 1841.
An inaugural lecture on Botany, considered as a science and as a branch of medical education. 1843.
Literary papers by the late Professor E. F
. selected from his writings in The Literary Gazette. [Ed. with a memoir by L. R., i.e. Reeve, L.] 1855.
Foster, Sir Michael. A Text Book of Physiology. 1877.
Galton, Sir Francis (18221911). Narrative of an explorer in Tropical South Africa. 1853.
The first steps towards the domestication of animals. [Privately ptd.] 1863.
Inquiries into human faculty. 1883.
Pearson, Karl. The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton. [With plates.] Vol. 1. Cambridge, 1914.
Grant, Robert Edmond. An essay on the study of the Animal Kingdom. 1828.
Outline of a course of lectures on the Structure and Classification of Animals. 1833.
Outlines of Comparative Anatomy. Pts. 1, 2. 1841.
Greenough, George Bellas. A critical examination of the first principles of Geology. 1819.
Grew, Nehemiah. An Idea of a phytological history propounded
. And an account of the vegetation of roots, grounded chiefly thereupon. 1673.
The Anatomy of Plants, etc. 2nd edn. 1682.
Cosmologia Sacra. 1701. [B. M. copy (c. 44. g. 1) has MS. notes by Coleridge, S. T.]
Hales, Stephen. Vegetable Staticks: or, an account of some statical experiments on the Sap in Vegetables. 1727.
Some considerations on the causes of Earthquakes. 1750.
Henslow, John Stevens. A Catalogue of British Plants, arranged according to the natural system, with synonyms of De Candolle
and Hooker. 2nd edn. Cambridge, 1835.
A Dictionary of botanical terms. [1856.]
Biographical Sketch of J. S. H. Privately ptd. 1861.
Herbert, William. A Treatise on Amaryllideae. (The Botanical Register. Vol. VI. Appendix.) 1821.
Amaryllidaceae; preceded by an attempt to arrange the Monocotyledonous
orders, and followed by a Treatise on cross-bred Vegetables and Supplement. 1837.
Hooke, Robert. Micrographia, or some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses, with observations and inquiries thereupon. [With plates.] 1665.
The Posthumous Works of R. H
. Containing his Cutlerian lectures, and other discourses read at the meetings of the
. Illustrated with sculptures. To these discourses is prefixt the Authors Life. 1705.
Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton. Himalayan Journals: or, Notes of a Naturalist in Bengal, the Sikkim, and Nepal Himalayas, the Khasia Mountains, etc. 2 vols. 1854.
Handbook of the New Zealand Flora: a systematic description of the native plants of New Zealand. 1864.
Hooker, Sir William Jackson. The British Flora. 1830.
A Catalogue of British flowering plants and ferns, included in Dr. Hookers British Flora. [1835.]
A Century of Ferns. 1854.
The British Ferns. The drawings by Fitch, W. 1861 .
A second Century of Ferns. 1861 [1860, 61].
Hopkins, William (17931866). An abstract of a memoir on physical geology. Privately ptd. Cambridge, 1836.
Hunter, John. The Works of J. H. With notes. Ed. Palmer, J. F. 4 vols. 183537.
Observations and reflexions on Geology
. Intended to serve as an Introduction to the Catalogue of his Collection of Extraneous Fossils. 1859.
Essays and observations on Natural History, Anatomy, Physiology, Psychology, and Geology. [Ed. Owen, R.] 2 vols. 1861.
Hutton, James. The Theory of the Earth from the transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. [Edinburgh, 1785.] [Another edn.] Vols. I, II. Edinburgh, 1795. Theory of the Earth
. Vol. III. Ed. Geikie, Sir A. [This is a portion of the third volume, now first printed from the MS. in the possession of the Geographical Society. With indexes to this portion and also to vols. I, II by Geikie, Sir A.] (Geographical Society.) 1899.
Dissertations on different subjects of Natural Philosophy. Edinburgh, 1792.
Dissertations upon the Philosophy of Light, Heat, and Fire. In seven parts. Edinburgh, 1794.
An Investigation of the Principle of Knowledge and of the Progress of Reason from Sense to Science and Philosophy. 3 vols. Edinburgh, 1794.
Conversations on Geology; comprising a familiar explanation of the Huttonian and Wernerian Systems. 1840.
Greenwood, G. Rain and Rivers; or Hutton
against all comers. 1857.
Playfair, J. Biographical Account of James Hutton. [Edinburgh, 1797?]
Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth. 1802.
Stephen, Sir Leslie. Studies of a Biographer. Vol. III. 1902.
Jeffreys, John Gwyn. British Conchology, or an account of the Mollusca which now inhabit the British Isles and the surrounding seas. 5 vols. 186269.
Deep-sea exploration. A lecture. 1881.
Lindley, John. An Introduction to Botany. 1832.
Lindley, An Outline of the first principles of Horticulture. 1832.
Nixus Plantarum. 1833.
Flora Medica: a botanical account of all the more important plants used in medicine, in different parts of the world. 1838.
Loudon, John Claudius (17831843). An Encyclopaedia of gardening. 1822.
Lubbock, Sir John, baron Avebury (18341913). Pre-historic Times, as illustrated by ancient remains, and the manners and customs of modern savages. 1865.
The Origin of Civilisation and the Primitive Condition of Man. Mental and social conditions of savages. 1870.
On the Senses, Instincts, and Intelligence of Animals, with special reference to Insects. 1889 .
Notes on the life history of British Flowering Plants. 1905.
Lyell, Sir Charles. The Principles of Geology, being an attempt to explain the former changes of the earths surface, by reference to causes now in operation. 3 vols. 183033.
Elements of Geology. 1838. 2nd edn. 2 vols. 1841.
Travels in North America. 2 vols. 1845.
A Second Visit to the United States of North America. 1849.
The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man. 1863.
Marshall, Arthur Milnes. A Junior Course of Practical Zoology. 1892.
Vertebrate Embryology. 1893.
Matthew, Patrick. On Naval Timber and Arboriculture. 1831.
Morison, Robert. Hortus Regius Blesensis auctus, cum notulis durationis, etc. 1669.
Plantarum umbelliferarum distributio nova per tabulas cognationis et affinitatis, etc. Oxford, 1672.
Vines, S. H. and Druce, G. C. An Account of the Morisonian Herbarium in the possession of the University of Oxford, together with biographical sketches of Morison. 1914.
Moseley, Henry Nottidge. Notes by a Naturalist on the Challenger. 1879.
Report on certain Hydroid, Alcyonarian, and Madreporarian Corals procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger, in
Murchison, Sir Roderick Impey. Outline of the Geology of the neighbourhood of Cheltenham. Cheltenham, 1834. New ed. 1845.
Siluria. The history of the oldest known rocks containing organic remains, with a brief sketch of the distribution of Gold over the Earth. 1854.
Buckman, S. S. Bibliographical Notes on Murchisons Geology of Cheltenham. Cheltenham, 1906.
Murray, Sir John. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during
187376. 50 vols. 188095.
Nicholson, George (18471908). The illustrated Dictionary of Gardening. 4 vols. 188589.
The 1900 (-Century) Supplement, etc. 2 vols. 190001.
Owen, Sir Richard. Lectures on the Comparative Anatomy and Physiology of the Invertebrate Animals, etc. 2 vols. 184346.
A History of British Fossil Mammals and Birds. 1846.
A History of British Fossil Reptiles. 4 vols. 184984.
Geology and Inhabitants of the Ancient World. 1854.
Memoir of the Gorilla. 1865.
Memoir of the Dodo. 1866.
On the Anatomy of Vertebrates. 3 vols. 186668.
Payne, Joseph Frank (18401910). On the Herbarius and Hortus Sanitatis. (Trans. Bibliographical Soc. Vol. VI.) 1901.
Playfair, John. Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth. Edinburgh, 1802.
The Works of John Playfair. 4 vols. Edinburgh, 1822.
Prichard, James Cowles (17861848). Researches into the Physical History of Man. 1813.
Researches into the Physical History of Mankind. 3rd edn. 5 vols. 183647.
Pritchard, Andrew. The Natural History of Animalcules: containing descriptions of all the known species of Infusoria. 1834.
A History of Infusoria, living and fossil. 1842.
Raffles, Sir Thomas Stamford. The History of Java. 2 vols. 1817.
Egerton, H. E. Sir Stamford Raffles. 1900.
Raffles, Lady S. Memoir of the life and public services of Sir T. S. Raffles. 1830.
Ray, John. Catalogus Plantarum circa Cantabrigiam nascentium, etc. 1660.
Catalogus Plantarum Angliae et insularum adjacentium, etc. 1670.
Derham, William. Memorials of John Ray. (Roy. Soc.) 1846.