E. Cobham Brewer 18101897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898.
Animals in Christian Art.
The ant symbolises prudence; the ape, malice, lust, and cunning; the ass, sobriety, or the Jewish nation; the asp, Christ, or Christian faith; the bee, industry; the camel, submission; the cock, vigilance; the dog, fidelity; the fox, fraud and cunning; the hog, impurity; the lamb, innocence; the leopard, sin; the ox, pride; the wolf, cruelty.
Some animals are appropriated to certain saints: as the calf or ox to Luke; the cock to Petèr; the eagle to John the Divine; the lion to Mark; the raven to Benedict, etc.
The lamb, the pelican, and the unicorn, are symbols of Christ.
The dragon, serpent, and swine, symbolise Satan and his crew.