Nonfiction > E.C. Stedman & E.M. Hutchinson, eds. > A Library of American Literature > 1607–1764
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Stedman and Hutchinson, comps.  A Library of American Literature:
An Anthology in Eleven Volumes.  1891.
Vols. I–II: Colonial Literature, 1607–1764
 
From Boston to New York in 1704
By Sarah Kemble Knight (1666–1727)
 
[Born in Boston, Mass., 1666. Died at New London, Conn., 1727. The Journals of Madam Knight, etc., from the Original Manuscripts. 1825.]

MONDAY, October the second, 1704.—About three o’clock afternoon, I began my journey from Boston to New Haven; being about two hundred mile. My kinsman, Captain Robert Luist, waited on me as far as Dedham, where I was to meet the western post.
  1
  I visited the Rev. Mr. Belcher, the minister of the town, and tarried there till evening, in hopes the post would come along. But he not coming, I resolved to go to Billings’s where he used to lodge, being twelve miles further. But being ignorant of the way, Madam Belcher, seeing no persuasions of her good spouse’s or hers could prevail with me to lodge there that night, very kindly went with me to the tavern, where I hoped to get my guide, and desired the hostess to inquire of her guests whether any of them would go with me. But they being tied by the lips to a pewter engine, scarcely allowed themselves time to say what clownish…. [MS. incomplete.] Pieces of eight, I told her no, I would not be accessory to such extortion.  2
  “Then John shan’t go,” says she. “No, indeed, shan’t he;” and held forth at that rate a long time, that I began to fear I was got among the quaking tribe, believing not a limber-tongued sister among them could outdo Madam Hostess.  3
  Upon this, to my no small surprise, son John arose, and gravely demanded what I would give him to go with me? “Give you?” says I, “are you John?” “Yes,” says he, “for want of a better;” and behold! this John looked as old as my host, and perhaps had been a man in the last century. “Well, Mr. John,” says I, “make your demands.” “Why, half a piece of eight and a dram,” says John. I agreed, and gave him a dram (now) in hand to bind the bargain.  4
  My hostess catechised John for going so cheap, saying his poor wife would break her heart…. [MS. incomplete.]  5
  His shade on his horse resembled a globe on a gate post. His habit, horse and furniture, its looks and goings incomparably answered the rest.  6
  Thus jogging on with an easy pace, my guide telling me it was dangerous to ride hard in the night (which his horse had the sense to avoid), he entertained me with the adventures he had passed by late riding, and imminent dangers he had escaped, so that, remembering the heroes in “Parismus” and the “Knight of the Oracle,” I didn’t know but I had met with a prince disguised.  7
  When we had ridden about an hour, we came into a thick swamp, which by reason of a great fog, very much startled me, it being now very dark. But nothing dismayed John: he had encountered a thousand and a thousand such swamps, having a universal knowledge in the woods; and readily answered all my inquiries which were not a few.  8
  In about an hour, or something more, after we left the swamp, we came to Billings’s, where I was to lodge. My guide dismounted and very complacently helped me down and showed the door, signing to me with his hand to go in; which I gladly did—but had not gone many steps into the room, ere I was interrogated by a young lady I understood afterwards was the eldest daughter of the family, with these, or words to this purpose; viz., “Law for me!—what in the world brings you here at this time of night? I never see a woman on the road so dreadful late in all the days of my versal life. Who are you? Where are you going? I’m scared out of my wits!”—with much more of the same kind. I stood aghast, preparing to reply, when in comes my guide—to him madam turned, roaring out: “Lawful heart, John, is it you?—how de do! Where in the world are you going with this woman? Who is she?” John made no answer, but sat down in the corner, fumbled out his black junk, and saluted that instead of Deb; she then turned again to me and fell anew into her silly questions, without asking me to sit down.  9
  I told her she treated me very rudely, and I did not think it my duty to answer her unmannerly questions. But to get rid of them, I told her I came there to have the post’s company with me to-morrow on my journey, etc. Miss stared awhile, drew a chair, bade me sit, and then ran up stairs and put on two or three rings (or else I had not seen them before), and returning, set herself just before me, showing the way to Reding, that I might see her ornaments, perhaps to gain the more respect. But her granam’s new rung sow, had it appeared, would have affected me as much. I paid honest John with money and dram according to contract and dismissed him, and prayed Miss to show me where I must lodge. She conducted me to a parlor in a little back lean-to, which was almost filled with the bedstead, which was so high that I was forced to climb on a chair to get up to the wretched bed that lay on it; on which having stretched my tired limbs, and laid my head on a sad-colored pillow, I began to think on the transactions of the past day.  10
  Tuesday, October the third, about 8 in the morning, I with the post proceeded forward without observing any thing remarkable; and about two, afternoon, arrived at the post’s second stage, where the western post met him and exchanged letters. Here, having called for something to eat, the woman brought in a twisted thing like a cable, but something whiter; and, laying it on the board, tugged for life to bring it into a capacity to spread; which having with great pains accomplished, she served in a dish of pork and cabbage, I suppose the remains of dinner. The sauce was of a deep purple, which I thought was boiled in her dye kettle; the bread was Indian, and everything on the table service agreeable to these. I, being hungry got a little down; but my stomach was soon cloyed, and what cabbage I swallowed served me for a cud the whole day after.  11
  Having here discharged the ordinary for self and guide (as I understood was the custom), about three afternoon went on with my third guide, who rode very hard; and having crossed Providence ferry, we came to a river which they generally ride through. But I dare not venture; so the post got a lad and canoe to carry me to t’other side, and he rode through and led my horse. The canoe was very small and shallow, so that when we were in she seemed ready to take in water, which greatly terrified me, and caused me to be very circumspect, sitting with my hands fast on each side, my eyes steady, not daring so much as to lodge my tongue a hair’s breadth more on one side of my mouth than t’other, nor so much as think on Lot’s wife, for a wry thought would have overset our wherry; but was soon put out of this pain, by feeling the canoe on shore, which I as soon almost saluted with my feet; and rewarding my sculler, again mounted and made the best of our way forwards. The road here was very even and the day pleasant, it being now near sunset. But the post told me we had near fourteen miles to ride to the next stage (where we were to lodge). I asked him of the rest of the road, foreseeing we must travel in the night. He told me there was a bad river we were to ride through, which was so very fierce a horse could sometimes hardly stem it; but it was but narrow, and we should soon be over. I cannot express the concern of mind this relation set me in: no thoughts but those of the dangerous river could entertain my imagination, and they were as formidable as various, still tormenting me with blackest ideas of my approaching fate—sometimes seeing myself drowning, otherwhiles drowned, and at the best like a holy sister just come out of a spiritual bath in dripping garments.  12
  Now was the glorious luminary, with his swift coursers, arrived at his stage, leaving poor me with the rest of this part of the lower world in darkness, with which we were soon surrounded. The only glimmering we now had was from the spangled skies, whose imperfect reflections rendered every object formidable. Each lifeless trunk, with its shattered limbs, appeared an armed enemy; and every little stump like a ravenous devourer. Nor could I so much as discern my guide, when at any distance, which added to the terror.  13
  Thus, absolutely lost in thought and dying with the very thoughts of drowning, I came up with the post, whom I did not see till even with his horse: he told me he stopped for me, and we rode on very deliberately a few paces, when we entered a thicket of trees and shrubs, and I perceived by the horse’s going we were on the descent of a hill, which, as we came nearer the bottom, was totally dark with the trees that surrounded it. But I knew by the going of the horse we had entered the water, which my guide told me was the hazardous river he had told me of; and he, riding up close to my side, bid me not fear—we should be over immediately. I now rallied all the courage I was mistress of, knowing that I must either venture my fate of drowning, or be left like the children in the wood. So, as the post bid me, I gave reins to my nag; and sitting as steady as just before in the canoe, in a few minutes got safe to the other side, which he told me was the Narragansett country.  14
  Here we found great difficulty in travelling, the way being very narrow, and on each side the trees and bushes gave us very unpleasant welcomes with their branches and boughs, which we could not avoid, it being so exceeding dark. My guide, as before, so now, put on harder than I, with my weary bones, could follow; so left me and the way behind him. Now returned my distressed apprehensions of the place where I was: the dolesome woods, my company next to none, going I knew not whither, and encompassed with terrifying darkness; the least of which was enough to startle a more masculine courage. Added to which the reflections, as in the afternoon of the day, that my call was very questionable, which till then I had not so prudently as I ought considered. Now, coming to the foot of a hill, I found great difficulty in ascending; but being got to the top, was there amply recompensed with the friendly appearance of the kind Conductress of the night, just then advancing above the horizontal line. The raptures which the sight of that fair planet produced in me, caused me for the moment to forget my present weariness and past toils; and inspired me for most of the remaining way with very diverting thoughts, some of which, with the other occurrences of the day, I reserved to note down when I should come to my stage. My thoughts on the sight of the moon were to this purpose:
 Fair Cynthia, all the homage that I may
Unto a creature, unto thee I pay;
In lonesome woods to meet so kind a guide,
To me’s more worth than all the world beside.
Some joy I felt just now, when safe got o’er
Yon surly river to this rugged shore,
Deeming rough welcomes from these clownish trees,
Better than lodgings with Nereidees.
Yet swelling fears surprise; all dark appears—
Nothing but light can dissipate those fears.
My fainting vitals can’t lend strength to say,
But softly whisper, O I wish ’twere day.
The murmur hardly warmed the ambient air,
Ere thy bright aspect rescues from despair:
Makes the old Hag her sable mantle loose,
And a bright joy does through my soul diffuse.
The boisterous trees now lend a passage free,
And pleasant prospects thou givest light to see.
  15
  From hence we kept on, with more ease than before: the way being smooth and even, the night warm and serene, and the tall and thick trees at a distance, especially when the moon glared light through the branches, filled my imagination with the pleasant delusions of a sumptuous city, filled with famous buildings and churches, with their spiring steeples, balconies, galleries and I know not what: grandeurs which I had heard of, and which the stories of foreign countries had given me the idea of.
 Here stood a lofty church—there is a steeple,
And there the grand parade—O see the people!
That famous castle there, were I but nigh,
To see the moat and bridge and walls so high—
They’re very fine! says my deluded eye.
Being thus agreeably entertained without a thought of any thing but thoughts themselves, I on a sudden was roused from these pleasing imaginations by the post’s sounding his horn, which assured me he was arrived at the stage where we were to lodge; and that music was then most musical and agreeable to me.
  16
  Being come to Mr. Haven’s, I was very civilly received, and courteously entertained, in a clean, comfortable house; and the good woman was very active in helping off my riding clothes, and then asked what I would eat. I told her I had some chocolate, if she would prepare it; which with the help of some milk, and a little clean brass kettle, she soon effected to my satisfaction. I then betook me to my apartment, which was a little room parted from the kitchen by a single board partition; where, after I had noted the occurrences of the past day, I went to bed, which, though pretty hard, yet neat and handsome. But I could get no sleep, because of the clamor of some of the town topers in next room, who were entered into a strong debate concerning the signification of the name of their country; viz. Narragansett. One said it was named so by the Indians, because there grew a brier there, of a prodigious height and bigness, the like hardly ever known, called by the Indians Narragansett; and quotes an Indian of so barbarous a name for his author, that I could not write it. His antagonist replied no—it was from a spring it had its name, which he well knew where it was, which was extreme cold in summer, and as hot as could be imagined in the winter, which was much resorted to by the natives, and by them called Narragansett (hot and cold), and that was the original of their place’s name—with a thousand impertinences not worth notice, which he uttered with such a roaring voice and thundering blows with the fist of wickedness on the table, that it pierced my very head. I heartily fretted, and wished them tongue tied; but with as little success as a friend of mine once, who was (as she said) kept a whole night awake, on a journey, by a country lieutenant and a sergeant, ensign and a deacon, contriving how to bring a triangle into a square. They kept calling for t’other gill, which, while they were swallowing, was some intermission; but, presently, like oil to fire, increased the flame. I set my candle on a chest by the bedside, and sitting up, fell to my old way of composing my resentments, in the following manner:
 I ask thy aid, O potent Rum!
To charm these wrangling topers dumb.
Thou hast their giddy brains possest—
The man confounded with the beast—
And I, poor I, can get no rest.
Intoxicate them with thy fumes:
O still their tongues till morning comes!
And I know not but my wishes took effect; for the dispute soon ended with t’other dram; and so good night!
  17
  Wednesday, October 4th. About four in the morning we set out for Kingston (for so was the town called) with a French doctor in our company. He and the post put on very furiously, so that I could not keep up with them, only as now and then they would stop till they saw me. This road was poorly furnished with accommodations for travellers, so that we were forced to ride twenty-two miles by the post’s account, but nearer thirty by mine, before we could bait so much as our horses, which I exceedingly complained of. But the post encouraged me, by saying we should be well accommodated anon at Mr. Devil’s, a few miles further. But I questioned whether we ought to go to the devil to be helped out of affliction. However, like the rest of deluded souls that post to the infernal den, we made all possible speed to this devil’s habitation; where alighting, in full assurance of good accommodation, we were going in. But meeting his two daughters, as I supposed twins,—they so nearly resembled each other, both in features and habit, and looked as old as the devil himself, and quite as ugly,—we desired entertainment, but could hardly get a word out of them, till with our importunity, telling them our necessity, etc., they called the old sophister, who was as sparing of his words as his daughters had been, and no, or none, were the replies he made us to our demands. He differed only in this from the old fellow in t’other country: he let us depart. However, I thought it proper to warn poor travellers to endeavor to avoid falling into circumstances like ours, which at our next stage I sat down and did as followeth:
 May all that dread the cruel fiend of night
Keep on, and not at this cursed mansion light.
’Tis hell; ’tis hell! and devils here do dwell:
Here dwells the Devil—surely this is hell.
Nothing but wants: a drop to cool your tongue
Can’t be procured these cruel fiends among.
Plenty of horrid grins and looks severe,
Hunger and thirst, but pity’s banished here—
The right hand keep, if hell on earth you fear!
Thus leaving this habitation of cruelty, we went forward; and arriving at an ordinary about two miles further, found tolerable accommodation. But our hostess, being a pretty full mouthed old creature, entertained our fellow traveller, the French doctor, with innumerable complaints of her bodily infirmities; and whispered to him so loud that all the house had as full a hearing as he: which was very diverting to the company (of which there was a great many), as one might see by their sneering. But poor weary I slipped out to enter my mind in my Journal, and left my great landlady with her talkative guests to themselves.
  18
  From hence we proceeded (about ten forenoon) through the Narragansett country, pretty leisurely; and about one afternoon came to Paukataug River, which was about two hundred paces over, and now very high, and no way over to t’other side but this. I dared not venture to ride through, my courage at best in such cases but small, and now at the lowest ebb, by reason of my weary, very weary, hungry and uneasy circumstances. So taking leave of my company, though with no little reluctance that I could not proceed with them on my journey, stopped at a little cottage just by the river, to wait the water’s falling, which the old man that lived there said would be in a little time, and he would conduct me safe over. This little hut was one of the wretchedest I ever saw a habitation for human creatures. It was supported with shores enclosed with clapboards, laid on lengthways, and so much asunder that the light came through everywhere; the door tied on with a cord in the place of hinges; the floor the bare earth; no windows but such as the thin covering afforded, nor any furniture but a bed with a glass bottle hanging at the head on’t; an earthen cup, a small pewter basin, a board with sticks to stand on, instead of a table, and a block or two in the corner instead of chairs. The family were the old man, his wife and two children; all and every part being the picture of poverty. Notwithstanding both the hut and its inhabitants were very clean and tidy: to the crossing the old proverb, that bare walls make giddy housewives.  19
  I blessed myself that I was not one of this miserable crew; and the impressions their wretchedness formed in me caused me on the very spot to say:
 Though ill at ease, a stranger and alone,
All my fatigues shall not extort a groan.
These indigents have hunger with their ease;
Their best is worse behalf than my disease.
Their miserable hut which heat and cold
Alternately without repulse do hold;
Their lodgings thin and hard, their Indian fare,
The mean apparel which the wretches wear,
And their ten thousand ills which can’t be told,
Makes nature ere ’tis middle aged look old.
When I reflect, my late fatigues do seem
Only a notion or forgotten dream.
I had scarce done thinking, when an Indian-like animal came to the door, on a creature very much like himself, in mien and feature, as well as ragged clothing; and having lit, makes an awkward scratch with his Indian shoe, and a nod, sits on the block, fumbles out his black junk, dips it in the ashes, and presents it piping hot to his muscheetoes, and fell to sucking like a calf, without speaking, for near a quarter of an hour. At length the old man said, “How does Sarah do?” who I understood was the wretch’s wife and daughter to the old man: he replied, “As well as can be expected,” etc. So I remembered the old saying, and supposed I knew Sarah’s case. But he being, as I understood, going over the river, as ugly as he was, I was glad to ask him to show me the way to Saxton’s, at Stonington; which he promising, I ventured over with the old man’s assistance; who having rewarded to content, with my tattertailed guide, I rid on very slowly through Stonington, where the road was very stony and uneven. I asked the fellow, as we went, divers questions of the place and way, etc. I being arrived at my country, to Saxton’s, at Stonington, was very well accommodated both as to victuals and lodging, the only good of both I had found since my setting out. Here I heard there was an old man and his daughter to come that way, bound to New London; and, being now destitute of a guide, gladly waited for them, being in so good a harbor, and accordingly, Thursday, October the fifth, about 3 in the afternoon, I set forward with neighbor Polly and Jemima, a girl about eighteen years old, who he said he had been to fetch out of the Narragansetts, and said they had rode thirty miles that day, on a sorry lean jade, with only a bag under her for a pillion, which the poor girl often complained was very uneasy.
  20
  We made good speed along, which made poor Jemima make many a sour face, the mare being a very hard trotter; and after many a hearty and bitter “Oh,” she at length lowed out: “Lawful heart, father! This bare mare hurts me dingeely; I’m direful sore, I vow;” with many words to that purpose. “Poor child,” says Gaffer, “she used to serve your mother so.” “I don’t care how mother used to do,” quoth Jemima, in a passionate tone. At which the old man laughed, and kicked his jade o’ the side, which made her jolt ten times harder.  21
  About seven that evening we came to New London ferry: here, by reason of a very high wind, we met with great difficulty in getting over—the boat tossed exceedingly, and our horses capered at a very surprising rate, and set us all in a fright; especially poor Jemima, who desired her father to say “So Jack” to the jade, to make her stand. But the careless parent, taking no notice of her repeated desires, she roared out in a passionate manner: “Pray sooth, father; are you deaf? Say ‘So Jack’ to the jade, I tell you.” The dutiful parent obeys, saying “So Jack, so Jack,” as gravely as if he’d been to saying Catechise after young Miss, who with her fright looked of all colors in the rainbow.  22
  Being safely arrived at the house of Mrs. Prentice’s in New London, I treated neighbor Polly and daughter for their diverting company, and bade them farewell; and between nine and ten at night waited on the Rev. Mr. Gurdon Saltonstall, minister of the town, who kindly invited me to stay that night at his house, where I was very handsomely and plentifully treated and lodged; and made good the great character I had before heard concerning him, viz., that he was the most affable, courteous, generous and best of men.  23
  Friday, October 6th. I got up very early, in order to hire somebody to go with me to New Haven, being in great perplexity at the thoughts of proceeding alone; which my most hospitable entertainer observing, himself went and soon returned with a young gentleman of the town, whom he could confide in to go with me; and about eight this morning, with Mr. Joshua Wheeler, my new guide, taking leave of this worthy gentleman, we advanced on towards Seabrook. The roads all along this way are very bad, encumbered with rocks and mountainous passages, which were very disagreeable to my tired carcass; but we went on with a moderate pace which made the journey more pleasant. But after about eight miles riding, in going over a bridge under which the river ran very swift, my horse stumbled and very narrowly ’scaped falling over into the water, which extremely frightened me. But through God’s goodness I met with no harm, and mounting again, in about half a mile’s riding, came to an ordinary, was well entertained by a woman of about seventy and vantage, but of as sound intellectuals as one of seventeen. She entertained Mr. Wheeler with some passages of a wedding awhile ago at a place hard by, the bridegroom being about her age or something above, saying his children were dreadfully against their father’s marrying, which she condemned them extremely for….  24
  Saturday, October 7th, we set out early in the morning, and being something unacquainted with the way, having asked it of some we met, they told us we must ride a mile or two and turn down a lane on the right hand; and by their direction we rode on, but not yet coming to the turning, we met a young fellow and asked him how far it was to the lane which turned down towards Guilford. He said we must ride a little further, and turn down by the corner of Uncle Sam’s lot. My guide vented his spleen at the lubber; and we soon after came into the road, and keeping still on, without anything further remarkable, about two o’clock afternoon we arrived at New Haven, where I was received with all possible respects and civility. Here I discharged Mr. Wheeler with a reward to his satisfaction, and took some time to rest after so long and toilsome a journey; and informed myself of the manners and customs of the place, and at the same time employed myself in the affair I went there upon.  25
  They are governed by the same laws as we in Boston (or little differing), throughout this whole colony of Connecticut, and much the same way of Church government, and many of them good, sociable people, and I hope religious too: but a little too much independent in their principles, and, as I have been told, were formerly in their zeal very rigid in their administrations towards such as their laws made offenders, even to a harmless kiss or innocent merriment among young people. Whipping being a frequent and counted an easy punishment, about which as other crimes, the Judges were absolute in their sentences. They told me a pleasant story about a pair of justices in those parts, which I may not omit the relation of.  26
  A negro slave belonging to a man in the town, stole a hog’s head from his master, and gave or sold it to an Indian, native of the place. The Indian sold it in the neighborhood, and so the theft was found out. Thereupon the heathen was seized, and carried to the Justice’s house to be examined. But his worship (it seems) was gone into the field, with a brother in office, to gather in his pompions; whither the malefactor is hurried, and complaint made, and satisfaction in the name of justice demanded. Their worships can’t proceed in form without a bench: whereupon they order one to be immediately erected, which, for want of fitter materials, they made with pompions—which being finished, down sit their worships, and the malefactor called, and by the senior justice interrogated after the following manner: “You Indian, why did you steal from this man? You shouldn’t do so—it’s a grandy wicked thing to steal.” “Hol’t, Hol’t,” cries justice junior, “Brother, you speak negro to him; I’ll ask him. You, sirrah, why did you steal this man’s hog’s head?” “Hog’s head?” replies the Indian, “me no stomany.” “No?” says his worship; and, pulling off his hat, patted his own head with his hand, says, “Tatapa—you, Tatapa—you; all one this. Hog’s head all one this.” “Hah!” says Netop, “now me stomany that.” Whereupon the company fell into a great fit of laughter, even to roaring. Silence is commanded, but to no effect: for they continued perfectly shouting. “Nay,” says his worship, in an angry tone, “if it be so, take me off the bench.”  27
  Their diversions in this part of the country are on lecture days and training days mostly: on the former there is riding from town to town.  28
  And on training days the youth divert themselves by shooting at the target, as they call it (but it very much resembles a pillory), where he that hits nearest the white has some yards of red ribbon presented him, which being tied to his hat-band, the two ends streaming down his back, he is led away in triumph, with great applause, as the winners of the Olympic games. They generally marry very young: the males oftener, as I am told, under twenty than above: they generally make public weddings, and have a way something singular (as they say) in some of them, viz., just before joining hands the bridegroom quits the place, who is soon followed by the bridesmen, and as it were dragged back to duty—being the reverse to the former practice among us, to steal mistress bride.  29
  There are great plenty of oysters all along by the sea side, as far as I rode in the colony, and those very good. And they generally lived very well and comfortably in their families. But too indulgent (especially the farmers) to their slaves: suffering too great familiarity from them, permitting them to sit at the table and eat with them (as they say to save time), and into the dish goes the black hoof as freely as the white hand. They told me that there was a farmer lived near the town where I lodged who had some difference with his slave, concerning something the master had promised him and did not punctually perform; which caused some hard words between them; but at length they put the matter to arbitration and bound themselves to stand to the award of such as they named—which done, the arbitrators, having heard the allegations of both parties, ordered the master to pay forty shillings to black face, and acknowledge his fault. And so the matter ended: the poor master very honestly standing to the award.  30
  There are everywhere, in the towns as I passed, a number of Indians the natives of the country, and are the most salvage of all the salvages of that kind that I had ever seen: little or no care taken (as I heard upon enquiry) to make them otherwise. They have in some places lands of their own, and governed by laws of their own making;—they marry many wives and at pleasure put them away, and on the least dislike or fickle humor, on either side, saying “Stand away,” to one another is a sufficient divorce. And indeed those uncomely “Stand aways” are too much in vogue among the English in this (indulgent) colony, as their records plentifully prove, and that on very trivial matters, of which some have been told me, but are not proper to be related by a female pen, though some of that foolish sex have had too large a share in the story….  31
  They give the title of merchant to every trader; who rate their goods according to the time and specie they pay in, viz., “Pay,” “Money,” “Pay as money,” and “Trusting.” “Pay” is grain, pork, beef, etc., at the prices set by the General Court that year; “Money” is pieces of eight, reals, or Boston or bay shillings (ai they call them), or “good hard money,” as sometimes silver coin is termed by them; also “Wampum,” viz., Indian beads, which serves for change. “Pay as money” is provisions, as aforesaid, one-third cheaper than as the Assembly or General Court sets it; and “Trust” as they and the merchant agree for time.  32
  Now, when the buyer comes to ask for a commodity, sometimes before the merchant answers that he has it, he says, “Is your pay ready?” Perhaps the chap replies, “Yes.” “What do you pay in?” says the merchant. The buyer having answered, then the price is set; as suppose he wants a sixpenny knife, in pay it is twelve pence—in pay as money, eight pence, and hard money, its own price, viz., six pence. It seems a very intricate way of trade and what lex mercatoria had not thought of.  33
  Being at a merchant’s house, in comes a tall country fellow, with his alfogeos full of tobacco; for they seldom loose their cud, but keep chewing and spitting as long as their eyes are open,—he advanced to the middle of the room, makes an awkward nod, and spitting a large deal of aromatic tincture, he gave a scrape with his shovel-like shoe, leaving a small shovel full of dirt on the floor, made a full stop, hugging his own pretty body with his hands under his arms, stood staring round him, like a cat let out of a basket. At last, like the creature Balaam rode on, he opened his mouth and said: “Have you any ribinen for hat-bands to sell, I pray?” The questions and answers about the pay being past, the ribbon is brought and opened. Bumpkin Simpers cries, “It’s confounded gay, I vow;” and beckoning to the door, in comes Joan Tawdry, dropping about fifty curtsies, and stands by him: he shows her the ribbon. “Law, you,” says she, “it’s right gent, do you take it, ’tis dreadful pretty.” Then she enquires, “Have you any hood silk, I pray?” which being brought and bought, “Have you any thread silk to sew it with?” says she: which being accommodated with they departed. They generally stand after they come in a great while speechless, and sometimes don’t say a word till they are asked what they want, which I impute to the awe they stand in of the merchants, who they are constantly almost indebted to; and must take what they bring without liberty to choose for themselves; but they serve them as well, making the merchants stay long enough for their pay.  34
  We may observe here the great necessity and benefit both of education and conversation; for these people have as large a portion of mother wit, and sometimes a larger, than those who have been brought up in cities; but, for want of improvements, render themselves almost ridiculous, as above. I should be glad if they would leave such follies, and am sure all that love clean houses (at least) would be glad on’t too.  35
  They are generally very plain in their dress, throughout all the colony, as I saw, and follow one another in their modes; that you may know where they belong, especially the women, meet them where you will.  36
  Their chief red letter day is St. Election, which is annually observed according to charter, to choose their governor—a blessing they can never be thankful enough for, as they will find, if ever it be their hard fortune to lose it. The present governor in Connecticut is the Hon. John Winthrop, Esq., a gentleman of an ancient and honorable family, whose father was governor here sometime before, and his grandfather had been governor of the Massachusetts. This gentlemen is a very courteous and affable person, much given to hospitality, and has by his good services gained the affections of the people as much as any who had been before him in that post.  37
  December 6th. Being by this time well recruited and rested after my journey, my business lying unfinished by some concerns at New York depending thereupon, my kinsman, Mr. Thomas Trowbridge, of New Haven, must needs take a journey there before it could be accomplished, I resolved to go there in company with him and a man of the town which I engaged to wait on me there. Accordingly, December 6th, we set out from New Haven, and about eleven same morning came to Stratford ferry; which crossing, about two miles on the other side baited our horses and would have eat a morsel ourselves, but the pumpkin and Indian mixed bread had such an aspect, and the bare-legged punch so awkward or rather awful a sound, that we left both, and proceeded forward, and about seven at night came to Fairfield, where we met with good entertainment and lodged; and early next morning set forward to Norrowalk, from its half Indian name “North-walk,” where about twelve at noon we arrived, and had a dinner of fried venison, very savory. Landlady, wanting some pepper in the seasoning, bid the girl hand her the spice in the little “gay” cup on the shelf. From hence we hastened towards Rye, walking and leading our horses near a mile together, up a prodigious high hill; and so riding till about nine at night, and there arrived and took up our lodgings at an ordinary, which a French family kept. Here being very hungry, I desired a fricassee, which the Frenchman, undertaking, managed so contrary to my notion of cookery, that I hastened to bed supperless; and being shown the way up a pair of stairs which had such a narrow passage that I had almost stopped by the bulk of my body; but arriving at my apartment found it to be a little lean-to chamber, furnished among other rubbish with a high bed and a low one, a long table, a bench and a bottomless chair. Little Miss went to scratch up my kennel, which rustled as if she had been in the barn among the husks, and suppose such was the contents of the ticking. Nevertheless, being exceeding weary, down I laid my poor carcass (never more tired), and found my covering as scanty as my bed was hard. Anon I heard another rustling noise in the room—called to know the matter—little Miss said she was making a bed for the men; who, when they were in bed, complained their legs lay out of it by reason of its shortness. My poor bones complained bitterly, not being used to such lodgings, and so did the man who was with us; and poor I made but one groan, which was from the time I went to bed to the time I rose, which was about three in the morning, sitting up by the fire till light, and, having discharged our ordinary—which was as dear as if we had had far better fare,—we took our leave of Monsieur and about seven in the morning came to New Rochelle, a French town, where we had a good breakfast. And on the strength of that about an hour before sunset got to York….  38
  The City of New York is a pleasant, well compacted place, situated on a commodious river which is a fine harbor for shipping. The buildings, brick generally, very stately and high, though not altogether like ours in Boston. The bricks in some of the houses are of divers colors and laid in checkers, being glazed looked very agreeable. The inside of them are neat to admiration, the wooden work, for only the walls are plastered, and the summers and joists are plained and kept very white scoured, as so are all the partitions if made of boards. The fire-places have no jambs (as ours have) but the backs run flush with the walls, and the hearth is of tiles and is as far out into the room at the ends as before the fire which is generally five foot in the lower rooms, and the piece over where the mantle tree should be is made as ours with joiners’ work, and as I suppose is fastened to iron rods inside….  39
  They are generally of the Church of England and have a New England gentleman for their minister, and a very fine church set out with all customary requisites. There are also Dutch and divers conventicles, as they call them, viz., Baptist, Quakers, etc. They are not strict in keeping the Sabbath, as in Boston and other places where I had been, but seem to deal with great exactness, as far as I see or deal with. They are sociable to one another and courteous and civil to strangers, and fare well in their houses. The English go very fashionable in their dress. But the Dutch, especially the middling sort, differ from our women, in their habit go loose, wear French muches, which are like a cap and a head band in one, leaving their ears bare, which are set out with jewels of a large size and many in number; and their fingers hooped with rings, some with large stones in them of many colors, as were their pendants in their ears, which you should see very old women wear as well as young.  40
  They have vendues very frequently and make their earnings very well by them, for they treat with good liquor liberally, and the customers drink as liberally and generally pay for’t as well, by paying for that which they bid up briskly for, after the sack has gone plentifully about, though sometimes good pennyworths are got there. Their diversion in the winter is riding sleighs about three or four miles out of town, where they have houses of entertainment at a place called the Bowery, and some go to friends’ houses, who handsomely treat them. Mr. Burroughs carried his spouse and daughter and myself out to one Madame Dowes, a gentlewoman that lived at a farmhouse, who gave us a handsome entertainment of five or six dishes and choice beer and metheglin, cider, etc., all which she said was the produce of her farm. I believe we met fifty or sixty sleighs that day; they fly with great swiftness, and some are so furious that they will turn out of the path for none except a loaded cart. Nor do they spare for any diversion the place affords, and sociable to a degree, their tables being as free to their neighbors as to themselves.  41
  Having here transacted the affair I went upon and some other that fell in the way, after about a fortnight’s stay there, I left New York with no little regret, and Thursday, December 21st, set out for New Haven with my kinsman Trowbridge, and the man that waited on me….  42
  Being got to Milford, it being late in the night, I could go no further; my fellow traveller going forward, I was invited to lodge at Mrs. ——, a very kind and civil gentlewoman, by whom I was handsomely and kindly entertained till the next night. The people here go very plain in their apparel (more plain than I had observed in the towns I had passed), and seem to be very grave and serious. They told me there was a singing Quaker lived there, or at least had a strong inclination to be so, his spouse not at all affected that way. Some of the singing crew came there one day to visit him, who being then abroad, they sat down (to the woman’s no small vexation), humming and singing and groaning after their conjuring way—says the woman: “Are you singing Quakers?” “Yea,” say they. “Then take my squalling brat of a child here and sing to it,” says she, “for I have almost split my throat with singing to him, and can’t get the rogue to sleep.” They took this as a great indignity, and immediately departed. Shaking the dust from their heels, left the good woman and her child among the number of the wicked.  43
  This is a seaport place and accommodated with a good harbor, but I had not opportunity to make particular observations, because it was Sabbath day—this evening.  44
  December 24th. I set out with the gentlewoman’s son, whom she very civilly offered to go with me when she saw no persuasions would cause me to stay, which she pressingly desired, and crossing a ferry, having but nine miles to New Haven, in a short time arrived there and was kindly received and well accommodated amongst my friends and relations.  45
  The government of Connecticut colony begins westward toward York at Stamford (as I am told) and so runs Eastward toward Boston (I mean in my range, because I don’t intend to extend my description beyond my own travels), and ends that way at Stonington, and has a great many large towns lying more northerly. It is a plentiful country for provisions of all sorts and it’s generally healthy. No one that can and will be diligent in this place need fear poverty nor the want of food and raiment.  46
  January 6th. Being now well recruited and fit for business, I discoursed the persons I was concerned with, that we might finish in order to my return to Boston. They delayed as they had hitherto done, hoping to tire my patience. But I was resolute to stay and see an end of the matter, let it be never so much to my disadvantage; so, January 9th, they came again and promised the Wednesday following to go through with the distribution of the estate, which they delayed till Thursday, and then came with new amusements. But at length, by the mediation of that holy good gentleman, the Rev. Mr. James Pierpont, the minister of New Haven, and with the advice and assistance of other our good friends, we came to an accommodation and distribution, which having finished, though not till February, the man that waited on me to York taking charge of me, I set out for Boston. We went from New Haven upon the ice (the ferry being not passable thereby), and the Rev. Mr. Pierpont, with Madam Prout, cousin Trowbridge, and divers others, were taking leave, we went onward without anything remarkable till we come to New London, and lodged again at Mr. Saltonstall’s; and here I dismissed my guide, and my generous entertainer provided me Mr. Samuel Rogers of that place to go home with me. I stayed a day here longer than I intended by the commands of the Hon. Governor Winthrop to stay and take a supper with him, whose wonderful civility I may not omit. The next morning I crossed the ferry to Groton, having had the honor of the company of Madam Livingston (who is the governor’s daughter) and Mary Christophers and divers others to the boat; and that night lodged at Stonington, and had roast beef and pumpkin sauce for supper. The next night at Haven’s, and had roast fowl, and the next day we came to a river, which, by reason of the freshets coming down, was swelled so high, we feared it impassable, and the rapid stream was very terrifying; however, we must over, and that in a small canoe. Mr. Rogers assuring me of his good conduct, I, after a stay of near an hour on the shore for consultation, went into the canoe, and Mr. Rogers paddled about one hundred yards up the creek by the shore side, turned into the swift stream and dexterously steering her, in a moment we came to the other side, as swiftly passing as an arrow shot out of the bow by a strong arm. I stayed on the shore till he returned to fetch our horses, which he caused to swim over, himself bringing the furniture in the canoe. But it is past my skill to express the exceeding fright all these transactions formed in me. We were now in the colony of the Massachusetts, and, taking lodgings at the first inn we came to, had a pretty difficult passage the next day, which was the second of March, by reason of the sloughy ways then thawed by the sun. Here I met Capt. John Richards of Boston, who was going home, so being very glad of his company we rode something harder than hitherto, and, missing my way in going up a very steep hill, my horse dropped down under me as dead; this new surprise no little hurt me, meeting it just at the entrance into Dedham, from whence we intended to reach home that night. But was now obliged to get another horse there, and leave my own, resolving for Boston that night if possible. But in going over the causeway at Dedham, the bridge being overflowed by the high waters coming down, I very narrowly escaped falling over into the river, horse and all, which ’twas almost a miracle I did not. Now it grew late in the afternoon, and the people having very much discouraged us about the sloughy way, which they said we should find very difficult and hazardous, it so wrought on me, being tired and dispirited and disappointed of my desires of going home, that I agreed to lodge there that night, which we did at the house of one Draper, and the next day being March 3d we got safe home to Boston, where I found my aged and tender mother and my dear and only child in good health, with open arms, ready to receive me, and my kind relations and friends flocking in to welcome me and hear the story of my transactions and travels, I having this day been five months from home; and now I cannot fully express my joy and satisfaction, but desire sincerely to adore my Great Benefactor for thus graciously carrying forth and returning in safety his unworthy handmaid.  47
 
 
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