|Henry Gray (1825–1861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.|
|is the incisive fossa, and beneath the second premolar tooth the mental foramen which transmits the mental nerve and vessels. The oblique line runs upward from the mental tubercle and is continuous behind with the anterior border of the ramus. The posterior border of the ramus runs downward and forward from the condyle to the angle, which is frequently more or less everted.|
FIG. 190– The skull from the front. (See enlarged image)
FIG. 191– Horizontal section of nasal and orbital cavities. (See enlarged image)
The Orbits (orbitæ) (Fig. 190).—The orbits are two quadrilateral pyramidal cavities, situated at the upper and anterior part of the face, their bases being directed forward and lateralward, and their apices backward and medialward, so that their long axes, if continued backward, would meet over the body of the sphenoid. Each presents for examination a roof, a floor, a medial and a lateral wall, a base, and an apex.
FIG. 192– Medial wall of left orbit. (See enlarged image)
| The roof is concave, directed downward, and slightly forward, and formed in front by the orbital plate of the frontal; behind by the small wing of the sphenoid. It presents medially the trochlear fovea for the attachment of the cartilaginous pulley of the Obliquus oculi superior; laterally, the lacrimal fossa for the lacrimal gland; and posteriorly, the suture between the frontal bone and the small wing of the sphenoid.|
| The floor is directed upward and lateralward, and is of less extent than the roof; it is formed chiefly by the orbital surface of the maxilla; in front and laterally, by the orbital process of the zygomatic bone, and behind and medially, to a small extent, by the orbital process of the palatine. At its medial angle is the upper opening of the nasolacrimal canal, immediately to the lateral side of which is a depression for the origin of the Obliquus oculi inferior. On its lateral part is the suture between the maxilla and zygomatic bone, and at its posterior part that between the maxilla and the orbital process of the palatine. Running forward near the middle of the floor is the infraorbital groove, ending in front in the infraorbital canal and transmitting the infraorbital nerve and vessels.|