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C.D. Warner, et al., comp.  The Library of the World’s Best Literature.
An Anthology in Thirty Volumes.  1917.
G. R. Lomer, ed.  The Student’s Course in Literature.
 
Lectures on the World’s Best Literature
Spanish Literature
By Irving Henry Brown (1888–1940)
 
Introduction. THE TWO main currents of realism and idealism seldom fuse in Spanish culture. Like Sancho Panza and Don Quixote, they go their way together but distinct. In the paintings of El Greco there is a vast difference between the fantastic other-worldly beauty of his Christs and the realistic portraiture of the secondary figures. The greater part of what is best in Spanish literature is in the realistic vein. We need not be disappointed if we look unavailingly for metaphysics, music, and lyric poetry as it is understood in the North, for we will find, on the one hand, beautiful expressions of the religious sentiment, as in Santa Teresa, and on the other, a body of realistic literature as rich as any.  1
  For the reader in other countries, a vast portion of Spanish literature is marred by bombast, emphasis, words and more words, and fantastic imaginings that have no bond with inner or outer realities, and also by a dependence, for æsthetic expression, on social conventions and on absurd “points of honor.” But in realism we find a Latin clearness of vision that makes us shudder or laugh at the world of reality within and without, or sympathize with all of it that expresses the essentially human. If the artist is he who has eyes and sees, and to whom experience is an end in itself, how many Spaniards are artists in prose and poetry as well as in painting! In Spanish literature there are frequent counterparts to Murillo’s lifelike beggar boys, to ‘The Drunkards’ by Velasquez, to the satiric, royal portraits by Goya, and, to-day, to Sorolla’s beach scenes.  2
  The Epic. The first great monument in Spanish literature is the ‘Poem of the Cid’ (c. 1132). It is the Spanish ‘Iliad’ or, rather, the Spanish ‘Chanson de Roland.’ French epic poetry apparently influenced its outer form, the expression of a warlike and feudal phase of the Middle Ages, the fight against the Moors. To feel its force we must remember that fighting in those days was an end in itself, to be enjoyed vicariously in song. We must also remember that the religious emotions contributed strongly to the joy of fighting the Moorish infidels, and that the social fabric of the times made loyalty a passion as well as a duty. It is the Cid who never despairs of driving out the Moors, who in hunger and exile does not fail in his loyalty to an ungrateful king. His clemency to the prisoners whom he takes contrasts with his desire for vengeance on his cowardly sons-in-law, and serves to emphasize his passion for loyalty and bravery. Critics have liberally conceded to the ‘Poema del Cid’ a simple grandeur and an ardent spirit. The story itself has taken many forms: it appears again in the ‘Rhymed Chronicle’ (‘Cronica Rimada’) as well as in many ballads. Many of the epic ballads or “Cantares” of this period have been lost. Those that remain, such as the ‘Gesta de los Infantes de Lara’ (twelfth century), ‘Fernan González’ (c. 1250), and the ‘Libro de Alexandre’ are of interest more especially to historians of literature and philologists. So also are the religious narrative poems such as the ‘Libro de Apollonio’ (of early though uncertain date), and the ‘Vida de Sancta Oria, virgen,’ the latter by Gonzalo de Berceo (1180–1246), who is supposed to be the author of the ‘Alexandre’ as well. Berceo is the earliest writer of whom we have definite biographical information.  3
  Romances. Closely allied to the “cantares,” in which they find in part their origin, are the shorter narrative poems, romances, or ballads, written at a later period, in verses of sixteen syllables, using a single assonance throughout. They form a field of unusual richness: they are full of character and possess a dramatic intensity which has insured their popularity even to-day. To the English reader they are known through the ‘Spanish Ballads’ of Lockhart. Among the most characteristic are: ‘A Calatrava la vieja,’ dealing with the tragic story of the ‘Infantes de Lara,’ and the ‘Juramento llevan hecho,’ based on the ‘Fernan González,’ as well as ‘Entre las gentes se dice,’ relating to Pedro the Cruel, and ‘Ya cabalga Diego Ordóñez,’ one of a large group which tells in ballad form the adventures of the Cid.  4
  Romances of Chivalry. Related to the epics and chronicles are the romances of chivalry, generally in prose, which ran riot in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. They may be regarded as a sort of degeneration of the former, the process of which is already observable in the ‘Cronica Rimada.’ Real deeds of knights and warriors give way to the fabulous and fantastic adventures of the knight-errants. Much of the inspiration and material comes from the ‘Breton Cycle,’ and love and magic are often the leading motives. They interest us chiefly as a target for the wit of Cervantes in Don Quixote.  5
  The best example and one worthy of study for its own sake is the ‘Amadis of Gaul’ (1508) composed, in its ultimate form at least, by Garcia Ordoñez de Montalva, with considerable art. The characters are interesting, and the action, though it drags at times, is cleverly handled.  6
  History. Prose. The first great figure in Spanish letters is that of Alfonso the Wise (1221–1284), historian, lawgiver, poet, who gave a tremendous impulse to intellectual and literary pursuits. His ‘General Chronicle,’ or ‘History of Spain,’ shows at times grace and simple charm in spite of the naïve awkwardness of the work as a whole. The ‘Siete Partidas’ is more than a code which laid the foundations of Spanish law, still in vogue in such parts of the United States as Florida and Louisiana, for it is a picture of the times as well.  7
  The first prose writer with an individual style is Juan Manuel (1282–1347), author of ‘Count Lucanor,’ a work in the manner of ‘The Arabian Nights,’ but largely didactic, an amalgam of tales from many sources, told with an artlessness that has a certain rough strength. Pérez de Guzmán (1376?–1460?), a historian, has left us in ‘Generaciones y Semblanzas,’ portraits, clear and picturesque, which have been compared to those of Saint-Simon. ‘La Guerra de Granada’ by Diego Hurtado de Mendoza (1503–1575) is highly esteemed in Spain as a monument of classic prose; but the true historian of Spain is Juan de Mariana (1536–1624). His ‘History of Spain’ is as valuable for its colorful, eloquent, vigorous exposition as for its documentation.  8
  Juan de Valdés (c. 1500–1541) is considered the first great master of Castilian prose. His ‘Diálogo de Mercurio y Caron,’ in the manner of Lucian, is written with frankness, clarity, and vigor. “I write as I speak,” he said; “I have no other preoccupation than to use the words which mean precisely what I wish to say.” The best example of the historical novel is the ‘Guerras Civiles de Granada,’ written about 1600 with a Moorish setting, by G. Pérez de Hita, whose poetic qualities are suggestive of Scott.  9
  Lyric Poetry. The earliest specimen of what might be called lyric poetry is the ‘Razon feita d’Amor,’ by an unknown writer of the Middle Ages. Juan Ruiz (still living in 1351) is the first, however, definitely to express his own personality. He was a scapegrace at heart, a priest in love with life, and his principal work, the ‘Libro de buen Amor,’ is a curious mixture of absorptions from many sources and actual observation, satire, moralizing, and a veiled expression of delight in the world and the flesh, through all of which we feel his personal sentiments, much as one does in Villon’s ‘Testaments,’ and La Fontaine’s ‘Fables.’ Just as Juan Ruiz mixes realism with a personal note, López de Ayala (1332–1407) boldly expresses in ‘Las Maneras de Palacio’ his feeling of bitter indignation at the corruption he sees in society.  10
  The beginning of a new era is marked by the lyrics of the Marquis of Santillana (1398–1458). He is the first of Spanish sonneteers, an initiator of imitating, of the following of Italian models which had a long but not altogether fortunate vogue. He is charming, when he follows his own more native and popular inspiration in his “decires,” “serranillas,” and “vaqueiras.” Jorge Manrique (1440?–1479) is a poet of universal interest, who owes his fame to a single poem, on the ‘Death of his Father,’ well known to English readers through Longfellow’s good translation. Commonplaces on the instability of life are given reality and force by the depth of the poet’s somber melancholy. Garcilaso de la Vega (1503–1536), a virile soldier, is regarded by many Spaniards as their most brilliant poet; but one feels on reading his languorous verse that it did not spring from his whole soul, and his sweetness tires. The head of the Sevillian school, Fernando Herrera (1534?–1597), was a sort of lesser Ronsard.  11
  Some of the best and worst in Spanish lyrism is associated with the name of Luis de Argote y Góngora (1561–1627). Certain of the poems in his second manner are masterpieces, spontaneous, graceful, and delicately imaginative; but he lost himself in an effort to startle. The grandiloquence and emphasis of his first manner led to obscurity, and an extravagance that is often ludicrous. His name was given to a widespread movement known as “gongorism” or “culteranismo,” and related to “Seicentismo” in Italy, “Preciosity” in France, and “Euphuism” in England. Gongorism, together with “conceptism,” which is the artificial expression of the idea of an emotion rather than an emotion, is, however, a more permanent trait in Spain. Another vice of Spanish poetry—facility or wordiness—Góngora strove to combat, for with all his faults he was an artist. Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Villegas shows extraordinary versatility, and power too often ill-directed. Aside from his ‘Buscon,’ a picaresque novel, he is at his best in the ‘Visions,’ a satirical fantasy, biting, amusing, and full of life and feeling.  12
  Mysticism. The expression of mysticism ranks high in Spanish literature. One finds it in the works of many writers, classic and contemporary, but cultivated most intensively by Santa Teresa (1515–1582), an admirable organizer, a tender woman, and a prose poet. Her ‘Inner Castle’ realizes in a simple, vigorous, and definite form the profound emotions of her spiritual life. One of her disciples was San Juan de la Cruz (1542–1591), whose verses are rich in imagery of his tender religious ecstasies. It is the poet in Luis de León (1527–1591) that we admire rather than the hair-splitting analyst. The harmonious prose of ‘Los Nombres de Cristo’ contains some admirable poetic flights.  13
  La Celestina (1492) by Fernando de Rojas (?), unique both in form and content, is one of the most valuable contributions of Spanish literature. Written in dialogue divided into many acts, it is more like a novel than a play. The somber imagination of the author portrays with admirable fidelity and power, scenes from low life, and the passions of real men and women. It is written in the truest vein of Spanish literature, the realistic.  14
  The Picaresque Novel. Much has been written about the Novel of Roguery and its influence. Undoubtedly it is one of the most characteristic of the Spanish fields. There is much of the picaresque in Juan Ruiz and in ‘La Celestina,’ while the tales of Cervantes are largely of this type. It is a reflection possibly of the disordered life subsequent to the quest for gold in America and to the Spanish wars.  15
  The first of these novels of low life is ‘Lazarillo de Tormes’ (1554 or earlier), of disputed authorship. Its picturesque incidents are described with alertness and a dry wit. The realism of ‘Guzmán de Alfarache’ by Mateo Alemán (1547–1614?) is characteristic, but humor gives place to moralizings which, like its digressions, are in no sense an organic part of the book which is otherwise rich in highly colored escapades. It was well translated in 1623 by Mabbe, and its vogue in England and on the continent was great. Better composed is the ‘Marcos de Obregón,’ by Vicente Martinez Espinel (1550?–1624), himself a picaresque figure. The ingenious, amusing adventures are told in a manner that makes them enjoyable reading. The ultimate in the picaresque is the ‘Buscón’ or ‘El gran Tacaño,’ by Quevedo (1580–1645), author of the ‘Visions.’ In spite of the fact that the ‘Buscón’ is confusing and difficult to read, it is written with extraordinary verve, and clearly manifests the genius of the author and his powers of observation.  16
  Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547–1616) so completely eclipses other Spanish writers, and ‘Don Quixote’ his other works, that Spain appears to the foreigner as a nation with a single book. His drama ‘La Numancia’ has scenes of tragic power, and his ‘Exemplary novels’ alone would insure his fame. Of these the ‘Coloquio de los perros’ contains some of his profoundest and most animated pages, while ‘Rinconete y Cortadillo’ is a little masterpiece of the picaresque. ‘Don Quixote’ is both the most Spanish and the most universal of books. In it, the body and soul of a nation and an epoch are laid bare, but at the same time it mirrors all mankind. The work has certain artistic blemishes, but it lies so close to life that something is expressed for all of us, in every land, at every age. Its intense humanity is no small merit.  17
  Drama. The earliest date is that of a miracle play, the ‘Misterio de los Reyes Magos’ (c. 1220). The “patriarch of Spanish drama” is Juan del Encina (1468–1529?), while Torres Naharro (after 1530) is the first dramatist to produce real character. Gil Vicente, a close contemporary of Encina, also wrote in dramatic form. His ‘Autos da Fé’ have a delicate, lyric mysticism.  18
  Less deep and human than Cervantes, less powerful than Quevedo, and less poetic than Calderón, Lope de Vega (1562–1635), a poet, with a keen sense of dramatic effect, is the most prolific, versatile, and brilliant of Spanish writers. Some of the best of his innumerable writings are his historical dramas, such as ‘El mejor Alcade el Rey’ and ‘La Estrella de Sevilla,’ as well as his comedies of manners or “capa y espada” plays, such as ‘La Dama de Cántaro.’ Though his talent was prodigious, his immense popularity is largely confined to Spain and to the Golden Century.  19
  A poet in temperament, Pedro Calderón de la Barca (1600–1681) had also the ability to construct a clear and swiftly moving plot. As a whole, his characters do not seem as human and lifelike as those of Shakespeare for example, and often his poetry is spoiled by “conceptism”; yet many of his plays possess a deeply lyric vein of purest gold. For religious plays, or “autos sacramentales,” he is unrivaled. ‘El Divino Orfeo’ is a masterpiece of its kind. For plot and character the ‘Alcade de Zalamea’ is perhaps the best of his dramas, while ‘La Vida es Sueño’ (Life is a Dream) and ‘El Magico Prodigioso’ (The Marvelous Magician) contain his finest passages.  20
  Minor Dramatists. Lope de Rueda (1510–1565), actor-director and author, is the father of Spanish comedy. His “pasos,” short plays, scenes from life, such as ‘Las Aceitunas’ (The Olives), are amusing and spirited. Guillén de Castro y Bellvis (1569–1631) is known for his ‘Mocedades del Cid,’ the work which inspired Corneille’s ‘Cid,’ to which it is inferior in most, but not all, respects. Gabriel Tellez (1571?–1648), better known as Tirso de Molina, is a dramatist of genius and the creator of extraordinary, living types. Imaginative sense of reality and depth of feeling make him in some respects the equal and even the superior of Lope and Calderón. Taking the point of view of the author in ‘El Condenado por desconfiado,’ the reader will feel that it is one of the most original and expressive of plays. In the ‘Burlador de Sevilla’ he has fixed the type of Don Juan, a creation that he has made universal. His women are the most natural in all Spanish drama. Juan Ruiz de Alarcón (1580?–1639) is a thorough classicist. His only fault is that he has no unusual merit. The same might almost be said of Fernandez de Moratín (1760–1828); whose ‘Sí de las Niñas’ is carefully, ingeniously composed. Ramón de la Cruz (1731–1794), the “Goya of the stage,” was a lively, clever playwright, popular with all.  21
 
The Nineteenth Century

  Romanticism. The romantic period in Spain is less a revolution than a restoration. In common with the same period in the rest of Europe, it is a time of intense emotional expression. There is also a return to nature expressed in the realistic novel, which is Spain’s richest vein.
  22
  Lyrism. The impulsive José de Espronceda (1808–1842) is the most characteristic of Spanish lyric poets, and typical of his age. ‘El Diablo Mundo,’ full of bitter observation, and idealism colored with his artistic personalism, expressed with power and brilliancy, is a chaotic masterpiece. Gustavo Bécquer (1836–1870), born in Seville, is a deeply inspired poet in his romantic fantasies in prose as well as in his beautiful ‘Rimas,’ concise, poignant verse with the tender wistfulness and whimsicality of the words and music of an Andalusian “copla,” a “Malaguëña,” or a “seguidilla.” Other poets are Campoamor (1817–1901), known for his maxims in verse, ‘Doloras’; Querol (1837–1889), whose ‘Cartas á María’ show deep feeling; Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda (1814–1873), authoress of the harmonious ‘Poes÷as liricas’; Núñez de Arce (1834–1903), the liberal poet of the ‘Gritos de Combate.’ In the sphere of political satire Mariano José de Larra (1809–1837) stands out in sharp relief.  23
  Drama. For the theatre, Angel Saavedra’s ‘Don Alvaro’ (1835) is a literary milestone, with its picturesque staging. The jovial fecundity of Breton de los Herreros (1796–1873) makes his name important. ‘Marcela ó Cúal de los tres?’ has kept its popularity. It is the lyric qualities of José Zorrilla (1817–1893) that distinguish his dramas. His fantastic-religious ‘Don Juan Tenorio’ was the most successful Spanish drama of the nineteenth century. Though carelessly composed, it has spontaneity and a certain power. Manuel Tamayo y Baus (1829–1898) is a good playwright, and his ‘Drama nuevo’ is moving and sympathetic. ‘El gran Galeoto’ by José Echegaray (1832–1916) is also a masterpiece of its kind. The characters are more real than in his other plays, and the moral is a more integral part, while his somber imagination has produced an intense tragic effect. Of living dramatists, the most interesting are the brothers Serafin (1871) and Joaquin (1873) Quintero, masters of sparkling dialogues, rich in feeling.  24
  The Modern Novel. In spite of the sentimental and didactic tendencies of Fernán Caballero (1796–1877), her novel ‘La Gaviota’ is charming. She knew the Andalusian village and paints it with a candid sympathy. There is much of the “sal andaluz,” and its graceful wit in the tales of Pedro Antonio de Alarcón (1833–1891), especially in the quaint, amusing ‘Sombrero de tres picos.’ Juan Valera (1824–1905), critic, poet, and philosopher, is famed as the writer of ‘Pepita Jiménez,’ a psychological study, subtle and poetic, ‘Doña Luz,’ and the more moving ‘El Comendador Mendoza.’ With a warm heart, José María de Pereda (1833–1906) draws in sharp relief, against a wonderful background of sea and mountains, the simple people he has known. Benito Pérez Galdós (1843–1920), prolix and observing, has covered almost every field of the novel with artistic conscientiousness. ‘Doña Perfecta’ and ‘Angel Guerra’ are studies of the religious question. ‘Fortunata y Jacinta’ is a vigorous picture of the changing bourgeoisie. Emilia Pardo Bazán (1852–1921) is a woman of unusual talents, whose novels ‘La Madre Naturaleza,’ an epic glorification of the primal instincts, and ‘Los Pazos de Ulloa’ show rare insight and descriptive power. There is a convincing humanity in the characters of Armando Palacio Valdés (1853–1938) that makes him highly esteemed abroad as well as in Spain, for his ‘Marta y María’ and ‘La Hermana San Sulpicio.’ The present-day master of realism, of the accumulation of essential detail, is Vicente Blasco Ibañez (1867–1928), whose vivid novels give life to a host of types and landscapes. ‘La Barraca’ and ‘Cañas y Barro’ are powerfully dramatic.  25
  It is fitting that we should close this outline with the name of Spain’s greatest critic Menéndez y Pelayo (1856–1912). Intelligent, sympathetic, and carefully documented, he has analyzed the development of Spanish letters, with a discrimination and surety, too sure at times, but always alert and penetrating.  26
 
Reading Recommended

 
DATES
AUTHORS
c.1132  ‘El Cid
1221–1284  Alfonso X of Castile
1474–1566  Bartolomé de las Casas
d. 1542  Juan Boscán
1496–1584  Bernal Díaz del Castillo
1530–1606  Baltasar del Alcázar
1547–1616  Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra
1562–1635  Lope de Vega
1600–1681  Pedro Calderón de la Barca
1796–1877  Fernán Caballero
1808–1842  José de Espronceda
1817–1893  José Zorrilla y Moral
1824–1905  Juan Valera
1832–1916  José Echegaray
1833–1891  Pedro Antonio de Alarcón
1833–1906  José Maria de Pereda
1837–1895  Jorge Isaacs
1843–1920  Benito Pérez Galdós
1852–1921  Emilia Pardo Bazán
1853–1938  Armando Palacio Valdés
1856–1912  Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo
c. 1524–1580  Luís de Camões
  Latin-American Literature
1651–1695  Sister Juana Inés de la Cruz
  27
 
  There is a wealth of accurate information in a small compass in Fitzmaurice-Kelly’s work on Spanish literature. A classic on the subject is Ticknor’s ‘History of Spanish Literature’ in three volumes. For the Poem of the Cid,’ consult the interesting preface to the Ormsby translation. See also F. W. Chandler’s ‘The Romances of Roguery.’ For the poets, read the Spanish section of Longfellow’s ‘Poets and Poetry of Europe,’ and Kennedy’s ‘Modern Poets and Poetry of Spain.’ Havelock Ellis in ‘The Soul of Spain’ gives a stimulating interpretation of Spanish life and culture.  28
 
Chronology of the Literature of Spain

 
DATES
AUTHORS
THE MIDDLE AGES
c. 1132  ?  ‘Poema del Cid’
?  ?  ‘Razon feita d’Amor’
1180–1246  Gonzalo de Berceo  ‘Vida de Sancta Oria’
1221–1284  Alfonso X of Castile  History, Law, Poetry
1282–1347  Juan Manuel  ‘El Conde Lucanor’
c. 1351  Juan Ruiz  ‘Libro de buen Amor’
?1400  ?  ‘Dance of Death’
  
THE RENAISSANCE
1376?–1460?  Pérez de Guzmán  Historical portraits
1398–1458  Marquis of Santillana  Sonnets, vaqueiras, etc.
1440?–1479  Jorge Manrique  Poetry
1445    Cancionero de Baena
14th–17th centuries    Romances (ballads)
1468–1529?  Juan del Encina  Plays
c. 1470–c. 1536  Gil Vicente  Plays
c. 1492  Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo  ‘Amadis of Gaul’
1499  Fernando de Rojas  ‘La Celestina’
  
THE GOLDEN AGE
1503–1536  Garcilaso de la Vega  Poetry
?–1530  B. Torres Naharro  Plays
1503–1575  Diego Hurtado de Mendoza
1510–1565  Lope de Rueda  Comedies
1515–1582  Santa Teresa  ‘The Inner Castle’
1527–1591  Luis de León  ‘Los Nombres de Cristo’
1534?–1597  Fernando Herrera  Poetry
1536–1624  Juan de Mariana  History of Spain
1540–16211  Antonio Pérez  Letters
c. 1500–1541  Juan de Valdés  Dialogues
1542–1591  Juan de la Cruz  Mystic Poetry
1547–1616  Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra  ‘Don Quixote,’ ‘Novelas Ejemplares’
1547–1614?  Mateo Alemán  ‘Guzmán de Alfarache’
1550?–1624  Vicente Martinez Espinel  ‘Marcos de Obregón’
1503–1575  Diego Hurtado de Mendoza  ‘Lazarillo de Tormes’
1561–1627  Luis de Argote y Góngora  Poetry
1562–1635  Lope de Vega  Plays, poems
1569–1631  Guillén de Castro y Bellvis  ‘Las Mocedades del Cid’
1571?–1648  Tirso de Molina  Plays
1580–1645  Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Villegas  ‘Buscón, Visions’
1600–1681  Pedro Calderón de la Barca  ‘La vida es sueño,’ Plays
1544?–1619?  Ginés Pérez de Hita  Guerras civiles de Granada
  
NEO-CLASSIC PERIOD
1702–1754  Igncio de Luzán  Criticism
1760–1828  Fernandez de Moratín  Comedies
1772–1857  M. J. Quitana  Poetry
1731–1794  Ramón de la Cruz  Comedies
  
THE XIXth CENTURY
1791–1865  Angel de Saavedra  Plays
1796–1873  Breton de los Herreros  Drama
1796–1877  Fernán Caballero  Novels
1809–1837  Mariano José de Larra  Political Satire
1808–1842  José de Espronceda  Poetry
1817–1893  José Zorrilla y Moral  Poetry, Drama
1817–1901  Ramón de Campoamor  Poetry
1824–1905  Juan Valera  Novels, ‘Pepita Jiménez’
1829–1898  Tomayo y Baus  ‘Un Drama nuevo’
1832–1916  José Echegaray  Plays, ‘El gran Galeoto’
1833–1891  Pedro Antonio de Alarcón  Tales
1833–1906  José Maria de Pereda  Novels, ‘Sotileza’
1834–1903  G. Núñez de Arce  ‘Gritos de Combate’
1836–1870  Gustavo A. Bécquer  Tales, ‘Rimas’
1843–1920  Benito Pérez Galdós  Novels
1852–1921  Emilia Pardo Bazán  Novels, ‘La Madre Naturaleza’
1853–1938  Armando Palacio Valdés  Novels
1856–1912  M. Menéndez y Pelayo  ‘Criticism’
1867–1928  Vicente Blasco Ibañez  Novels, ‘La Barraca’
  29
 
 
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