Reference > Anatomy of the Human Body > Page 376
Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
material (the clear substance of the sarcomere) recedes into the sarcous element, causing the sarcomere to widen out and shorten. The contraction of the muscle is merely the sum total of this widening out and shortening of these bodies.

Vessels and Nerves of Striped Muscle.—The capillaries of striped muscle are very abundant, and form a sort of rectangular network, the branches of which run longitudinally in the endomysium between the muscular fibers, and are joined at short intervals by transverse anastomosing branches. In the red muscles of the rabbit dilatations occur on the transverse branches of the capillary network. The larger vascular channels, arteries and veins, are found only in the perimysium, between the muscular fasciculi. Nerves are profusely distributed to striped muscle. Their mode of termination is described on page 730. The existence of lymphatic vessels in striped muscle has not been ascertained, though they have been found in tendons and in the sheaths of the muscles.
  Ossification of muscular tissue as a result of repeated strain or injury is not infrequent. It is oftenest found about the tendon of the Adductor longus and Vastus medialis in horsemen, or in the Pectoralis major and Deltoideus of soldiers. It may take the form of exostoses firmly fixed to the bone—e.g., “rider’s bone” on the femur—or of layers or spicules of bone lying in the muscles or their fasciæ and tendons. Busse states that these bony deposits are preceded by a hemorrhagic myositis due to injury, the effused blood organizing and being finally converted into bone. In the rarer disease, progressive myositis ossificans, there is an unexplained tendency for practically any of the voluntary muscles to become converted into solid and brittle bony masses which are completely rigid.
3. Tendons, Aponeuroses, and Fasciæ
  Tendons are white, glistening, fibrous cords, varying in length and thickness, sometimes round, sometimes flattened, and devoid of elasticity. They consist almost entirely of white fibrous tissue, the fibrils of which have an undulating course parallel with each other and are firmly united together. When boiled in water tendon is almost completely converted into gelatin, the white fibers being composed of the albuminoid collagen, which is often regarded as the anhydride of gelatin. They are very sparingly supplied with bloodvessels, the smaller tendons presenting in their interior no trace of them. Nerves supplying tendons have special modifications of their terminal fibers, named organs of Golgi.
  Aponeuroses are flattened or ribbon-shaped tendons, of a pearly white color, iridescent, glistening, and similar in structure to the tendons. They are only sparingly supplied with bloodvessels.
  The tendons and aponeuroses are connected, on the one hand, with the muscles, and, on the other hand, with the movable structures, as the bones, cartilages ligaments, and fibrous membranes (for instance, the sclera). Where the muscular fibers are in a direct line with those of the tendon or aponeurosis, the two are directly continuous. But where the muscular fibers join the tendon or aponeurosis at an oblique angle, they end, according to Kölliker, in rounded extremities which are received into corresponding depressions on the surface of the latter, the connective tissue between the muscular fibers being continuous with that of the tendon. The latter mode of attachment occurs in all the penniform and bipenniform muscles, and in those muscles the tendons of which commence in a membranous form, as the Gastrocnemius and Soleus.
  The fasciæ are fibroareolar or aponeurotic laminæ, of variable thickness and strength, found in all regions of the body, investing the softer and more delicate organs. During the process of development many of the cells of the mesoderm are differentiated into bones, muscles, vessels, etc.; the cells of the mesoderm which are not so utilized form an investment for these structures and are differentiated into the true skin and the fasciæ of the body. They have been subdivided, from the situations in which they occur, into superficial and deep.


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