JELLIES, JAMS, AND MARMALADES.
|JELLIES are made of cooked fruit juice and sugar, in nearly all cases the proportions being equal. Where failures occur, they may usually be traced to the use of too ripe fruit.
| To Prepare Glasses for Jelly. Wash glasses and put in a kettle of cold water; place on range, and heat water gradually to boiling-point. Remove glasses, and drain. Place glasses while filling on a cloth wrung out of hot water.
| To Cover Jelly Glasses. Cut letter paper in circular pieces just to fit in top of glasses. Dip in brandy, and cover jelly. Put on tin covers or circular pieces of paper cut larger than the glasses, and fastened securely over the edge with mucilage. Some prefer to cover jelly with melted paraffine than to adjust covers.
| To Make a Jelly Bag. Fold two opposite corners of a piece of cotton and wool flannel three-fourths yard long. Sew up in the form of a cornucopia, rounding at the end. Fell the seam to make more secure. Bind the top with tape, and furnish with two or three heavy loops by which it may be hung.
| Apple Jelly
Wipe apples, remove stem and blossom ends, and cut in quarters. Put in a granite or porcelain-lined preserving kettle, and add cold water to come nearly to top of apples. Cover, and cook slowly until apples are soft; mash, and drain through a coarse sieve. Avoid squeezing apples, which makes jelly cloudy. Then allow juice to drip through a double thickness of cheese-cloth or a jelly bag. Boil twenty minutes, and add an equal quantity of heated sugar; boil five minutes, skim, and turn in glasses. Put in a sunny window, and let stand twenty-four hours. Cover, and keep in a cool, dry place. Porter apples make a delicious flavored jelly. If apples are pared, a much lighter jelly may be made. Gravenstein apples make a very spicy jelly.
| To Heat Sugar. Put in a granite dish, place in oven, leaving oven door ajar, and stir occasionally.
| Quince Jelly
Follow recipe for Apple Jelly, using quinces in place of apples, and removing seeds from fruit. Quince parings are often used for jelly, the better part of the fruit being used for canning.
| Crab Apple Jelly
Follow recipe for Apple Jelly, leaving apples whole instead of cutting in quarters.
| Currant Jelly
Currants are in the best condition for making jelly between June twenty-eighth and July third, and should not be picked directly after a rain. Cherry currants make the best jelly. Equal proportions of red and white currants are considered desirable, and make a lighter colored jelly.
| Pick over currants, but do not remove stems; wash and drain. Mash a few in the bottom of a preserving kettle, using a wooden potato masher; so continue until berries are used. Cook slowly until currants look white. Strain through a coarse strainer, then allow juice to drop through a double thickness of cheese-cloth or a jelly bag. Measure, bring to boiling-point, and boil five minutes; add an equal measure of heated sugar, boil three minutes, skim, and pour into glasses. Place in a sunny window, and let stand twenty-four hours. Cover, and keep in a cool, dry place.
| Currant and Raspberry Jelly
Follow recipe for Currant Jelly, using equal parts of currants and raspberries.
| Blackberry Jelly
Follow recipe for Currant Jelly, using blackberries in place of currants.
| Raspberry Jelly
Follow recipe for Currant Jelly, using raspberries in place of currants. Raspberry Jelly is the most critical to make, and should not be attempted if fruit is thoroughly ripe, or if it has been long picked.
| Barberry Jelly
Barberry Jelly is firmer and of better color if made from fruit picked before the frost comes, while some of the berries are still green. Make same as Currant Jelly, allowing one cup water to one peck barberries.
| Grape Jelly
Grapes should be picked over, washed, and stems removed before putting into a preserving kettle. Heat to boiling-point, mash, and boil thirty minutes; then proceed as for Currant Jelly. Wild grapes make the best jelly.
| Green Grape Jelly
Grapes should be picked when just beginning to turn. Make same as Grape Jelly.
| Venison Jelly
Put first four ingredients into a preserving kettle, heat slowly to the boiling-point, and cook until grapes are soft. Strain through a double thickness of cheese-cloth or a jelly bag, and boil liquid twenty minutes; then add sugar heated, and boil five minutes. Turn into glasses.
|1 peck wild grapes||Whole cloves||1/4 cup each|
|1 quart vinegar||Stick cinnamon|
|6 pounds sugar|
| Damson Jelly
Wipe and pick over damsons; then prick several times with a large pin. Make same as Currant Jelly, using three-fourths as much sugar as fruit juice.
|Raspberries and blackberries are the fruits most often employed for making jams, and require equal weight of sugar and fruit.
| Raspberry Jam
Pick over raspberries. Mash a few in the bottom of a preserving kettle, using a wooden potato masher, and so continue until the fruit is used. Heat slowly to boiling-point, and add gradually an equal quantity of heated sugar. Cook slowly forty-five minutes. Put in a stone jar or tumblers.
| Blackberry Jam
Follow recipe for Raspberry Jam, using blackberries in place of raspberries.
|Marmalades are made of the pulp and juice of fruits with sugar.
| Grape Marmalade
Pick over, wash, drain, and remove stems from grapes. Separate pulp from skins. Put pulp in preserving kettle. Heat to boiling-point, and cook slowly until seeds separate from pulp; then rub through a hair sieve. Return to kettle with skins, add an equal measure of sugar, and cook slowly thirty minutes, occasionally stirring to prevent burning. Put in a stone jar or tumblers.
| Quince Marmalade
Wipe quinces, remove blossom ends, cut in quarters, remove seeds; then cut in small pieces. Put into a preserving kettle, and add enough water to nearly cover. Cook slowly until soft. Rub through a hair sieve, and add three-fourths its measure of heated sugar. Cook slowly twenty minutes, stirring occasionally to prevent burning. Put in tumblers.
| Orange Marmalade I
Select sour, smooth-skinned oranges. Weigh oranges, and allow three-fourths their weight in cut sugar. Remove peel from oranges in quarters. Cook peel until soft in enough boiling water to cover; drain, remove white part from peel by scraping it with a spoon. Cut thin yellow rind in strips, using a pair of scissors. This is more quickly accomplished by cutting through two or three pieces at a time. Divide oranges in sections, remove seeds and tough part of the skin. Put into a preserving kettle and heat to boiling-point, add sugar gradually, and cook slowly one hour; add rind, and cook one hour longer. Turn into glasses.
| Orange Marmalade II
Slice nine oranges and six lemons crosswise with a sharp knife as thinly as possible, remove seeds, and put in a preserving kettle with four quarts water. Cover, and let stand thirty-six hours; then boil for two hours, add eight pounds sugar, and boil one hour longer.
| Orange and Rhubarb Marmalade
Remove peel in quarters from eight oranges and prepare as for Orange Marmalade. Divide oranges in sections, remove seeds and tough part of skin. Put into a preserving kettle, add five pounds rhubarb, skinned and cut in one-half inch pieces. Heat to boiling-point, and boil one-half hour; then add four pounds cut sugar and cut rind. Cook slowly two hours. Turn into glasses.
| Quince Honey
Pare and grate five large quinces. To one pint boiling water add five pounds sugar. Stir over fire until sugar is dissolved, add quince, and cook fifteen or twenty minutes. Turn into glasses. When cold it should be about the color and consistency of honey.