E. Cobham Brewer 18101897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898.
Rouge et Noir (French, red and black).
A game of chance; so called because of the red and black diamonds marked on the board. The dealer deals out to noir first till the sum of the pips exceeds thirty, then to rouge in the same manner. That packet which comes nearest to thirty-one is the winner of the stakes.