Reference > Farmer's Cookbook > FOOD VALUES
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Chapter XLII. 
FOOD VALUES
.
 
A STUDY of food values is essential for the making of properly balanced menus. A minimum of time devoted to this subject will give one a working knowledge which will prove of inestimable value.   1
  The energy value of foods and the energy requirements of the body are estimated in calories. Requirements of:
  • When sleeping .4 calorie per pound of body weight per hour.
  • At slight exercise .6 calorie per pound of body weight per hour.
     Examples: At meals, sewing, reading, writing, etc.
  • At light exercise 1 calorie per pound of body weight per hour.
     Examples: Standing and walking.
  • At active muscular exercise 2 calories per pound of body weight per hour.
     Examples: General housework, carpentering, tennis, etc.
  • At severe muscular exercise 3 calories per pound of body weight per hour.
     Examples: Digging, horseshoeing, football, etc.
  • Children
    Age
    1–2 years900–1200 calories per day
    2–5 years1200–1500 calories per day
    6–9 years1400–2000 calories per day
    10–13 years1800–2200 calories per day
    14–20 years2300–5000 calories per day
    Adults
    Age
    20–60 years
    60–70 years10% reduction
    70–80 years20% reduction
    80–90 years30% reduction
      2

    How to Determine the Number of Calories Required Daily by an Individual Using the Above Table
    Woman. Age 35. Weight 125
    Sleeping8 hours
    Slight exercise: At meals, sewing, reading, etc.8 hours
    At light exercise: Standing and walking6 hours
    At active muscular exercise: General housework2 hours
    8 * .4 calorie= 3.2 calories
    8 * .6 calorie= 4.8 calories
    6 * 1 calorie= 6 calories
    2 * 2 calories= 4 calories

    = 18 calories required per pound of body weight
    125 * 18 calories = 2250 calories for day’s requirement.
      3
      Other calculations show that the needs of a person estimated in calories vary from twenty-two to thirty-five hundred for one day. Of this amount from ten to fifteen per cent (220 to 425 calories) should come from protein foods and .015 iron gram should be furnished.   4
      It is not necessary to consider the amount of calcium (of which .7 gram is the daily requirement) if one pint of milk is supplied for each person. An adequate milk supply will furnish also one-third the amount of phosphorus required, making this calculation practically unnecessary.   5
      Foods rich in fats have the highest caloric value, while foods rich in protein, sugar, and starch have greater caloric value than those containing much water.   6
      The following table will enable one to calculate quickly the number of calories, protein calories, and grams of iron supplied by the more common foods. The figures for the most part are given in hundreds and even numbers to facilitate this calculation. They therefore vary slightly from those found in Bulletin 28, Department of Agriculture, but seem, nevertheless, especially well adapted for everyday use, for investigation shows that even the best authorities differ.   7
      “The Laboratory Manual of Dietetics” by Professor Mary Swartz Rose and “Science and Nutrition” by Graham Lusk are valuable books to consult for the further consideration of this important subject.   8

    TABLE OF FOOD VALUES OF THE MORE COMMON FOODS
    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams
    Almonds1 cup shelled4 oz.70095.0021
    Apples2 qts.3 lbs.60016.0030
    Apricots, Dried32/3 cups (56 halves)1 lb.120084
    Asparagus1 can1 lb. net8027.0038
    Fresh20 large stalks1 lb.10032.0043
    Bacon, Smoked1 lb.2600172.0052
    Bananas3 large1 lb.30014.0018
    Barley, Pearl2 cups1 lb.1600154.0057
    Beans, String1 can1 lb. 4 oz.11024.0040
    1 qt.12 oz.13028.0059
    Dried2 cups1 lb.1500408.0300
    Dried Lima2 cups1 lb.1500328.0292
    Beef, Corned1 lb.1200259.0093
    Dried, Salted, or Smoked1 lb.800544.0200
    Liver1 lb.600350.0118
    Porterhouse Steak1 lb.1000346.0120
    Roast1 lb.1550428.0155
    Round, Lean1 lb.650353.0130
    Rump, Lean1 lb.800346.0120
    Beets1 pt.1 lb.20023.0026
    Bread, Bakers’1 loaf1 lb.1100168.0033
    Graham1 loaf1 lb.1100160.0143
    Bread Crumbs1 cup23/4 oz.200128.0006
    Butter1 tbsp1/2 oz.100
    2 cups1 lb.340018
    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams
    Cabbage1/4 head1 lb.12025.0042
    Carrot3 large1 lb.15016.0024
    Cauliflower1 very small head11 oz.10023
    Celery1 bunch1 lb.6016.0016
    Cheese, American1 lb.2000522
    Neufchatel1 cheese21/2 oz.22552
    Cherries, Candied10 medium1 oz.100
    Chicken, Broilers1 lb.300232
    Chocolate
    Unsweetened1 cake8 oz.1400118
    Citron1 lb.14009
    Clams, Round1 pt.1 lb.200117
    Cocoa1 box1/2 lb.1100195
    Cocoanut, Shredded1 cup24/5 oz.50020
    Corn, Canned1 can1 lb. 4 oz.55063.0031
    Corn Meal3 cups1 lb.1600166.0048
    Cornstarch1 cup41/2 oz.4500
    Crackers, Unsweetened1 lb.1800176.0063
    Cranberries1 qt.1 lb.2007.0026
    Cream, Heavy1/2 pt.8 oz.80019.0008
    Thin1/2 pt.8 oz.44023.0004
    Cucumbers2 medium1 lb.6812
    Currants, Dried23/8 cup1 lb.140043
    Dates, Unstoned1 package10 oz.85021.008
    Egg12 oz.7525.0014
    Flour1 cup4 oz.40050.0016
    Entire Wheat1 cup4 oz.40062.0053
    Graham1 cup5 oz.50075.0066
    Fish
    Haddock1 lb.160152.0016
    Halibut Steak1 lb.550337.0011
    Lobsters1 lb.140107
    Oysters, Solid1 cup200100
    Salmon, Canned1 lb.660353.0026
    Fowl1 lb.750248.0097
    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams
    Grapes13/4 cup1 lb.32823.0042
    Ham, Smoked, Medium Fat1 lb.1600248.0096
    Hominy, Raw1 cup6 oz.60056
    Lamb, Leg, Medium Fat1 lb.800288.0104
    Loin1 lb.1200290.0120
    Shoulder1 lb.1200261.0096
    Chops, Broiled1 lb.1400332.0126
    Leg, Hind Quarter, Medium Fat1 lb.850288.0110
    Lemons2 large111/2 oz.1009.0013
    Lard1 cup8 oz.20000
    Lentils, Dried21/3 cups1 lb.1581466.0096
    Lettuce1 head9 oz.5012.0025
    Macaroni, Uncooked1 cup4 oz.40060
    Milk, Skim1 cup81/2 oz.8032.0050
    Whole1 cup81/2 oz.17034.0005
    Molasses, Cane1 cup12 oz.90033
    Mushrooms441 lb.20063
    Oats, Rolled1 cup23/4 oz.30048.0027
    Oil, Salad or Cooking1 tbsp.2/5 oz.1000
    Onions41/2 large1 lb.20025.0022
    Orange Juice1 cup8 oz.1000
    Oranges1 large9.5 oz.1006.0006
    Peanuts1 cup shelled51/3 oz.800156.0028
    Peas, Canned1 can1 lb. 4 oz.30078.0045
    Dried1 cup8 oz.800222.0120
    Pecans, Shelled1 cup51/3 oz.110058
    Pineapples1 can1 lb. 4 oz.8008.0088
    Pork, Loin Chops, Medium Fat1 lb.1200243.0084
    Salt Fat1 lb.350034.0014
    Potatoes4 medium1 lb.30032.0045
    Prunes46 (22/3 cups)1 lb.120032.0108
    Rice1 cup8 oz.80074.0024
    Raisins1 cup51/3 oz.50015.0050
    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams
    Rye Meal1 cup41/8 oz.40031
    Sausage, Pork1 lb.2000235.0080
    Spinach1 pk.3 lbs.300105.0399
    Sugar, Confectionery1 cup41/2 oz.5000
    Brown1 cup51/2 oz.6000
    Granulated1 cup8 oz.9000
    Tapioca (Pearl)1 cup6 oz.60021
    Tomatoes, Fresh4 medium1 lb.10016.0017
    Canned1 qt. can2 lbs. 1 oz.20043
    Tripe1 lb.260212
    Turkey1 lb.1000292.0110
    Turnip21 lb.15016.0019
    Veal, Breast, Medium Fat1 lb.700280.0098
    Leg, Medium Fat1 lb.600280.0114
    Liver, Medium Fat1 lb.550344.0126
    Loin, Medium Fat1 lb.670290.0162
    Walnuts1 cup4 oz.80083.0023
    1. As Purchased
      9
      Cards may be used keep records of the food values of recipes or meals, ruled and made out as follows:
    Recipe or Meal
    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams






      10

    HOW TO ESTIMATE THE FOOD VALUE OF A RECIPE

    Illustration. Baking Powder Biscuits
    First enter the list of ingredients with the amount of each required. Consult Table of Food Values for the protein, iron grams, and total calories, and enter in their respective columns.
    Recipe or Meal: Baking Powder Biscuit
    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams
    Flour2 cups
    800100.0030
    Lard1 tbsp.
    125

    Butter1 tbsp.
    100

    Milk1/2 cup
    8517.00025
    Totals

    1110117.00325
      11

    HOW TO ESTIMATE THE FOOD VALUE OF A MEAL

    Illustration. Breakfast for Four
    First enter the list of food to be served with the amount of each required. Consult Table of Food Values for the protein, iron grams, and total calories and enter in their respective columns.
    Recipe or Meal: Breakfast for Four
    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams
    Oranges4 (large)38 oz.40028.0024
    Hominy3/4 cup41/2 oz.45042
    Baking Powder Biscuitssee recipe card
    1110125.00325
    Sugar1/4 cup2 oz.225

    Whole Milk2 cups
    34968.0010
    Butter2 tbsps.1 oz.200

    Totals

    2725263.00665
      12

    HOW TO ESTIMATE THE FOOD VALUE OF A DAYS RATIONS
    Calculate lunch and dinner same as breakfast, entering on cards as follows:
    Recipe or Meal: Lunch or Supper
    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams
    Macaroni
    1/4 lb.40060
    Cheese
    2 oz.15065
    Thin White Sauce2 cupsp. 26681577.0013
    Golden Corn Cake Recipe
    p. 751470162.0057
    Butter
    2 oz.400

    Lettuce1/2 head
    256.00125
    Oil2 tbsps.
    200

    Bananas31 lb.30014.0018
    Cream1/4 pt.
    22011.0002
    Totals

    3980395.00965
    Recipe or Meal: Dinner
    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams
    Beef Rump, Lean
    1 lb.800346.0120
    Potatoes41 lb.30032.0045
    Spinach1/2 pk.
    15052.0199
    Norwegian Prune Puddingp. 416
    165016.0054
    Cream1/4 pt.
    22011.0002
    Bread1/2 loaf1/2 lb.55084.00165
    Butter
    1 oz.200

    Totals

    3870541.04365
      13
      Enter meals as follows:
    Recipe or Menu: Day’s Ration for Four
    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams
    Breakfast

    2725263.00665
    Lunch or Supper

    3980395.00965
    Dinner

    3870541.04365
    Totals

    10,5751199.05995
    Required

    10,0001,000.06



    toto



    12,0005,000
      14

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