E. Cobham Brewer 18101897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898.
Challenging a Jury.
This may be to object to all the jurors from some informality in the way they have been arrayed or empanelled, or to one or more of the jurors, from some real or supposed disqualification or bias of judgment. The word challenge is Norman, and is exactly equivalent to call out; hence we say Captain A challenged or called out Captain B.