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C.D. Warner, et al., comp.  The Library of the World’s Best Literature.
An Anthology in Thirty Volumes.  1917.
 
Story of Setna
Egyptian Literature
 
        
Translation of Francis Llewellyn Griffith
  
  [The beginning of this tale is lost, but it is clear from what remains of it that Setna Kha-em-uast, son of a Pharaoh who may be identified with Rameses II., of the XIXth Dynasty (about 1300 B.C.), was a diligent student of the ancient writings, chiefly for the sake of the occult knowledge which they were supposed to contain. He discovered, or was told of, the existence of a book which Thoth, the god of letters, science and magic, had “written with his own hand,” and learned that this book was to be found in the cemetery of Memphis, in the tomb of Na-nefer-ka-ptah, the only son of some earlier Pharaoh. Setna evidently succeeded in finding and entering this tomb, and there he saw the kas or ghosts of Na-nefer-ka-ptah, his wife (and sister) Ahura, and their little boy Merab; and with them was the book. To dissuade Setna from abstracting the book, Ahura tells him how they had become possessed of it, and had paid for it with their earthly lives; and it is with her tale that the papyrus begins. Setna, however, insists upon taking the book; but Na-nefer-ka-ptah challenges him, as a good scribe and a learned man, to a trial of skill in a game, and in the imposition of magical penalties on the loser. Setna agrees; but being worsted, he calls in outside help and succeeds in carrying off the book. Na-nefer-ka-ptah comforts Ahura for its loss by assuring her that Setna shall ignominiously restore it. Setna studies the book with delight; but presently, by the magic power of Na-nefer-ka-ptah, he becomes the victim of an extraordinary hallucination, and the strength of his spirit is broken because (in imagination at least) he is steeped in impurity and crime. When he awakes from this trance, Pharaoh persuades him to return the book to its dead owners. On his return to the tomb, Na-nefer-ka-ptah exacts from him the promise to go to the cemetery of Koptos and bring thence to Memphis the bodies of Ahura and of Merab, which had been buried there, apart from him. Setna duly performs his promise, and so the story ends.
  The only known copy of this tale appears to have been written in 251 B.C., the thirty-fifth year of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and it must have been composed at least as late as the Sebennyte Dynasty, early in the fourth century, although it refers to historical characters of a thousand years before.
  The story is more elaborate, and its plot is more coherent than is the case with the earlier tales such as that of Anpu and Bata, in which events succeed each other often without natural connection. The language however is in simple narrative style, without any attempt at fine writing.
  At the point at which the mutilated papyrus begins, we find that Ahura is telling Setna the story of her life. Apparently he has just been told how she sent a messenger to the king, asking that she may be married to her brother Na-nefer-ka-ptah. The king has refused her request, and the messenger has reproached him for his unkindness; the king replies:—]

“‘IT is thou who art dealing wrongly towards me. If it happen that I have not a child after two children, is it the law to marry the one with the other of them? I will marry Naneferkaptah with the daughter of a commander of troops, and I will marry Ahura with the son of another commander of troops: it has so happened in our family much.’  1
  “It came to pass that the amusement was set before Pharaoh, and they came for me and took me to the amusement named, and it happened that my soul was troubled exceedingly and I behaved not in my manner of the previous day. Said Pharaoh to me, ‘Ahura, is it thou that didst cause them to come to me in these anxieties, saying, “Let me marry with Naneferkaptah, my elder brother”?’  2
  “Said I to him, ‘Let me marry with the son of a commander of troops, and let him marry with the daughter of another commander of troops: it has happened in our family much.’  3
  “I laughed, Pharaoh laughed, and his soul was exceeding gladdened. Said Pharaoh to the steward of the king’s house, ‘Let Ahura be taken to the house of Naneferkaptah to-night, and let all things that are good be taken with her.’  4
  “I was taken as a wife to the house of Naneferkaptah in the night named, and a present of silver and gold was brought to me; the household of Pharaoh caused them all to be brought to me. And Naneferkaptah made a good day 1 with me; he received all the heads of the household of Pharaoh. And he found me pleasing, he quarreled not with me, ever, ever: each of us loved his fellow. And when I was about to bear a child, report of it was made before Pharaoh, and his soul was exceeding gladdened, and Pharaoh caused many things to be taken for me on the instant; he caused to be brought to me a present of silver and gold and royal linen, beautiful exceedingly. Then came my time of bearing; I bore this boy that is before thee, whose name is called Merab, and he was caused to write in the book of the ‘House of Life.’ 2  5
  “It came to pass that Naneferkaptah, my brother, had no habit on the earth 3 but to walk in the cemetery of Memphis, reading the writings that were in the catacombs of the Pharaohs, with the tablets of the scribes of the ‘House of Life,’ and the inscriptions that were on the monuments; and he was eager for writing exceedingly.  6
  “After these things it befell that there was a procession in honor of Ptah; Naneferkaptah went into the temple to worship, and he chanced to be walking behind the procession reading the inscriptions that were in the shrines of the gods. An aged priest saw him and laughed. Naneferkaptah said to him, ‘For what art thou laughing at me?’  7
  “And he said:—‘I am not laughing at thee; if I laughed, it was that thou art reading writings that no one on earth has any good of. If it be that thou seekest to read writings, come to me, and I will bring thee to the place where that roll is which it was Thoth that wrote with his own hand, and which goes down to fetch the gods. There are two formulas of writing that are upon it, and when thou readest the first formula thou will enchant the heaven, the earth, the underworld, the mountains, and the seas; thou shalt discover all that the birds of the heaven and the creeping things shall say; thou shalt see the fishes of the deep, for there is a power from God brings them into water above them. And when thou readest the second formula, if it be that thou art in Ament 4 thou takest thy form of earth again. Thou wilt see the sun rising in the sky with his circle of gods, and the moon in its form of shining.’  8
  “And Naneferkaptah said, ‘As the king liveth! Let a good thing that thou dost desire be told me, and I will have it done for thee, if thou wilt direct me to the place where this roll is.’  9
  “Said the priest to Naneferkaptah: ‘If it be that thou desirest to be directed to the place where this roll is, thou shalt give me three hundred ounces of silver for my funeral, and provide that they shall make me two coffin cases as a great priest, rich in silver.’  10
  “Naneferkaptah called a lad, and caused to be given the three hundred ounces of silver for the priest, and he caused to be done what he desired for two coffin cases; he caused them to be made as for a great and rich priest.  11
  “Said the priest to Naneferkaptah:—‘The roll named, it is in the midst of the Sea of Koptos, 5 in a box of iron. In the iron box is a box of bronze, in the bronze box is a box of Kedt wood, in the box of Kedt wood is a box of ivory and ebony, in the box of ivory and ebony is a box of silver, in the box of silver is a box of gold in which is the roll. There is a mile of snakes, scorpions, and every kind of reptile surrounding the box in which the roll is; there is a snake of eternity surrounding the box named.’  12
  “At the time of the relation that the priest made before Naneferkaptah, Naneferkaptah knew not what place on earth he was in. 6 And he came out of the temple and related before me all that the priest had said to him. He said to me, ‘I shall go to Koptos, I shall fetch this roll thence; I shall not be slow in coming back to the north again.’  13
  “It came to pass that I opposed the priest, saying: ‘Beware of this thing that thou hast spoken before him! Thou hast brought to me the strife of the nome of Thebes; 7 I have found it cruel.’ I caused my hand to stay 8 with Naneferkaptah, in order not to let him go to Koptos. He did not hearken to me; he went before Pharaoh and related before Pharaoh everything that the priest had said to him—all. Pharaoh said to him, ‘What is it that thou desirest?’  14
  “He said to him, ‘Cause to be given to me the royal pleasure boat with its equipment: I will take Ahura and Merab her boy to the south with me; I will fetch this roll without delaying.’  15
  “They gave him the royal pleasure-boat with its equipment, and we went up on board it; we set sail and reached Koptos. And they made report of it before the priests of Isis of Koptos and the high priest of Isis; they came down to meet us, they delayed not to meet Naneferkaptah; their women came down to meet me also. We went up on shore; we went into the temple of Isis and Harpokrates, and Naneferkaptah caused to be brought ox, goose, and wine; he made a burnt-offering and a drink-offering before Isis of Koptos and Harpokrates. We were taken to a house exceeding beautiful, filled with all good things, and Naneferkaptah spent four days making a good day with the priests of Isis of Koptos, the women of the priests of Isis making a good day with myself.  16
  “Came the morning of our fifth day: Naneferkaptah caused to be brought to him pure wax. 9 He made a boat, furnished with its crew and its tackle. He read a spell to them, he caused them to live, he gave them breath, he cast them into the sea. He loaded the royal pleasure-boat of Pharaoh with sand; he caused the boat to be brought, he went on board. I sat by the sea of Koptos, saying, ‘I will discover what will become of him.’  17
  “He said, ‘Boatmen, row on with me as far as the place in which this roll is.’ And they rowed by night as by midday.  18
  “And when he reached it, in three days, he threw sand before him, then there became a space of dry land. And when he found a mile of serpents and scorpions, and every kind of creeping thing encompassing the box in which the roll was, and when he found a snake of eternity encompassing the box, he read a spell to the mile of serpents, scorpions, and every kind of creeping thing that was around the box, and suffered them not to leap up. He went to the place in which was the snake of eternity; he made battle with it, he slew it. It lived; it made its form again. He made battle with it again for a second time; he slew it: it lived. He made battle with it again for a third time; he made it in two pieces; he put sand between one piece and its fellow. It died; it did not make its form ever again.  19
  “Naneferkaptah went to the place where the box was. He found that it was a box of iron; he opened it, he found a box of bronze; he opened it, he found a box of Kedt wood; he opened it, he found a box of ivory and ebony; he opened it, he found a box of silver; he opened it, he found a box of gold; he opened it, he found the book in it. He took up the roll from in the box of gold, he read a formula of writing from it. He enchanted the heaven, the earth, the underworld, the mountains, and the seas; he discovered all that the birds of the heaven with the fishes of the deep, the beasts of the mountains said—all. He read another formula of writing, he saw the Sun rising in the sky with all his circle of gods, and the moon rising, and the stars in their shapes; he saw the fishes of the deep, for there was a power from God brought them into the water over them. He read a spell to the sea, and restored it as it was. He embarked. He said to the crew, ‘Row on for me as far as the place to which I go.’ And they rowed at night like as at midday. When he reached the place where I was, he found me sitting by the sea of Koptos, without drinking or eating anything, without doing anything on the earth, being in the likeness of one who has reached the Good Houses. 10  20
  “I said to Naneferkaptah, ‘O Naneferkaptah, let me see this book, for which we have taken these pains!’  21
  “He put the roll into my hand. I read a formula of writing in it; I enchanted the heaven, the earth, the underworld, the mountains, the seas; I discovered what the birds of the sky, the fishes of the deep, and the beasts of the hills said—all. I read another formula of the writing, and I saw the sun rising in the sky with his circle of gods; I saw the moon shining with all the stars of the heaven in their nature; I saw the fishes of the deep, for it was that a power from God brought them into the water above where they were. As I could not write, it was that I spoke to Naneferkaptah my elder brother, who was a good scribe and a learned man exceedingly; and he caused to be brought before him a piece of new papyrus; he wrote every word that was on the roll before him—all. He dipped it in beer, he melted it in water, he saw that it had been melted, he drank it, he knew that which was in it. 11  22
  “We returned to Koptos on the day named: we made a good day before Isis of Koptos and Harpokrates. We embarked, we went down to the river, we reached north of Koptos by one mile. Behold, Thoth had discovered everything that happened to Naneferkaptah on account of the roll; Thoth delayed not, he complained before the Sun, saying, ‘Know my right, my judgment with Naneferkaptah the son of Pharaoh Mernebptah! He went to my place, he robbed it, he took my box containing my book, he killed my guard who was watching it.’  23
  “It was said to him, ‘He is before thee, with every man that belongeth to him—all.’ 12  24
  “There was sent a power from God down from heaven, saying, ‘Let not Naneferkaptah go to Memphis safe, with every man that belongeth to him—all.’  25
  “An hour passed: Merab, the boy, came out from under the awning of the pleasure-boat of Pharaoh, he fell into the river, he did the will of Ra. Everybody that was on board uttered a cry—all. Naneferkaptah came out from under his cabin, he read a writing over him, he caused him to come up, for it was that a power from God in the water was laid on his upper side. 13 He read a writing over him, he made him relate before him of everything that had happened to him—all, and the accusation that Thoth made before Ra.  26
  “We returned to Koptos with him. We caused him to be taken to the Good House and laid in state; we caused him to be embalmed like a prince and great man; we caused him to rest in his coffin in the cemetery of Koptos.  27
  “Said Naneferkaptah my brother, ‘Let us go down the river, let us not delay before Pharaoh hear the things that have happened to us, and his soul be sad therefore.’  28
  “We embarked, we went down-stream, we delayed not; and traveled to the north of Koptos by one mile. At the place of the falling of Merab the boy into the river, I came out from under the awning of the pleasure-boat of Pharaoh, I fell into the river, I did the will of Ra. Everybody that was on board uttered a cry—all. They told it to Naneferkaptah, he came out from under the awning of the pleasure-boat of Pharaoh, he read a writing over me, he caused me to leap up, for it was that a power from God in the water rested on my upper side. He caused me to be taken up, he read a writing over me, he caused me to relate before him everything that had happened unto me—all; and the accusation that Thoth had made before Ra. He returned to Koptos with me, he caused me to be brought to the Good House, he caused me to be laid in state, he caused me to be embalmed with the embalmment of a prince and very great person, he caused me to rest in the tomb where Merab the boy lay.  29
  “He embarked, he went down-stream, he hastened north of Koptos by one mile to the place of our falling into the river. He spake with his soul, saying:—‘Can I go to Koptos and dwell there? Otherwise, if it be that I go to Memphis, the moment that Pharaoh asks me after his children, what shall I say to him? Can I tell it to him, saying, I took thy children to the nome of Thebes, I killed them, I being alive; I came to Memphis, I being alive still?’  30
  “He caused them to bring a strip of royal linen before him; he made it into a girdle. He bound the roll, he put it upon his stomach, he made it firm. Naneferkaptah came out from under the awning of the pleasure-boat of Pharaoh, he fell into the river, he did the will of Ra. Everybody that was on board uttered a cry—all, saying: ‘Great woe! Oppressive woe! Has he gone back, 14 the good scribe, the learned man, to whom there is no equal?’  31
  “The pleasure-boat of Pharaoh went down-stream, without any one on earth knowing where Naneferkaptah was. They reached Memphis, they made report of it before Pharaoh. Pharaoh came down to meet the pleasure-boat of Pharaoh in mourning, the army of Memphis took mourning—all, together with the priests of Ptah, the chief prophet of Ptah, with the officials and household of Pharaoh—all. They saw Naneferkaptah clinging to the rudders of the pleasure-boat of Pharaoh, by virtue of his art of a good scribe. They drew him up, they saw the roll on his stomach. Said Pharaoh, ‘Let this roll that is on his stomach be hidden away.’  32
  “Said the officers of Pharaoh, with the priests of Ptah, and the chief prophet of Ptah, before Pharaoh: ‘O our great lord the King, may he accomplish the duration of Ra! 15 Naneferkaptah was a good scribe, a learned man exceedingly.’  33
  “Pharaoh caused to be given to him entrance to the Good House for sixteen days, wrapping for thirty-five and coffining for seventy; he was caused to rest in his tomb, in his places of rest.”  34
 
  [Having finished her story, Ahura proceeds to point out the moral to Setna.]  35
  “I am suffering the ills which have come upon us because of this roll of which thou sayest, ‘Let it be given to me!’ Thou hast no claim to it: our life on earth has been taken for it.”  36
  Said Setna, “Ahura, let this roll be given me which I see between thee and Naneferkaptah, else will I take it by force.”  37
  Rose Naneferkaptah on the couch; he said: “Art thou Setna, before whom this woman has told these misfortunes which thou hast not suffered—all? The book named, canst thou take it only by strength of a good scribe? It were sufficient to play draughts with me. Let us play for it at the game of fifty-two points.”  38
  And Setna said, “I am ready.”  39
  The board and its pieces were put before them. They played at the fifty-two, and Naneferkaptah won a game from Setna. He [Naneferkaptah] read a spell over him; he [Setna] defended himself with the game-board that was before him. He [Naneferkaptah] made him [Setna] go into the ground as far as his feet. He did its like in the second game; he won it from Setna, he made him go into the ground as far as his middle. He did its like in the third game; he made him go into the ground as far as his ears. After these things Setna made a great blow on the hand of Naneferkaptah. Setna called to Anheru, his brother by Anherart, 16 saying: “Make haste and go up upon the earth, do thou relate of everything that has happened to me before Pharaoh, and do thou bring the amulets of Ptah my father, 17 and my rolls of magic.”  40
  He hastened up upon earth, he related before Pharaoh of everything that had happened to Setna. Said Pharaoh, “Take to him the amulets of Ptah his father, and his rolls of magic.”  41
  Anheru hastened down into the tomb; he laid the talismans on the body of Setna, he [Setna] sprang to heaven at the moment named. 18 Setna caused his hand to go after the roll, he took it. It came to pass that Setna went up from the tomb, Light walking before him and Darkness walking behind him, and Ahura weeping after him, saying, “Hail to thee, King Darkness! Farewell to thee, King Light! All consolation is gone that was in the tomb.”  42
  Said Naneferkaptah to Ahura, “Be not troubled of soul; I will make him bring this book hither, there being a fork for a staff in his hand, there being a pan of fire on his head.” 19  43
  And Setna came up from the tomb, he made it fast behind him in its manner.  44
  Setna went before Pharaoh, he related before him of the thing that had happened to him with the roll. Said Pharaoh to Setna, “Take this roll to the tomb of Naneferkaptah in the manner of a prudent man, else he will make thee bring it, there being a fork for a staff in thine hand, there being a pan of fire on thine head.”  45
  Not did Setna hearken to him. It came to pass that Setna had no habit on earth but unrolling the roll and reading it before everybody.  46
  After these things there was a day when Setna passed time in the court of Ptah, and saw a woman beautiful exceedingly, there being no woman of her beauty. There were ornaments of much gold upon her, there were children and women walking behind her, there were fifty-two persons of chiefs of households assigned to her. The hour that Setna saw her he knew not the place on earth where he was. Setna called to his attendant youth, saying, “Go quickly to the place where this woman is; learn what comes under her command.”  47
  The attendant youth went quickly to the place where the woman was, he addressed the handmaid who walked behind her, he asked her, saying, “What person is this woman?” She said to him, “She is Tabubua, the daughter of the prophet of Bast, lady of Ankhtaui, she having come hither to pray before Ptah the great god.”  48
  The youth went back to Setna, he related before him of everything that she had told him—all.  49
 
  [In his infatuation for this woman, Setna forgets all decorum and all duty, and follows her home to Bubastis, and “ashamed was every one that was about Setna.” To win the favor of Tabubua, he hands over to her all his possessions and the inheritance of his children; and at length she demands that his children should be put to death to prevent disputes.]  50
  Setna said, “Let there be done unto them the abomination that has entered thy heart.”  51
  She caused his children to be slain before his face; she caused them to be cast down from the window before the dogs and the cats. They devoured their flesh, he hearing them, he drinking with Tabubua.  52
 
  [Setna awakens from the trance in which he has in imagination sunk to such depths of wickedness, to find himself lying naked in a strange place.]  53
  An hour it was that passed when Setna saw a great man riding on a chariot, there being many men running at his feet, he being like Pharaoh. Setna came to rise; he could not rise for shame, for there was no clothing upon him. Pharaoh said, “Setna, what has befallen thee in this state in which thou art?”  54
  Said he, “Naneferkaptah is he who hath done this to me—all.”  55
  Pharaoh said, “Go to Memphis: thy children they are seeking for thee; they are standing on their feet before Pharaoh.”  56
  Setna said before Pharaoh, “My great lord the King, may he accomplish the duration of Ra! What is the manner of going to Memphis that I can do, there being no clothes on earth upon me?”  57
  Pharaoh called to a youth standing by, he made him give clothing to Setna. Said Pharaoh to Setna, “Go to Memphis: thy children, they are alive, they are standing on their feet before Pharaoh.”  58
  Setna came to Memphis, he embraced his children with hand, he found them alive. Pharaoh said, “Is it drinking that hath brought thee thus?”  59
  Setna related everything that had happened to him with Tabubua, with Naneferkaptah—all. Pharaoh said: “Setna, I put my hand upon thee before, saying, ‘Thou wilt be slain if thou dost not take this roll to the place from which it was brought.’ Thou didst not listen to me till this hour. Give this roll to Naneferkaptah, there being a forked stick for a staff in thine hand, there being a pan of fire on thine head.”  60
  Setna came out from before Pharaoh, there being a forked stick for a staff in his hand, there being a pan of fire on his head. He went down to the tomb in which was Naneferkaptah. Ahura said to him, “Setna, it is Ptah the great god who hath brought thee back safe.”  61
  Naneferkaptah laughed, saying, “This is a thing that I told thee before.”  62
  Setna saluted Naneferkaptah; he found him as it is said, “He is the sun that is in the whole tomb.” Ahura and Naneferkaptah saluted Setna greatly. Setna said, “Naneferkaptah, is there aught that is disgraceful?”  63
  Naneferkaptah said, “Setna, thou knowest this, that Ahura and Merab her child, they are in Koptos: bring them here into this tomb by the skill of a good scribe. Let it be commanded before thee, and do thou take pains, and do thou go to Koptos, and do thou bring them hither.”  64
  Setna came up from the tomb and went before Pharaoh; he related before Pharaoh of everything that Naneferkaptah had said to him—all.  65
  Pharaoh said, “Setna, go to Koptos, bring Ahura and Merab her child.”  66
  He said before Pharaoh, “Let the pleasure-boat of Pharaoh be given to me with its equipment.”  67
  The pleasure-boat of Pharaoh was given to him with its equipment; he embarked, he sailed up, he did not delay, he arrived at Koptos.  68
  Information of it was given before the priests of Isis of Koptos, and the chief prophet of Isis. They came down to meet him, they took his hand to the shore. He went up, he went into the temple of Isis of Koptos and Harpokrates. He caused ox, goose, wine to be brought; he made a burnt-offering, a drink-offering, before Isis of Koptos and Harpokrates. He went to the cemetery of Koptos, with the priests of Isis and the chief prophet of Isis; they spent three days and three nights searching in the tombs which were in the cemetery of Koptos—all, turning over the stelæ of the scribes of the House of Life, reading the inscriptions that were on them. They found not the places of rest in which were Ahura and Merab her son.  69
  Naneferkaptah perceived that they found not the places of rest of Ahura and Merab her son. He rose from the dead as an old man, great of age exceedingly. He came to meet Setna, and Setna saw him. Setna said to the old man, “Thou art of the appearance of a man great of age: knowest thou the places of rest in which are Ahura and Merab her child?”  70
  The old man said to Setna, “The father of the father of my father told to the father of my father, and the father of my father told to my father, that the resting-places of Ahura and Merab her child are by the south corner of the house of Pehemato, as his name is.”  71
  Said Setna to the old man, “Is it not an injury that Pehemato hath done thee, by reason of which thou comest to cause his house to be brought down to the ground?”  72
  The old man said to Setna, “Let watch be set over me and let the house of Pehemato be taken down. If it be that they find not Ahura and Merab her child under the south corner of his house, may abomination be done to me.”  73
  A watch was set over the old man; the resting-place of Ahura and Merab her child was found under the south corner of the house of Pehemato. Setna caused them to enter as great people on the pleasure-boat of Pharaoh; he caused the house of Pehemato to be built in its former manner. Naneferkaptah made Setna to discover what had happened: that it was he who had come to Koptos to let them find the resting-place in which Ahura and Merab her child were.  74
  Setna embarked on the pleasure-boat of Pharaoh, he went down the river, he did not delay, he reached Memphis with all the army that was with him—all. Report was made of it before Pharaoh, he came down to meet the pleasure-boat of Pharaoh. He caused them to be introduced as great persons to the tomb where Naneferkaptah was, he caused dirges to be made above them.  75
 
  This is a complete writing, relating of Setna Khaemuast, and Naneferkaptah, and Ahura his wife, and Merab her child. This … was written in the XXXVth year, the month Tybi.  76
 
Note 1. “To make a good day”—to keep holiday, to hold festival. [back]
Note 2. This apparently means that he was enrolled as one to be educated as a learned scribe. [back]
Note 3. I.e., as we should say, “he did nothing in the world but walk in the cemetery of Memphis,” etc. [back]
Note 4. The realm of Osiris as god of the dead. [back]
Note 5. It is difficult to locate this lake in accordance with the actual geography of Egypt. [back]
Note 6. A frequent phrase for extreme delight or amazement. [back]
Note 7. There seems to be some reference to past history in this. [back]
Note 8. An idiomatic phrase like “he caused his hand to go after the roll” for “put out his hand to take the roll.” [back]
Note 9. Wax was the regular material used for the manufacture of models which were intended to be used in the practice of magic. [back]
Note 10. The place of embalmment. [back]
Note 11. A similar method is still employed by Arab doctors and wizards. To heal a disease a formula is written out and then washed off the paper in a bowl of water, which is given to the patient to drink. [back]
Note 12. Cf. Job i., 12. [back]
Note 13. I.e., above him. [back]
Note 14. An expression for death, like our “gone home.” [back]
Note 15. I.e., “May he live as long as the Sun god.” [back]
Note 16. The presence of names compounded with the name of Anher, god of Sebennytus, indicates that the story was written during or after the supremacy of that city, at the end of the native rule. [back]
Note 17. Setna Kha-em-uast was high priest of Ptah. [back]
Note 18. Evidently a strong expression, to show the instantaneous and powerful effect of the amulets in drawing him out of the ground. [back]
Note 19. This choice of symbols of submission is not yet explained. [back]
 
 
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