Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882). The Complete Works. 1904. Vol. V. English Traits
OF British universities, Cambridge has the most illustrious names on its list. At the present day too, it has the advantage of Oxford, counting in its alumni a greater number of distinguished scholars. I regret that I had but a single day wherein to see Kings College Chapel, the beautiful lawns and gardens of the colleges, and a few of its gownsmen.
But I availed myself of some repeated invitations to Oxford, where I had introductions to Dr. Daubeny, Professor of Botany, and to the Regius Professor of Divinity, as well as to a valued friend, a Fellow of Oriel, and went thither on the last day of March, 1848. I was the guest of my friend in Oriel, was housed close upon that college, and I lived on college hospitalities.1
My new friends showed me their cloisters, the Bodleian Library, the Randolph Gallery, Merton Hall and the rest. I saw several faithful, high-minded young men, some of them in the mood of making sacrifices for peace of mind,a topic, of course, on which I had no counsel to offer. Their affectionate and gregarious ways reminded me at once of the habits of our Cambridge men, though I imputed to these English an advantage in their secure and polished manners. The halls are rich with oaken wainscoting and ceiling. The pictures of the founders hang from the walls; the tables glitter with plate. A youth came forward to the upper table and pronounced the ancient form of grace before meals, which, I suppose, has been in use here for ages, Benedictus, benedicat; benedicitur, benedicatur.2
It is a curious proof of the English use and wont, or of their good nature, that these young men are locked up every night at nine oclock, and the porter at each hall is required to give the name of any belated student who is admitted after that hour. Still more descriptive is the fact that out of twelve hundred young men, comprising the most spirited of the aristocracy, a duel has never occurred.
Oxford is old, even in England, and conservative. Its foundations date from Alfred and even from Arthur, if, as is alleged, the Pheryllt of the Druids had a seminary here. In the reign of Edward I., it is pretended, here were thirty thousand students; and nineteen most noble foundations were then established. Chaucer found it as firm as if it had always stood; and it is, in British story, rich with great names, the school of the island and the link of England to the learned of Europe. Hither came Erasmus, with delight, in 1497.3 Albericus Gentilis, in 1580, was relieved and maintained by the university.4 Albert Alaskie, a noble Polonian, Prince of Sirad, who visited England to admire the wisdom of Queen Elizabeth, was entertained with stage-plays in the Refectory of Christ-Church in 1583. Isaac Casaubon, coming from Henri Quatre of France by invitation of James I., was admitted to Christ Church, in July, 1613.5 I saw the Ashmolean Museum, whither Elias Ashmole in 1682 sent twelve cart-loads of rarities. Here indeed was the Olympia of all Antony Woods and Aubreys games and heroes, and every inch of ground has its lustre. For Woods Athena Oxonienses, or calendar of the writers of Oxford for two hundred years, is a lively record of English manners and merits, and as much a national monument as Purchass Pilgrims or Hansards Register. On every side, Oxford is redolent of age and authority. Its gates shut of themselves against modern innovation.6 It is still governed by the statutes of Archbishop Laud. The books in Merton Library are still chained to the wall. Here, on August 27, 1660, John Miltons Pro Populo Anglicano Defensio and Iconoclastes were committed to the flames. I saw the school-court or quadrangle where, in 1683, the Convocation caused the Leviathan of Thomas Hobbes to be publicly burnt.7 I do not know whether this learned body have yet heard of the Declaration of American Independence, or whether the Ptolemaic astronomy does not still hold its ground against the novelties of Copernicus.
As many sons, almost so many benefactors. It is usual for a nobleman, or indeed for almost every wealthy student, on quitting college to leave behind him some article of plate; and gifts of all values, from a hall or a fellowship or a library, down to a picture or a spoon, are continually accruing, in the course of a century. My friend Doctor J. gave me the following anecdote. In Sir Thomas Lawrences collection at London were the cartoons of Raphael and Michael Angelo. This inestimable prize was offered to Oxford University for seven thousand pounds. The offer was accepted, and the committee charged with the affair had collected three thousand pounds, when, among other friends, they called on Lord Eldon. Instead of a hundred pounds, he surprised them by putting down his name for three thousand pounds. They told him they should now very easily raise the remainder. No, he said, your men have probably already contributed all they can spare; I can as well give the rest: and he withdrew his cheque for three thousand, and wrote four thousand pounds. I saw the whole collection in April, 1848.
In the Bodleian Library, Dr. Bandinel showed me the manuscript Plato, of the date of A.D. 896, brought by Dr. Clarke from Egypt; a manuscript Virgil of the same century; the first Bible printed at Mentz (I believe in 1450); and a duplicate of the same, which had been deficient in about twenty leaves at the end. But one day, being in Venice, he bought a room full of books and manuscripts,every scrap and fragment,for four thousand louis dors, and had the doors locked and sealed by the consul. On proceeding afterwards to examine his purchase, he found the twenty deficient pages of his Mentz Bible, in perfect order; brought them to Oxford with the rest of his purchase, and placed them in the volume; but has too much awe for the Providence that appears in bibliography also, to suffer the reunited parts to be re-bound. The oldest building here is two hundred years younger than the frail manuscript brought by Dr. Clarke from Egypt. No candle or fire is ever lighted in the Bodleian. Its catalogue is the standard catalogue on the desk of every library in Oxford. In each several college they underscore in red ink on this catalogue the titles of books contained in the library of that college,the theory being that the Bodleian has all books. This rich library spent during the last year (1847), for the purchase of books, £1668.
The logical English train a scholar as they train an engineer. Oxford is a Greek factory, as Wilton mills weave carpet and Sheffield grinds steel. They know the use of a tutor, as they know the use of a horse; and they draw the greatest amount of benefit out of both. The reading men are kept, by hard walking, hard riding and measured eating and drinking, at the top of their condition, and two days before the examination, do no work, but lounge, ride, or run, to be fresh on the college doomsday. Seven years residence is the theoretic period for a masters degree. In point of fact, it has long been three years residence, and four years more of standing. This three years is about twenty-one months in all.8
The whole expense, says Professor Sewel, of ordinary college tuition at Oxford, is about sixteen guineas a year. But this plausible statement may deceive a reader unacquainted with the fact that the principal teaching relied on is private tuition. And the expenses of private tuition are reckoned at from £50 to £70 a year, or $1000 for the whole course of three years and a half. At Cambridge, $750 a year is economical, and $1500 not extravagant.9
The number of students and of residents, the dignity of the authorities, the value of the foundations, the history and the architecture, the known sympathy of entire Britain in what is done there, justify a dedication to study in the undergraduate such as cannot easily be in America, where his college is half suspected by the Freshman to be insignificant in the scale beside trade and politics. Oxford is a little aristocracy in itself, numerous and dignified enough to rank with other estates in the realm; and where fame and secular promotion are to be had for study, and in a direction which has the unanimous respect of all cultivated nations.
This aristocracy, of course, repairs its own losses; fills places, as they fall vacant, from the body of students. The number of fellowships at Oxford is 540, averaging £200 a year, with lodging and diet at the college. If a young American, loving learning and hindered by poverty, were offered a home, a table, the walks and the library in one of these academical palaces, and a thousand dollars a year, as long as he chose to remain a bachelor, he would dance for joy. Yet these young men thus happily placed, and paid to read, are impatient of their few checks, and many of them preparing to resign their fellowships. They shuddered at the prospect of dying a Fellow, and they pointed out to me a paralytic old man, who was assisted into the hall. As the number of undergraduates at Oxford is only about 1200 or 1300, and many of these are never competitors, the chance of a fellowship is very great. The income of the nineteen colleges is conjectured at £150,000 a year.
The effect of this drill is the radical knowledge of Greek and Latin and of mathematics, and the solidity and taste of English criticism. Whatever luck there may be in this or that award, an Eton captain can write Latin longs and shorts, can turn the Court-Guide into hexameters, and it is certain that a Senior Classic can quote correctly from the Corpus Poetarum and is critically learned in all the humanities. Greek erudition exists on the Isis and Cam, whether the Maud man or the Brasenose man be properly ranked or not; the atmosphere is loaded with Greek learning; the whole river has reached a certain height, and kills all that growth of weeds which this Castalian water kills. The English nature takes culture kindly. So Milton thought. It refines the Norseman. Access to the Greek mind lifts his standard of taste. He has enough to think of, and, unless of an impulsive nature, is indisposed from writing or speaking, by the fulness of his mind and the new severity of his taste. The great silent crowd of thoroughbred Grecians always known to be around him, the English writer cannot ignore. They prune his orations and point his pen. Hence the style and tone of English journalism. The men have learned accuracy and comprehension, logic, and pace, or speed of working. They have bottom, endurance, wind. When born with good constitutions, they make those eupeptic studying-mills, the cast-iron men, the dura ilia, whose powers of performance compare with ours as the steam-hammer with the music-box;10Cokes, Mansfields, Seldens and Bentleys, and when it happens that a superior brain puts a rider on this admirable horse, we obtain those masters of the world who combine the highest energy in affairs with a supreme culture.
It is contended by those who have been bred at Eton, Harrow, Rugby and Westminster, that the public sentiment within each of those schools is high-toned and manly; that, in their playgrounds, courage is universally admired, meanness despised, manly feelings and generous conduct are encouraged: that an unwritten code of honor deals to the spoiled child of rank and to the child of upstart wealth, an evenhanded justice, purges their nonsense out of both and does all that can be done to make them gentlemen.
Again, at the universities, it is urged that all goes to form what England values as the flower of its national life,a well-educated gentleman. The German Huber, in describing to his countrymen the attributes of an English gentleman, frankly admits that in Germany, we have nothing of the kind. A gentleman must possess a political character, an independent and public position, or at least the right of assuming it. He must have average opulence, either of his own, or in his family. He should also have bodily activity and strength, unattainable by our sedentary life in public offices. The race of English gentlemen presents an appearance of manly vigor and form not elsewhere to be found among an equal number of persons. No other nation produces the stock. And in England, it has deteriorated. The university is a decided presumption in any mans favor. And so eminent are the members that a glance at the calendars will show that in all the world one cannot be in better company than on the books of one of the larger Oxford or Cambridge colleges.11
These seminaries are finishing schools for the upper classes, and not for the poor. The useful is exploded. The definition of a public school is a school which excludes all that could fit a man for standing behind a counter.12
No doubt, the foundations have been perverted. Oxford, which equals in wealth several of the smaller European states, shuts up the lectureships which were made public for all men thereunto to have concourse; mis-spends the revenues bestowed for such youths as should be most meet for towardness, poverty and painfulness; there is gross favoritism; many chairs and many fellowships are made beds of ease; and it is likely that the university will know how to resist and make inoperative the terrors of parliamentary inquiry; no doubt their learning is grown obsolete;but Oxford also has its merits, and I found here also proof of the national fidelity and thoroughness. Such knowledge as they prize they possess and impart. Whether in course or by indirection, whether by a cramming tutor or by examiners with prizes and foundational scholarships, education, according to the English notion of it, is arrived at. I looked over the Examination Papers of the year 1848, for the various scholarships and fellowships, the Lusby, the Hertford, the Dean-Ireland and the University (copies of which were kindly given me by a Greek professor), containing the tasks which many competitors had victoriously performed, and I believed they would prove too severe tests for the candidates for a Bachelors degree in Yale or Harvard. And in general, here was proof of a more searching study in the appointed directions, and the knowledge pretended to be conveyed was conveyed. Oxford sends out yearly twenty or thirty very able men and three or four hundred well-educated men.
The diet and rough exercise secure a certain amount of old Norse power. A fop will fight, and in exigent circumstances will play the manly part. In seeing these youths I believed I saw already an advantage in vigor and color and general habit, over their contemporaries in the American colleges.13 No doubt much of the power and brilliancy of the reading-men is merely constitutional or hygienic. With a hardier habit and resolute gymnastics, with five miles more walking, or five ounces less eating, or with a saddle and gallop of twenty miles a day, with skating and rowing-matches, the American would arrive at as robust exegesis and cheery and hilarious tone. I should readily concede these advantages, which it would be easy to acquire, if I did not find also that they read better than we, and write better.
English wealth falling on their school and university training, makes a systematic reading of the best authors, and to the end of a knowledge how the things whereof they treat really stand: whilst pamphleteer or journalist, reading for an argument for a party, or reading to write, or at all events for some by-end imposed on them, must read meanly and fragmentarily. Charles I. said that he understood English law as well as a gentleman ought to understand it.
Then they have access to books; the rich libraries collected at every one of many thousands of houses, give an advantage not to be attained by a youth in this country, when one thinks how much more and better may be learned by a scholar who, immediately on hearing of a book, can consult it, than by one who is on the quest, for years, and reads inferior books because he cannot find the best.
Universities are of course hostile to geniuses, which, seeing and using ways of their own, discredit the routine: as churches and monasteries persecute youthful saints. Yet we all send our sons to college, and though he be a genius, the youth must take his chance. The university must be retrospective. The gale that gives direction to the vanes on all its towers blows out of antiquity. Oxford is a library, and the professors must be librarians. And I should as soon think of quarrelling with the janitor for not magnifying his office by hostile sallies into the street, like the Governor of Kertch or Kinburn,14 as of quarrelling with the professors for not admiring the young neologists who pluck the beards of Euclid and Aristotle, or for not attempting themselves to fill their vacant shelves as original writers.
It is easy to carp at colleges, and the college, if we will wait for it, will have its own turn. Genius exists there also, but will not answer a call of a committee of the House of Commons. It is rare, precarious, eccentric and darkling. England is the land of mixture and surprise, and when you have settled it that the universities are moribund, out comes a poetic influence from the heart of Oxford,15 to mould the opinions of cities, to build their houses as simply as birds their nests, to give veracity to art and charm mankind, as an appeal to moral order always must. But besides this restorative genius, the best poetry of England of this age, in the old forms, comes from two graduates at Cambridge.16
Note 1. This friend was Arthur Hugh Clough, the poet, and translator of Plutarch. Mr. Emerson, on his return, reviewed with much praise his poem The Bothie of Tober-na-Vuolich, in the Massachusetts Quarterly Review (March, 1849), then edited by Theodore Parker. Mr. Clough visited Mr. Emerson later and spent a winter in Cambridge. From Oxford Mr. Emerson wrote of dining at Exeter College with Palgrave, Froude, and other Fellows, and at Oriel with Clough and Dr. Daubeny. They showed me the kindest attentions, but more, they showed me themselves; who are many of them very earnest, faithful, affectionate, some of them highly gifted men; some of them, too, prepared and decided to make great sacrifices for conscience sake. Froude is a noble youth to whom my heart warms . Truly I became fond of these monks of Oxford. Soon after leaving Oxford Mr. Emerson received a letter from Mr. Froude of which the following is an extract:
EXETER COLLEGE [OXFORD], JUNE 6, .
MY DEAR MR. EMERSON, Your own visit here, short as it was, was not without its service to us; you left luminous traces of your presence in the words you scattered from you, which as yet the birds of the air have not devoured. Horaces Segnius irritant animos is only half true. One sentence spoken is worth a hundred written. In a few years, I hope, even here in Oxford, you will see whole acres yellow with the corn of your sowing, and logic-mills grinding it and professors baking it in their lecture-rooms into bread for hungry students. Believe me ever
Your very much obliged
J. A. FROUDE.
Segnius irritant animos demissa per aurem.
Horace, Ars Poetica, 180.
In speaking of theatrical representations, and the comparative effect on the spectator of things seen, or merely narrated by an actor, Horace explains that things addressed to the ear rouse the feelings more slowly than those presented to the eye. [back]
Note 2. Let the blessed bless; he is blessed, let him be blessed. [back]
Note 3. Erasmus thus expressed his surprise and delight in Oxford, regenerated by the influence of John Colet, whither he had gone to study Greek (newly introduced by Grocyn), because he was too poor to go to Italy: I have found in Oxford so much polish and learning that now I hardly care to go to Italy at all, save for the sake of having been there. When I listen to my friend Colet it seems like listening to Plato himself. Who does not wonder at the wide range of Grocyns knowledge? What can be more searching, deep and refined than the judgment of Linacre? When did Nature mould a temper more gentle, endearing and happy than the temper of Thomas More? [Greens Short History of the English People.] [back]
Note 4. Albericus Gentilis (15521608), a celebrated jurist and early authority on international law. Driven from Italy and Austria by the Inquisition, he was recommended to University of Oxford by the Earl of Leicester and received with much honor there. [back]
Note 5. Casaubon, the Swiss theologian and critic, protected and made royal librarian at Paris by Henry IV., was so annoyed by Catholic jealousy that he passed his latter days in England, where he was made prebendary of Canterbury. [back]
Note 6. The Life of William Morris by J. W. Mackail, and the story of Tom Brown at Oxford by the late Thomas Hughes, give extraordinary pictures of sleepy and perfunctory instruction at Oxford colleges and the idle life there until the very recent awakening. [back]
Note 7. Leviathan, or the Matter, Form and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil, containing the complete system of Hobbess materialistic philosophy. [back]
Note 8. Hubers History of English Universities, vol. ii. p. 304. [back]
Note 9. Five Years in an English University, by Charles Astor Bristed (1852). [back]
Note 10. Mr. Emerson, always regretting that, as Dr. John Collins Warren said of him in his boyhood, he had no stamina, wrote thus to his friend Sterling in 1844: I do not know how it happens, but there are but seven hours, often but five, in an American scholars day; the twelve, thirteen, fifteen, that we have heard of in German libraries, are fabulous to us. Probably in England you find a mean between Massachusetts and Germany. The performances of Goethe, the performances of Scott, appear super-human to us in their quantity, let alone their quality. [back]
Note 13. Later Mr. Emerson wrote: At home I am still struck with the superior animal vigor of the average Englishman; as if the English were pasture-oaks, and the Americans fine saplings. It should be remembered, however, that this was written before the reaction towards due physical culture in America set in, which culminates now in extreme athleticism. [back]
Note 14. Both these Russian posts were captured by the Allies in the Crimean War, but I cannot find evidence of personal hostile action taken by their governors. Perhaps stories of such were in the newspapers of the day. [back]
Note 15. The poetic influence from the heart of Oxford evidently refers to Arthur Hugh Clough, Mr. Emersons friend and host there, and four years later his guest in America, whose charming hexameter poem, The Bothie of Tober-na-Vuolich, was just published. Mr. Cloughs increasingly liberal views made him feel bound in honor to resign his Fellowship, the holder of which is required to belong to the Church of England. [back]