E. Cobham Brewer 18101897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898.
(1) The greater is exclusion of an individual from the seven sacraments, from every legitimate act, and from all intercourse with the faithful. (2) The lesser excommunication is sequestration from the services of the Church only. The first Napoleon was excommunicated by Pope Pius VII., and the kings of Italy were placed under an anathema by Pius IX. for adding the Papal dominions to the United Kingdom of Italy.
The person excommunicated: Os, orre, vale, communio, mensâ, negatur (The person excommunicated is to be boycotted by the faithful in os (conversation), orre (prayer), communio (communion), mensâ (board).Professor T. P. Gury: Romish Moral Theology (3rd ed., 1862).
Excommunication by Bell, Book, and Candle. (See CURSING, etc.)
Excommunication by the ancient Jews. This was of three sorts(1) Nidui (separation), called in the New Testament casting out of the synagogue (John ix. 22); (2) Cherem, called by St. Paul delivering over to Satan (1 Cor. v. 5); (3) Anathema Maranatha (1 Cor. xvi. 22), delivered over to the Lord, who is at hand, to take vengeance. The Sadducees had an interdict called Tetragrammeton, which was cursing the offender by Jehovah, by the Decalogue, by the inferior courts, and with all the curses of the superior courts.