1) algorithm. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...algorithm, (alīgrithīm) (KEY) or algorism (-rizīm) (KEY) [for al-Khowarizimi, 9th-century Persian mathematician], a clearly defined procedure for obtaining the solution... 2) Al-Khowarizmi. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...and on algebra made him famous. He is said to have given algebra its name, and the word algorithm is said to have been derived from his name. Much of the mathematical... 3) data encryption. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...of proprietary information. 1All modern cryptography is based on the use of algorithms to scramble (encrypt) the original message, called plaintext, into unintelligible... 4) Year 2000 problem. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...be treated as if it were equivalent to 0 rather than 100, causing incorrect results. The algorithm used to calculate leap years may also be invalid, creating an additional... 5) Internet, the. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...Server), and a number of commercial indexes, which are programs that use a proprietary algorithm to search a large collection of documents for keywords and return... 6) neural network. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...it; the weighting factors are adjusted-either through human intervention or by a programmed algorithm-to bring the final output closer to the known result. 1Neural... 7) artificial intelligence. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001 ...symbolic of progress in AI. In 1948 British mathematician Alan Turing developed a chess algorithm for use with calculating machines-it lost to an amateur player in... |