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Aeschylus (525–456 B.C.).  Agamemnon.
The Harvard Classics.  1909–14.
 
Lines 1–499
 
 
A WATCHMAN


I PRAY the gods to quit me of my toils,
To close the watch I keep, this livelong year;
For as a watch-dog lying, not at rest,
Propped on one arm, upon the palace-roof        4
Of Atreus’ race, too long, too well I know
The starry conclave of the midnight sky,
Too well, the splendours of the firmament,
The lords of light, whose kingly aspect shows—         8
What time they set or climb the sky in turn—
The year’s divisions, bringing frost or fire.
 
And now, as ever, am I set to mark
When shall stream up the glow of signal-flame,        12
The bale-fire bright, and tell its Trojan tale—
Troy town is ta’en: such issue holds in hope
She in whose woman’s breast beats heart of man.
 
Thus upon mine unrestful couch I lie,        16
Bathed with the dews of night, unvisited
By dreams—ah me!—for in the place of sleep
Stands Fear as my familiar, and repels
The soft repose that would mine eyelids seal.        20
And if at whiles, for the lost balm of sleep,
I medicine my soul with melody
Of trill or song—anon to tears I turn,
Wailing the woe that broods upon this home,        24
Not now by honour guided as of old.
 
But now at last fair fall the welcome hour
That sets me free, whene’er the thick night glow
With beacon-fire of hope deferred no more.        28
All hail!  [A beacon-light is seen reddening the distant sky.
Fire of the night, that brings my spirit day,
Shedding on Argos light, and dance, and song.
Greetings to fortune, hail!        32
 
Let my loud summons ring within the ears
Of Agamemnon’s queen, that she anon
Start from her couch and with a shrill voice cry
A joyous welcome to the beacon-blaze,        36
For Ilion’s fall; such fiery message gleams
From yon high flame; and I, before the rest,
Will foot the lightsome measure of our joy;
For I can say, My master’s dice fell fair—        40
Behold! the triple sice, the lucky flame!
Now be my lot to clasp, in loyal love,
The hand of him restored, who rules our home:
Home—but I say no more: upon my tongue        44
Treads hard the ox o’ the adage.
        Had it voice,
The home itself might soothliest tell its tale;
I, of set will, speak words the wise may learn,        48
To others, nought remember nor discern.  [Exit. The chorus of old men of Mycenæ enter, each leaning on a staff. During their song Clytemnestra appears in the background, kindling the altars.
 
CHORUS


Ten livelong years have rolled away,
Since the twin lords of sceptred sway,
By Zeus endowed with pride of place,        52
The doughty chiefs of Atreus’ race,
  Went forth of yore,
To plead with Priam, face to face,
  Before the judgment-seat of War!        56
 
A thousand ships from Argive land
Put forth to bear the martial band,
That with a spirit stern and strong
Went out to right the kingdom’s wrong—        60
Pealed, as they went, the battle-song,
  Wild as the vultures’ cry;
When o’er the eyrie, soaring high,
In wild bereavèd agony,        64
Around, around, in airy rings,
They wheel with oarage of their wings,
But not the eyas-brood behold,
That called them to the nest of old;        68
But let Apollo from the sky,
Or Pan, or Zeus, but hear the cry,
The exile cry, the wail forlorn,
Of birds from whom their home is torn—        72
On those who wrought the rapine fell,
Heaven sends the vengeful fiends of hell.
 
Even so doth Zeus, the jealous lord
And guardian of the hearth and board,        76
Speed Atreus’ sons, in vengeful ire,
’Gainst Paris—sends them forth on fire,
Her to buy back, in war and blood,
Whom one did wed but many woo’d!        80
And many, many, by his will,
The last embrace of foes shall feel,
 
And many a knee in dust be bowed,
And splintered spears on shields ring loud,        84
Of Trojan and of Greek, before
That iron bridal-feast be o’er!
But as he willed ’tis ordered all,
And woes, by heaven ordained, must fall—        88
Unsoothed by tears or spilth of wine
Poured forth too late, the wrath divine
Glares vengeance on the flameless shrine.
 
And we in gray dishonoured eld,        92
Feeble of frame, unfit were held
To join the warrior array
That then went forth unto the fray:
And here at home we tarry, fain        96
Our feeble footsteps to sustain,
Each on his staff—so strength doth wane,
And turns to childishness again.
For while the sap of youth is green,        100
And, yet unripened, leaps within,
The young are weakly as the old,
And each alike unmeet to hold
The vantage post of war!        104
And ah! when flower and fruit are o’er,
  And on life’s tree the leaves are sere,
  Age wendeth propped its journey drear,
As forceless as a child, as light        108
And fleeting as a dream of night
Lost in the garish day!
 
But thou, O child of Tyndareus,
  Queen Clytemnestra, speak! and say        112
  What messenger of joy today
Hath won thine ear? what welcome news,
That thus in sacrificial wise
E’en to the city’s boundaries        116
Thou biddest altar-fires arise?
Each god who doth our city guard,
And keeps o’er Argos watch and ward
  From heaven above, from earth below—        120
The mighty lords who rule the skies,
The market’s lesser deities,
  To each and all the altars glow,
Piled for the sacrifice!        124
And here and there, anear, afar,
Streams skyward many a beacon-star,
Conjur’d and charm’d and kindled well
By pure oil’s soft and guileless spell,        128
Hid now no more
Within the palace’ secret store.
 
O queen, we pray thee, whatsoe’er,
  Known unto thee, were well revealed,        132
That thou wilt trust it to our ear,
  And bid our anxious heart be healed!
That waneth now unto despair—
Now, waxing to a presage fair,        136
Dawns, from the altar, Hope—to scare
From our rent hearts the vulture Care.
 
List! for the power is mine, to chant on high
  The chiefs’ emprise, the strength that omens gave!        140
List! on my soul breathes yet a harmony,
  From realms of ageless powers, and strong to save!
 
How brother kings, twins lords of one command,
  Led forth the youth of Hellas in their flower,        144
Urged on their way, with vengeful spear and brand,
  By warrior-birds, that watched the parting hour.
 
Go forth to Troy, the eagles seemed to cry—
  And the sea-kings obeyed the sky-kings’ word,        148
When on the right they soared across the sky,
  And one was black, one bore a white tail barred.
 
High o’er the palace were they seen to soar,
  Then lit in sight of all, and rent and tare,        152
Far from the fields that she should range no more,
  Big with her unborn brood, a mother-hare.
 
And one beheld, the soldier-prophet true,
  And the two chiefs, unlike of soul and will,        156
In the twy-coloured eagles straight he knew,
  And spake the omen forth, for good and ill.
 
(Ah woe and well-a-day! but be the issue fair!)
 
Go forth, he cried, and Priam’s town shall fall.        160
  Yet long the time shall be; and flock and herd,
The people’s wealth, that roam before the wall,
  Shall force hew down, when Fate shall give the word.
 
But O beware! lest wrath in heaven abide,        164
  To dim the glowing battle-forge once more,
And mar the mighty curb of Trojan pride,
  The steel of vengeance, welded as for war!
 
For virgin Artemis bears jealous hate        168
  Against the royal house, the eagle-pair,
Who rend the unborn brood, insatiate—
  Yea, loathes their banquet on the quivering hare.
 
(Ah woe and well-a-day! but be the issue fair!)        172
 
For well she loves—the goddess kind and mild—
  The tender new-born cubs of lions bold,
Too weak to range—and well the sucking child
  Of every beast that roams by wood and wold.        176
 
So to the Lord of Heaven she prayeth still,
  “Nay, if it must be, be the omen true!
Yet do the visioned eagles presage ill;
  The end be well, but crossed with evil too!”        180
 
Healer Apollo! be her wrath controll’d,
  Nor weave the long delay of thwarting gales,
To war against the Danaans and withhold
  From the free ocean-waves their eager sails!        184
 
She craves, alas! to see a second life
  Shed forth, a curst unhallowed sacrifice—
’Twixt wedded souls, artificer of strife,
  And hate that knows not fear, and fell device.        188
 
At home there tarries like a lurking snake,
  Biding its time, a wrath unreconciled,
A wily watcher, passionate to slake,
  In blood, resentment for a murdered child.        192
 
Such was the mighty warning, pealed of yore—
  Amid good tidings, such the word of fear,
What time the fateful eagles hovered o’er
  The kings, and Calchas read the omen clear.        196
 
(In strains like his, once more,
Sing woe and well-a-day! but be the issue fair!)
 
  Zeus—if to The Unknown
    That name of many names seem good—        200
  Zeus, upon Thee I call.
    Thro’ the mind’s every road
  I passed, but vain are all,
  Save that which names thee Zeus, the Highest One,        204
    Were it but mine to cast away the load,
The weary load, that weighs my spirit down.
 
  He that was Lord of old,
In full-blown pride of place and valour bold,        208
  Hath fallen and is gone, even as an old tale told!
  And he that next held sway,
  By stronger grasp o’erthrown
  Hath pass’d away!        212
And whoso now shall bid the triumph-chant arise
  To Zeus, and Zeus alone,
He shall be found the truly wise.
’Tis Zeus alone who shows the perfect way        216
  Of knowledge: He hath ruled,
Men shall learn wisdom, by affliction schooled.
 
  In visions of the night, like dropping rain,
  Descend the many memories of pain        220
Before the spirit’s sight: through tears and dole
  Comes wisdom o’er the unwilling soul—
  A boon, I wot, of all Divinity,
That holds its sacred throne in strength, above the sky!        224
 
    And then the elder chief, at whose command
    The fleet of Greece was manned,
    Cast on the seer no word of hate,
    But veered before the sudden breath of Fate—        228
 
    Ah, weary while! for, ere they put forth sail,
    Did every store, each minish’d vessel, fail,
      While all the Achæan host
      At Aulis anchored lay,        232
    Looking across to Chalcis and the coast
    Where refluent waters welter, rock, and sway;
      And rife with ill delay
    From northern Strymon blew the thwarting blast—        236
      Mother of famine fell,
      That holds men wand’ring still
    Far from the haven where they fain would be!—
      And pitiless did waste        240
    Each ship and cable, rotting on the sea,
    And, doubling with delay each weary hour,
Withered with hope deferred th’ Achæans’ warlike flower.
 
    But when, for bitter storm, a deadlier relief,        244
    And heavier with ill to either chief,
Pleading the ire of Artemis, the seer avowed,
    The two Atridæ smote their sceptres on the plain,
    And, striving hard, could not their tears restrain!        248
    And then the elder monarch spake aloud—
      Ill lot were mine, to disobey!
      And ill, to smite my child, my household’s love and pride!
      To stain with virgin blood a father’s hands, and slay        252
      My daughter, by the altar’s side!
      ’Twixt woe and woe I dwell—
    I dare not like a recreant fly,
And leave the league of ships, and fail each true ally;        256
    For rightfully they crave, with eager fiery mind,
    The virgin’s blood, shed forth to lull the adverse wind—
      God send the deed be well!
 
      Thus on this neck he took        260
      Fate’s hard compelling yoke;
Then, in the counter-gale of will abhorr’d, accursed,
    To recklessness his shifting spirit veered—
    Alas! that Frenzy, first of ills and worst,        264
With evil craft men’s souls to sin hath ever stirred!
 
    And so he steeled his heart—ah, well-a-day—
      Aiding a war for one false woman’s sake,
          His child to slay,        268
    And with her spilt blood make
An offering, to speed the ships upon their way!
 
    Lusting for war, the bloody arbiters
Closed heart and ears, and would nor hear nor heed        272
      The girl-voice plead,
    Pity me, Father! nor her prayers,
      Nor tender, virgin years.
 
    So, when the chant of sacrifice was done,        276
    Her father bade the youthful priestly train
Raise her, like some poor kid, above the altar-stone,
    From where amid her robes she lay
      Sunk all in swoon away—        280
Bade them, as with the bit that mutely tames the steed,
    Her fair lips’ speech refrain,
Lest she should speak a curse on Atreus’ home and seed,
 
    So trailing on the earth her robe of saffron dye,        284
  With one last piteous dart from her beseeching eye
    Those that should smite she smote—
  Fair, silent, as a pictur’d form, but fain
  To plead, Is all forgot?        288
How oft those halls of old,
Wherein my sire high feast did hold,
  Rang to the virginal soft strain,
    When I, a stainless child,        292
  Sang from pure lips and undefiled,
    Sang of my sire, and all
His honoured life, and how on him should fall
    Heaven’s highest gift and gain!        296
  And then—but I beheld not, nor can tell,
    What further fate befel:
  But this is sure, that Calchas’ boding strain
    Can ne’er be void or vain.        300
  This wage from Justice’ hand do sufferers earn,
    The future to discern;
  And yet—farewell, O secret of tomorrow!
    Foreknowledge is fore-sorrow.        304
  Clear with the clear beams of the morrow’s sun,
    The future presseth on.
  Now, let the house’s tale, how dark soe’er,
    Find yet an issue fair!—        308
  So prays the loyal, solitary band
    That guards the Apian land.  [They turn to Clytemnestra, who leaves the altars and comes forward.
 
  O queen, I come in reverence of thy sway—
  For, while the ruler’s kingly seat is void,        312
  The loyal heart before his consort bends.
  Now—be it sure and certain news of good,
  Or the fair tidings of a flatt’ring hope,
  That bids thee spread the light from shrine to shrine,        316
  I, fain to hear, yet grudge not if thou hide.
 
CLYTEMNESTRA


As saith the adage, From the womb of Night
Spring forth, with promise fair, the young child Light.
Ay—fairer even than all hope my news—        320
By Grecian hands is Priam’s city ta’en!
 
CHORUS


What say’st thou? doubtful heart makes treach’rous ear.
 
CLYTEMNESTRA


Hear then again, and plainly—Troy is ours!
 
CHORUS


Thrills thro’ my heart such joy as wakens tears.
        324
 
CLYTEMNESTRA


Ay, thro’ those tears thine eye looks loyalty.
 
CHORUS


But hast thou proof, to make assurance sure?
 
CLYTEMNESTRA


Go to; I have—unless the god has lied.
 
CHORUS


Hath some night-vision won thee to belief?
        328
 
CLYTEMNESTRA


Out on all presage of slumb’rous soul!
 
CHORUS


But wert thou cheered by Rumour’s wingless word?
 
CLYTEMNESTRA


Peace—thou dost chide me as a credulous girl.
 
CHORUS


Say then how long ago the city fell?
        332
 
CLYTEMNESTRA


Even in this night that now brings forth the dawn.
 
CHORUS


Yet who so swift could speed the message here?
 
CLYTEMNESTRA


From Ida’s top Hephæstus, lord of fire,
Sent forth his sign; and on, and ever on,        336
Beacon to beacon sped the courier-flame.
From Ida to the crag, that Hermes loves,
Of Lemnos; thence unto the steep sublime
Of Athos, throne of Zeus, the broad blaze flared.        340
Thence, raised aloft to shoot across the sea,
The moving light, rejoicing in its strength,
Sped from the pyre of pine, and urged its way,
In golden glory, like some strange new sun,        344
Onward, and reached Macistus’ watching heights.
There, with no dull delay nor heedless sleep,
The watcher sped the tidings on in turn,
Until the guard upon Messapius’ peak        348
Saw the far flame gleam on Euripus’ tide,
And from the high-piled heap of withered furze
Lit the new sign and bade the message on.
Then the strong light, far flown and yet undimmed,        352
Shot thro’ the sky above Asopus’ plain,
Bright as the moon, and on Cithæron’s crag
Aroused another watch of flying fire.
And there the sentinels no whit disowned,        356
But sent redoubled on, the hest of flame—
Swift shot the light, above Gorgopis’ bay,
To Ægiplanctus’ mount, and bade the peak
Fail not the onward ordinance of fire.        360
And like a long beard streaming in the wind,
Full-fed with fuel, roared and rose the blaze,
And onward flaring, gleamed above the cape,
Beneath which shimmers the Saronic bay,        364
And thence leapt light unto Arachne’s peak,
The mountain watch that looks upon our town.
Thence to th’ Atrides’ roof—in lineage fair,
A bright posterity of Ida’s fire.        368
So sped from stage to stage, fulfilled in turn,
Flame after flame, along the course ordained,
And lo! the last to speed upon its way
Sights the end first, and glows unto the goal.        372
And Troy is ta’en, and by this sign my lord
Tells me the tale, and ye have learned my word.
 
CHORUS


To heaven, O queen, will I upraise new song:
But, wouldst thou speak once more, I fain would hear        376
From first to last the marvel of the tale.
 
CLYTEMNESTRA


Think you—this very morn—the Greeks in Troy,
And loud therein the voice of utter wail!
Within one cup pour vinegar and oil,        380
And look! unblent, unreconciled, they war.
So in the twofold issue of the strife
Mingle the victor’s shout, the captives’ moan.
For all the conquered whom the sword has spared        384
Cling weeping—some unto a brother Slain,
Some childlike to a nursing father’s form,
And wail the loved and lost, the while their neck
Bows down already ’neath the captive’s chain.        388
And lo! the victors, now the fight is done,
Goaded by restless hunger, far and wide
Range all disordered thro’ the town, to snatch
Such vitual and such rest as chance may give        392
Within the captive halls that once were Troy—
Joyful to rid them of the frost and dew,
Wherein they couched upon the plain of old—
Joyful to sleep the gracious night all through,        396
Unsummoned of the watching sentinel.
Yet let them reverence well the city’s gods,
The lords of Troy, tho’ fallen, and her shrines;
So shall the spoilers not in turn be spoiled.        400
Yea, let no craving for forbidden gain
Bid conquerors yield before the darts of greed.
For we need yet, before the race be won,
Homewards, unharmed, to round the course once more.        404
For should the host wax wanton ere it come,
Then, tho’ the sudden blow of fate be spared,
Yet in the sight of gods shall rise once more
The great wrong of the slain, to claim revenge.        408
Now, hearing from this woman’s mouth of mine,
The tale and eke its warning, pray with me,
Luck sway the scale, with no uncertain poise,
For my fair hopes are changed to fairer joys.        412
 
CHORUS


A gracious word thy woman’s lips have told,
Worthy a wise man’s utterance, O my queen;
Now with clear trust in thy convincing tale
I set me to salute the gods with song,        416
Who bring us bliss to counterpoise our pain.  [Exit Clytemnestra.
 
Zeus, Lord of heaven! and welcome night
Of victory, that hast our might
  With all the glories crowned!        420
On towers of Ilion, free no more,
Hast flung the mighty mesh of war,
  And closely girt them round,
Till neither warrior may ’scape,        424
Nor stripling lightly overleap
The trammels as they close, and close,
Till with the grip of doom our foes
  In slavery’s coil are bound!        428
 
Zeus, Lord of hospitality,
In grateful awe I bend to thee—
  ’Tis thou hast struck the blow!
  At Alexander, long ago,        432
  We marked thee bend thy vengeful bow,
But long and warily withhold
The eager shaft, which uncontrolled
And loosed too soon or launched too high,        436
Had wandered bloodless through the sky.
 
Zeus, the high God!—whate’er be dim in doubt,
  This can our thought track out—
The blow that fells the sinner is of God,        440
  And as he wills, the rod
Of vengeance smiteth sore. One said of old,
  The gods list not to hold
A reckoning with him whose feet oppress        444
  The grace of holiness—
An impious word! for whensoe’er the sire
  Breathed forth rebellious fire—
What time his household overflowed the measure        448
  Of bliss and health and treasure—
His children’s children read the reckoning plain,
  At last, in tears and pain.
On me let weal that brings no woe be sent,        452
  And therewithal, content!
Who spurns the shrine of Right, nor wealth nor power
  Shall be to him a tower,
To guard him from the gulf: there lies his lot,        456
  Where all things are forgot.
Lust drives him on—lust, desperate and wild,
  Fate’s sin-contriving child—
And cure is none; beyond concealment clear,        460
  Kindles sin’s baleful glare.
As an ill coin beneath the wearing touch
  Betrays by stain and smutch
Its metal false—such is the sinful wight.        464
  Before, on pinions light,
Fair Pleasure flits, and lures him childlike on,
  While home and kin make moan
Beneath the grinding burden of his crime;        468
  Till, in the end of time,
Cast down of heaven, he pours forth fruitless prayer
  To powers that will not hear.
 
  And such did Paris come        472
  Unto Atrides’ home,
And thence, with sin and shame his welcome to repay,
  Ravished the wife away—
And she, unto her country and her kin        476
Leaving the clash of shields and spears and arming ships,
And bearing unto Troy destruction for a dower,
  And overbold in sin,
Went fleetly thro’ the gates, at midnight hour.        480
  Oft from the prophets’ lips
Moaned out the warning and the wail—Ah woe!
Woe for the home, the home! and for the chieftains, woe!
  Woe for the bride-bed, warm        484
Yet from the lovely limbs, the impress of the form
  Of her who loved her lord, a while ago!
    And woe! for him who stands
Shamed, silent, unreproachful, stretching hands        488
  That find her not, and sees, yet will not see,
      That she is far away!
And his sad fancy, yearning o’er the sea,
    Shall summon and recall        492
Her wraith, once more to queen it in his hall.
    And sad with many memories,
The fair cold beauty of each sculptured face—
  And all to hatefulness is turned their grace,        496
Seen blankly by forlorn and hungering eyes!
  And when the night is deep,
Come visions, sweet and sad, and bearing pain
 

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