Reference > World Factbook, 2008
  The World Factbook.  2008.
Flag of Angola                                Map of Angola
Background:Angola is rebuilding its country after the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but UNITA renewed fighting after being beaten by the MPLA at the polls. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS has announced legislative elections will be held on September 5 and 6, 2008, with Presidential elections planned for sometime in 2009.
Location:Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates:12 30 S, 18 30 E
Map references:Africa
Area:total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:total: 5,198 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km
Coastline:1,600 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain:narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m
Natural resources:petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land use:arable land: 2.65%
permanent crops: 0.23%
other: 97.12% (2005)
Irrigated land:800 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:184 cu km (1987)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.35 cu km/yr (23%/17%/60%)
per capita: 22 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Environment—current issues:overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Population:12,263,596 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 43.7% (male 2,706,276/female 2,654,338)
15-64 years: 53.5% (male 3,339,114/female 3,225,121)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 149,414/female 189,333) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 17.9 years
male: 17.9 years
female: 17.9 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:2.184% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:44.51 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:24.81 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:2.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.035 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.789 male(s)/female
total population: 1.021 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 184.44 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 196.55 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 171.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 37.63 years
male: 36.73 years
female: 38.57 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:6.27 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:3.9% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:240,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:21,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2008)
Nationality:noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
Ethnic groups:Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Religions:indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)
Languages:Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.4%
male: 82.9%
female: 54.2% (2001 est.)
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
Government type:republic; multiparty presidential regime
Capital:name: Luanda
geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 14 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence:11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitution:adopted by People's Assembly 25 August 1992
Legal system:based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was appointed prime minister on 6 December 2002
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by universal ballot for a five-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term) under the 1992 constitution; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held because SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed leaving DOS SANTOS in his current position as the president
Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held in September 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, other 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, other 7
Judicial branch:Supreme Court and separate provincial courts (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed between Ngola KABANGU and Lucas NGONDA]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA (largest opposition party) [Isaias SAMAKUVA]; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA (ruling party in power since 1975) [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS]; Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]
note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but only won a few seats; they and over 100 other smaller parties have little influence in the National Assembly
Political pressure groups and leaders:Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]
note: FLEC's small-scale, highly factionalized armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province ended after BEMBE's faction signed a peace accord in August 2006; other factions have since demobilized under provisions of the accord, although the two main faction leaders have not acceded to the accord
International organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKITE
chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Dan MOZENA
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] (222) 64-1000
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1232
Flag description:two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)
Economy—overview:Angola's high growth rate is driven by its oil sector, with record oil prices and rising petroleum production. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 85% of GDP. Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 15% per year from 2004 to 2007. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Much of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. Remnants of the conflict such as widespread land mines still mar the countryside even though an apparently durable peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI in February 2002. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food must still be imported. In 2005, the government started using a $2 billion line of credit, since increased to $7 billion, from China to rebuild Angola's public infrastructure, and several large-scale projects were completed in 2006. Angola also has large credit lines from Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU. The central bank in 2003 implemented an exchange rate stabilization program using foreign exchange reserves to buy kwanzas out of circulation. This policy became more sustainable in 2005 because of strong oil export earnings; it has significantly reduced inflation. Although consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to under 13% in 2007, the stabilization policy has put pressure on international net liquidity. Angola became a member of OPEC in late 2006 and in late 2007 was assigned a production quota of 1.9 million barrels a day, somewhat less than the 2-2.5 million bbl Angola's government had wanted. To fully take advantage of its rich national resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to implement government reforms, increase transparency, and reduce corruption. The government has rejected a formal IMF monitored program, although it continues Article IV consultations and ad hoc cooperation. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, and the negative effects of "Dutch disease" produced by large inflows of foreign exchange, are major challenges facing Angola.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$80.95 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$61.04 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:16.3% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$6,500 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 9.6%
industry: 65.8%
services: 24.6% (2005 est.)
Labor force:6.573 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 85%
industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate:extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:70% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):12.5% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):9.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $18.58 billion
expenditures: $15.7 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:14.7% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Industries:petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
Industrial production growth rate:24.4% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:2.585 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:2.201 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:1.26 million bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:50,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:1.021 million bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:18,290 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:5.412 billion bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:767.3 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:767.3 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:44 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$13.64 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$43.23 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports—partners:US 38%, China 34.2%, Taiwan 5.8%, France 4.9%, Chile 4.1% (2006)
Imports:$11.41 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports—partners:US 15.3%, Portugal 15%, South Korea 10.1%, China 8.8%, Brazil 8.2%, South Africa 6.7%, France 6.2% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$12.29 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$8.835 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$17.6 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$227 million (2006 est.)
Economic aid—recipient:$441.8 million (2005)
Currency (code):kwanza (AOA)
Exchange rates:kwanza per US dollar - 76.6 (2007), 80.4 (2006), 88.6 (2005), 83.541 (2004), 74.606 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
Telephones—main lines in use:98,200 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:2.264 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: system inadequate; fewer than one fixed-line per 100 persons; combined fixed line and mobile telephone density approached 20 telephones per 100 persons in 2006
domestic: state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed-lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity and prices were high and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately-owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001
international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:6 (2000)
Internet country
Internet hosts:3,337 (2007)
Internet users:85,000 (2005)
Airports:232 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 31
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 201
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 95
under 914 m: 69 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 234 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 896 km; oil/gas/water 5 km (2007)
Railways:total: 2,761 km
narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 51,429 km
paved: 5,349 km
unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)
Waterways:1,300 km (2007)
Merchant marine:total: 5 ships (1000 GRT or over) 6,865 GRT/8,825 DWT
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2
foreign-owned: 1 (Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 6 (Bahamas 6) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe
Military branches:Angolan Armed Forces (FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MdG), Angolan National Air Force (FANA) (2007)
Military service age and obligation:17 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years plus time for training (2001)
Manpower available for military service:males age 17-49: 2,548,455
females age 17-49: 2,462,601 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 17-49: 1,282,195
females age 17-49: 1,256,390 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 126,694
females age 17-49: 123,586 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:5.7% (2006)
Transnational Issues
Disputes—international:many Cabindan separatists have returned to the province from exile since the 2006 ceasefire and peace agreement; concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam at Popavalle (Popa Falls) along the Angola-Namibia border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 13,464 (Democratic Republic of Congo)
IDPs: 61,700 (27-year civil war ending in 2002; 4 million IDPs already have returned) (2006)
Illicit drugs:used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa


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