In cake making (1) the best ingredients are essential; (2) great care must be taken in measuring and combining ingredients; (3) pans must be properly prepared; (4) oven heat must be regulated, and cake watched during baking.
Best tub butter, fine granulated sugar, fresh eggs, and pastry flour are essentials for good cake. Coarse granulated sugar, bought by so many, if used in cake making, gives a coarse texture and hard crust. Pastry flour contains more starch and less gluten than bread flour, therefore makes a lighter, more tender cake. If bread flour must be used, allow two tablespoons less for each cup than the recipe calls for. Flour differs greatly in thickening properties; for this reason it is always well when using from a new bag to try a small cake, as the amount of flour given may not make the perfect loaf. In winter, cake may be made of less flour than in summer.
To Mix Sponge Cake. Separate yolks from whites of eggs. Beat yolks until thick and lemon-colored, using an egg-beater; add sugar gradually, and continue beating; then add flavoring. Beat whites until stiff and dry,when they will fly from the beater,and add to the first mixture. Mix and sift flour with salt, and cut and fold in at the last. If mixture is beaten after the addition of flour, much of the work already done of enclosing a large amount of air will be undone by breaking air bubbles. These rules apply to a mixture where baking powder is not employed.
To Mix Butter Cakes. An earthen bowl should always be used for mixing cake, and a wooden cake-spoon with slits lightens the labor. Measure dry ingredients, and mix and sift baking powder and spices, if used, with flour. Count out number of eggs required, breaking each separately that there may be no loss should a stale egg chance to be found in the number, separating yolks from whites if rule so specifies. Measure butter, then liquid. Having everything in readiness, the mixing may be quickly accomplished. If butter is very hard, by allowing it to stand a short time in a warm room it is measured and creamed much easier. If time cannot be allowed for this to be done, warm bowl by pouring in some hot water, letting stand one minute, then emptying and wiping dry. Avoid overheating bowl, as butter will become oily rather than creamy. Put butter in bowl, and cream by working with a wooden spoon until soft and of a creamy consistency; then add sugar gradually, and continue beating. Add yolks of eggs or whole eggs beaten until light, liquid, and flour mixed and sifted with baking powder; or liquid and flour may be added alternately. When yolks and whites of eggs are beaten separately, whites are usually added at the last, as is the case when whites of eggs alone are used. A cake can be made fine-grained only by long beating, although light and delicate with a small amount of beating. Never stir cake after the final beating, remembering that beating motion should always be the last used. Fruit, when added to cake, is usually floured to prevent its settling to the bottom. This is not necessary if it is added directly after the sugar, which is desirable in all dark cakes. If a light fruit cake is made, fruit added in this way discolors the loaf. Citron is first cut in thin slices, then in strips, floured, and put in between layers of cake mixtures. Raisins are seeded and cut, rather than chopped. To seed raisins, wet tips of fingers in a cup of warm water. Then break skins with fingers or cut with a vegetable knife; remove seeds, and put in cup of water. This is better than covering raisins with warm water; if this be done, water clings to fruit, and when dredged with flour a pasty mass is formed on the outside. Washed currants, put up in packages, are quite free from stems and foreign substances, and need only picking over and rolling in flour. Currants bought in bulk need thorough cleaning. First roll in flour, which helps to start dirt; wash in cold water, drain, and spread to dry; then roll again in flour before using.
To Butter and Fill Pans Grease pans with melted fat, applying the same with a butter brush. If butter is used, put in a small saucepan and place on back of range; when melted, salt will settle to the bottom; butter is then called clarified. Just before putting in mixture, dredge pans thoroughly with flour, invert, and shake pan to remove all superfluous flour, leaving only a thin coating which adheres to butter. This gives to cake a smooth under surface, which is especially desirable if cake is to be frosted. Pans may be lined with paper. If this is done, paper should just cover bottom of pan and project over sides. Then ends of pan and paper are buttered.
In filling pans, have the mixture come well to the corners and sides of pans, leaving a slight depression in the centre, and when baked the cake will be perfectly flat on top. Cake pans should be filled nearly two-thirds full if cake is expected to rise to top of pan.
To Bake Cake. The baking of cake is more critical than the mixing. Many a well-mixed cake has been spoiled in the baking. No oven thermometer has yet proved practical, and although many teachers of cookery have given oven tests, experience alone has proved the most reliable teacher. In baking cake, divide the time required into quarters. During the first quarter the mixture should begin to rise; second quarter, continue rising and begin to brown; third quarter, continue browning; fourth quarter, finish baking and shrink from pan. If oven is too hot, open check and raise back covers, or leave oven door ajar. It is sometimes necessary to cover cake with brown paper; there is, however, danger of cake adhering to paper. Cake should be often looked at during baking, and providing oven door is opened and closed carefully, there is no danger of this causing cake to fall. Cake should not be moved in oven until it has risen its full height; after this it is usually desirable to move it that it may be evenly browned. Cake when done shrinks from the pan, and in most cases this is a sufficient test; however, in pound cakes this rule does not apply. Pound and rich fruit cakes are tested by pressing surface with tip of finger. If cake feels firm to touch and follows finger back into place, it is safe to remove it from the oven. When baking cake arrange to have nothing else in the oven, and place loaf or loaves as near the centre of oven as possible. If placed close to fire box, one side of loaf is apt to become burned before sufficiently risen to turn. If cake is put in too slow an oven, it often rises over sides of pan and is of very coarse texture; if put in too hot an oven, it browns on top before sufficiently risen, and in its attempt to rise breaks through the crust, thus making an unsightly loaf. Cake will also crack on top if too much flour has been used. The oven should be kept at as nearly uniform temperature as possible. Small and layer cakes require a hotter oven than loaf cakes.
To Remove Cake From Pans. Remove cake from pans as soon as it comes from the oven, by inverting pan on a wire cake cooler, or on a board covered with a piece of old linen. If cake is inclined to stick, do not hurry it from pan, but loosen with knife around edges, and rest pan on its four sides successively; thus by its own weight cake may be helped out.
To Frost Cake. Where cooked frostings are used, it makes but little difference whether they are spread on hot or cold cake. Where uncooked frostings are used, it is best to have the cake slightly warm, with the exception of Confectioners Frosting, where boiling water is employed.
Beat yolks of eggs until thick and lemon-colored, add one-half the sugar gradually, and continue beating; then add water, remaining sugar, lemon extract, whites of eggs beaten until stiff, and flour mixed and sifted with baking powder and salt. Bake twenty-five minutes in a moderate oven in a buttered and floured shallow pan.
Beat yolks of eggs until thick and lemon-colored, add sugar gradually, and continue beating; then add water, flour mixed and sifted with baking powder and salt, whites of eggs beaten until stiff, and vinegar. Bake thirty-five minutes in a moderate oven, in a buttered and floured cake pan.
Beat yolks of eggs and water until thick and lemon-colored, add sugar gradually, and beat two minutes. Put corn-starch in a cup and fill cup with flour. Mix and sift corn-starch and flour with baking powder and salt, and add to first mixture. When thoroughly mixed add whites of eggs beaten until stiff, and flavoring. Bake thirty minutes in a moderate oven. This is an excellent mixture to use for whipped cream pies or to bake in an angel cake pan.
Follow recipe for Cream Sponge Cake. Bake in a shallow pan, cool, and shape, using a small round cutter. Split, and remove a small portion of cake from the centre of each piece. Fill cavities of one-half the pieces with whipped cream sweetened and flavored, cover with remaining pieces, and press firmly together. Nuts or glacé fruits cut in pieces may be added to cream. Melt fondant, color, and flavor to taste. Dip cakes in fondant, decorate tops with pistachio nuts, violets, or glacé cherries, and place each in a paper case.
Beat yolks until thick and lemon-colored, add sugar gradually, and continue beating, using egg-beater. Add lemon juice, rind, and whites of eggs beaten until stiff and dry. When whites are partially mixed with yolks, remove beater, and carefully cut and fold in flour mixed and sifted with salt. Bake one hour in a slow oven, in an angel cake pan or deep narrow pan.
Genuine sponge cake contains no rising properties, but is made light by the quantity of air beaten into both yolks and whites of eggs, and the expansion of that air in baking. It requires a slow oven. All so-called sponge cakes which have the addition of soda and cream of tartar or baking powder require same oven temperature as butter cakes. When failures are made in Sunshine and Angel Cake, they are usually traced to baking in too slow an oven, and removing from oven before thoroughly cooked.
Beat whites of eggs until stiff and dry, add sugar gradually, and continue beating; then add yolks of eggs beaten until thick and lemon-colored, and extract. Cut and fold in flour mixed and sifted with cream of tartar. Bake fifty minutes in a moderate oven in an angel-cake pan.
To one-half recipe for Sunshine Cake add one-half cup English walnut meats broken in pieces. Bake in a mediumsized angel-cake pan; cool, split, and fill with whipped cream sweetened and flavored with coffee essence. Cover top with Confectioners Frosting, flavored with coffee essence.
Beat whites of eggs until frothy; add cream of tartar, and continue beating until eggs are stiff; then add sugar gradually. Fold in flour mixed with salt and sifted four times, and add vanilla. Bake forty-five to fifty minutes in an unbuttered angel-cake pan. After cake has risen and begins to brown, cover with a buttered paper.
Add salt to whites of eggs and beat until light. Sift in cream of tartar and beat until stiff. Beat yolks of eggs until thick and lemon colored and add two heaping tablespoons beaten whites. To remaining whites add gradually sugar measured after five siftings. Add almond extract and combine mixtures. Cut and fold in flour, measured after five siftings. Bake in angel-cake pan, first dipped in cold water, in a slow oven one hour. Have a pan of hot water in oven during the baking. Cover with
Maraschino Frosting. Follow recipe for Ice Cream Frosting , adding to sugar one-half teaspoon cream of tartar, and flavor with maraschino. Sprinkle with almonds blanched, shredded, and baked until delicately browned.
Beat whites of eggs until stiff and dry, add sugar gradually, and continue beating. Then add yolks of eggs beaten until thick and lemon-colored, and flavoring. Cut and fold in flour mixed and sifted with salt. Shape four and one-half inches long and one inch wide on a tin sheet covered with unbuttered paper, using a pastry bag and tube. Sprinkle with powdered sugar, and bake eight minutes in a moderate oven. Remove from paper with a knife. Lady Fingers are much used for lining moulds that are to be filled with whipped cream mixtures. They are often served with frozen desserts, and sometimes put together in pairs with a thin coating of whipped cream between, when they are attractive for childrens parties.
1/2 cup Jordan almonds, blanched and finely chopped
1 cup powdered sugar
1/3 cup grated chocolate
1 teaspoon baking powder
3/4 cup cracker dust
Beat yolks of eggs until thick and lemon-colored; add sugar gradually, then fold in white of eggs beaten until stiff and dry. Add chocolate, almonds, baking powder, and cracker dust. Bake in a round pan. Cool, split, and put whipped cream, sweetened and flavored, between and on top. Garnish with angelica and candied cherries. This makes a most attractive dessert when baked in individual tins. As soon as cool, remove centres, and fill with whipped cream, forced through a pastry bag.
Beat egg until light, add sugar gradually, milk, flour mixed and sifted with baking powder and salt, then butter. Line the bottom of a dripping-pan with paper; butter paper and sides of pan. Cover bottom of pan with mixture, and spread evenly. Bake twelve minutes in a moderate oven. Take from oven and turn on a paper sprinkled with powdered sugar. Quickly remove paper, and cut off a thin strip from sides and ends of cake. Spread with jelly or jam which has been beaten to consistency to spread easily, and roll. After cake has been rolled, roll paper around cake that it may better keep in shape. The work must be done quickly, or cake will crack in rolling.
Work butter into dough, using the hand. Add egg well beaten, sugar, milk, fruit dredged with two tablespoons flour, and flour mixed and sifted with remaining ingredients. Put into a well-buttered bread pan, cover, and let rise one and one-fourth hours. Bake one hour in a slow oven. Cover with Boiled Milk Frosting.
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and egg well beaten. Mix and sift flour and baking powder, add alternately with milk to first mixture. Bake thirty minutes in a shallow pan. Spread with Chocolate Frosting.
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and yolks of eggs well beaten, then whites of eggs beaten until stiff. Add milk, flour mixed and sifted with baking powder, and beat thoroughly. Then add chocolate and vanilla. Bake forty minutes in a shallow cake pan.
Cream the butter; add sugar gradually, milk, and flour mixed and sifted with soda and cream of tartar. Beat whites of eggs, and add to first mixture; then add chocolate, and beat thoroughly. Bake forty-five minutes in a moderate oven.
Follow recipe for Chocolate Cake II. As soon as cake is removed from pan, cover bottom with marshmallows pulled apart with tips of fingers, but not quite separated into halves. The exposed soft surface will quickly adhere to hot cake. Pour over Chocolate Fudge Frosting.
Cream the butter, add gradually one and one-half cups sugar, and egg unbeaten; when well mixed, add two-thirds milk, flour mixed and sifted with baking powder, and vanilla. To melted chocolate add one-third cup powdered sugar, place on range, add gradually remaining milk, and cook until smooth. Cool slightly, and add to cake mixture. Bake fifteen to twenty minutes in round layer cake pans. Put between layers and on top of cake White Mountain Cream sprinkled with almonds.
Mix nut meats, figs, and dates, and force through a meat chopper, or chop finely. Add remaining ingredients, toss on a board sprinkled with powdered sugar, and roll to one-third inch in thickness. Cut in domino shapes, spread thinly with melted unsweetened chocolate, and decorate with small pieces blanched almonds to imitate dominoes.
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, eggs well beaten, and milk. Then add flour mixed and sifted with baking powder. Bake in a thin sheet in a dripping-pan. Cut in halves, spread one-half with Orange Filling. Put over other half, and cover with Orange Frosting.
Put ingredients in a bowl and beat all together for three minutes, using a wooden cake spoon. Bake in a buttered and floured cake pan thirty-five to forty minutes. If directions are followed this makes a most satisfactory cake; but if ingredients are added separately it will not prove a success.
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, eggs beaten until light, then milk and flour mixed and sifted with baking powder. This recipe makes two loaves, or one-half the mixture may be baked in individual tins.
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, yolks of eggs well beaten, milk, and flour mixed and sifted with baking powder. Beat whites of eggs until stiff, and add to first mixture, then add brandy and citron. Bake in a moderate oven one hour.
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, yolks of eggs well beaten, and water. Mix and sift flour, corn-starch, and baking powder, and add to first mixture; then add whites of eggs beaten until stiff. After putting in pan, cover with almonds and sprinkle with powdered sugar. Bake forty minutes in a moderate oven.
Put butter and sugar in a bowl, and stir until well mixed; add eggs well beaten, then milk, and flour mixed and sifted with baking powder and mace. Bake in individual tins. Cover with Chocolate Frosting.
Cream the butter; add cocoa, yolks of eggs well beaten, sugar mixed with cinnamon and clove, and water. Beat the whites of eggs, and add to first mixture alternately with flour mixed and sifted with baking powder. Bake in small tins from fifteen to twenty minutes.
Cream the butter, and add gradually one-half the sugar. Beat yolks of eggs until thick and lemon-colored, and add gradually remaining sugar. Combine mixtures, and add alternately milk and flour mixed and sifted with baking powder and salt; then add whites of eggs beaten stiff, chocolate melted, and vanilla. Bake forty-five to fifty minutes in an angel cake pan. Cover with White Mountain Cream .
Melt chocolate over hot water, add one-half cup sugar, and gradually sweet milk; then add yolk of egg, and cook until mixture thickens. Set aside to cool. Cream the butter, add gradually one-half cup sugar, egg well beaten, sour milk, and flour mixed and sifted with soda. Combine mixtures and add vanilla. Bake in shallow cake pans, and put between and on top boiled frosting. Add to filling one-fourth cup raisins seeded and cut in pieces, if desired.
Mix ingredients in order given, and bake in small tins. Remove from tins, cool, take out a small portion of cake from the centre of each, and fill cavity with marmalade. Cover tops of cake with Marshmallow Frosting or Chocolate Frosting IV.
Cover fruit with brandy and let stand several hours. Mix ingredients in order given, and bake in deep cake pan fifty minutes. Cover with White Mountain Cream, and as soon as frosting is set, spread as thinly as possible with melted chocolate.
Mix first seven ingredients in order given. Bake two-thirds of the mixture in two layer-cake pans. To the remainder add spices, fruit, and molasses, and bake in a layer-cake pan. Put layers together with jelly (apple usually being preferred, as it has less flavor), having the dark layer in the centre.
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, egg and yolks of eggs well beaten, molasses, milk, flour, mixed and sifted with spices, cayenne, and lemon rind. Bake in a moderate oven one hour, and cover with White Mountain Cream .
Pound nut meat and mix with sugar and flour. Beat whites of eggs until stiff, add first mixture and vanilla. Drop from tip of tablespoon (allowing one spoonful for each cake) on a tin sheet covered with buttered paper. Bake twenty minutes in a moderate oven.
To Fig Éclair mixture add one-half cup raisins seeded and cut in pieces, two ounces citron thinly sliced and cut in strips, and one-third cup walnut meat cut in pieces. In making mixture, reserve one tablespoon flour to use for dredging fruit.
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and yolks of eggs beaten until thick and lemon-colored, and extract. Mix and sift flour and baking powder, and add alternately with milk to first mixture. Omit orange extract, add one-half cup nut meat cut in small pieces, and bake in individual tins.
Bake a sponge cake mixture in sheets. Shape in small rounds, and cut in three layers. Put layers together with a thin coating of frosting. Spread frosting around sides and roll in shredded cocoanut. Ornament top with frosting forced through a pastry bag and tube, using the rose tube. Begin at centre of top and coil frosting around until surface is covered. Garnish centre of top with a candied cherry.
Frosting. Wash one-third cup butter, add one cup powdered sugar gradually, and beat until creamy. Then add one cup Cream Filling which has been cooled. Flavor with one-half teaspoon vanilla and one and one-half squares melted chocolate.
This frosting is sometimes colored pink, yellow, green, or lavender, and flavored with rose, vanilla, or a combination of almond and vanilla. Large Mocha Cakes are baked in two round layer cake tins, each cake being cut in two layers. Layers are put together as small cakes. The top is spread smoothly with frosting, then ornamented with large pieces of candied fruits arranged in a design, and frosting forced through pastry bag and tube.
Pour butter and water in saucepan and place on front of range. As soon as boiling-point is reached, add flour all at once, and stir vigorously. Remove from fire as soon as mixed, and add unbeaten eggs one at a time, beating, until thoroughly mixed, between the addition of eggs. Drop by spoonfuls on a buttered sheet, one and one-half inches apart, shaping with handle of spoon as nearly circular as possible, having mixture slightly piled in centre. Bake thirty minutes in a moderate oven. With a sharp knife make a cut in each large enough to admit of Cream Filling. This recipe makes eighteen small cream cakes. For flavoring cream filling use lemon extract. If cream cakes are removed from oven before being thoroughly cooked, they will fall. If in doubt, take one from oven, and if it does not fall, this is sufficient proof that others are cooked.
Shape cream cake mixture four and one-half inches long by one inch wide, by forcing through a pastry bag and tube. Bake twenty-five minutes in a moderate oven. Split, and fill with vanilla, coffee, or chocolate cream filling. Frost with Confectioners Frosting to which is added one-third cup melted Fondant, dipping top of éclairs in frosting while it is hot.
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and continue beating. Then add grated rind, lemon juice, and yolks of eggs beaten until thick and lemon-colored. Mix and sift soda, salt, and flour; add to first mixture and beat thoroughly. Add whites of eggs beaten stiff. Bake from twenty to twenty-five minutes in small tins.
Cream the butter, add flour gradually, mixed and sifted with soda, then add lemon juice. Beat whites of eggs until stiff; add sugar gradually, and combine the mixtures. Bake fifty minutes in a long shallow pan. Cover with Opera Caramel Frosting.
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and continue beating; then add yolks of eggs beaten until thick and lemon-colored, whites of eggs beaten until stiff and dry, flour, mace, and brandy. Beat vigorously five minutes. Bake in a deep pan one and one-fourth hours in a slow oven; or if to be used for fancy ornamented cakes, bake thirty to thirty-five minutes in a dripping-pan.
Cream the butter, and add flour gradually, mixed and sifted with ginger. Beat the yolks of the eggs until thick and lemon-colored, and add sugar gradually. Combine mixtures, add whites of eggs, beaten until stiff, and sift over baking powder. Beat thoroughly, turn into a buttered deep cake pan, and bake one hour in a moderate oven.
Bake Newport Pound Cake in golden-rod pans, cut in fourths crosswise, spread with Ice Cream Frosting, and garnish with green leaves, made from ornamental frosting, and round red candies to imitate berries.
Cream one-half pound butter and add gradually one-half pound sugar, continuing the beating. Add three-fourths pound flour, mixed and sifted with two teaspoons baking powder alternately with four eggs beaten until thick and lemon-colored; then add one-half pound Canton ginger cut in small pieces. Bake in small buttered and floured individual cake pans in a slow oven. Cover with White Mountain Cream .
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, eggs well beaten, and milk and molasses. Mix and sift flour with soda and spices, and add to first mixture, then add fruit. Bake in small buttered tins from twenty-five to thirty minutes in a moderate oven. This recipe makes twenty-four little cakes.
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and beat thoroughly. Separate yolks from whites of eggs; beat yolks until thick and lemon-colored, whites until stiff and dry, and add to first mixture. Then add milk, fruit, nuts, and flour mixed and sifted with mace, cinnamon, and soda. Put in buttered deep pans, cover with buttered paper, steam three hours, and bake one and one half hours in a slow oven, or bake four hours in a very slow oven. Rich fruit cake is always more satisfactory when done if the cooking is accomplished by steaming.
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and beat thoroughly. Separate yolks from whites of eggs, beat yolks until thick and lemon-colored, whites until stiff and dry, and add to first mixture. Add flour (excepting one-third cup, which should be reserved to dredge fruit) mixed and sifted with spices, brandy, and lemon juice. Then add fruit, except citron, dredged with reserved flour. Dredge citron with flour and put in layers between cake mixture when putting in the pan. Bake same as English Fruit Cake.
Cream the butter, add sugar gradually, and beat thoroughly. Separate yolks from whites of eggs, and beat yolks until thick and lemon-colored. Add to first mixture, then add flour (excepting one third cup, which should be reserved to dredge fruit), mixed and sifted with spices, fruit dredged with flour, lemon rind and orange rind finely chopped, brandy. chocolate, and whites of eggs beaten until stiff and dry. Just before putting into pans, add soda dissolved in hot water. Cover pans with buttered paper, and steam four hours. Finish cooking by leaving in a warm oven over night.