1) logic. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...Validity merely refers to formal properties of the process of inference. Thus, a conclusion whose value is true may be drawn from an invalid argument, and one whose... 2) logic circuit. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...Logic circuits that perform particular functions are called gates. Basic logic circuits include the AND gate, the OR gate, and the NOT gate, which perform the logical... 3) symbolic logic. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...Symbolic logic draws on the concepts and techniques of mathematics, notably set theory, and in turn has contributed to the development of the foundations of mathematics.... 4) fuzzy logic. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...Classical logic holds that everything can be expressed in binary terms: 0 or 1, black or white, yes or no; in terms of Boolean algebra, everything is in one set or... 5) induction, in logic. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...Induction is contrasted with deduction, in which true premises do necessitate the conclusion. An important form of induction is the process of reasoning from the... 6) mathematical logic. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...mathematical logic, see symbolic logic.... 7) deduction. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...For example, if we know that all men have two legs and that John is a man, it is then logical to deduce that John has two legs. Logicians contrast deduction with... 8) Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, Baron von. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth
Edition. 2001 ...German philosopher and mathematician, b. Leipzig. Although known primarily as a philosopher, Leibniz's scholarship embraced the physical sciences, history, law, diplomacy,... 9) theorem. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...There are many famous theorems in mathematics, often known by the name of their discoverer, e.g., the Pythagorean Theorem, concerning right triangles. One of the... 10) microprocessor. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...When combined with other integrated circuits that provide storage for data and programs, often on a single semiconductor base to form a chip, the microprocessor becomes... |