Reference > World Factbook, 2008
  The World Factbook.  2008.
Flag of Bermuda                                Map of Bermuda
Background:Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be important to the island's economy, although international business has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. Although a referendum on independence from the UK was soundly defeated in 1995, the present government has reopened debate on the issue.
Location:North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of South Carolina (US)
Geographic coordinates:32 20 N, 64 45 W
Map references:North America
Area:total: 53.3 sq km
land: 53.3 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area—comparative:about one-third the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:0 km
Coastline:103 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate:subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
Terrain:low hills separated by fertile depressions
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Town Hill 76 m
Natural resources:limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Land use:arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 80% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (2005)
Irrigated land:NA
Natural hazards:hurricanes (June to November)
Environment—current issues:sustainable development
Geography—note:consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995
Population:66,163 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 18.3% (male 6,094/female 6,014)
15-64 years: 69.2% (male 22,696/female 23,094)
65 years and over: 12.5% (male 3,597/female 4,668) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 40.6 years
male: 39.7 years
female: 41.4 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:0.576% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:11.26 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:7.84 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:2.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.013 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.983 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.771 male(s)/female
total population: 0.959 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 8.08 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.58 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 78.13 years
male: 76 years
female: 80.29 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.88 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.297% (2005)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:163 (2005)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:392 (2005)
Nationality:noun: Bermudian(s)
adjective: Bermudian
Ethnic groups:black 54.8%, white 34.1%, mixed 6.4%, other races 4.3%, unspecified 0.4% (2000 census)
Religions:Anglican 23%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist Episcopal 11%, other Protestant 18%, other 12%, unaffiliated 6%, unspecified 1%, none 14% (2000 census)
Languages:English (official), Portuguese
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 99% (2005 est.)
Country name:conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bermuda
former: Somers Islands
Dependency status:overseas territory of the UK
Government type:parliamentary; self-governing territory
Capital:name: Hamilton
geographic coordinates: 32 17 N, 64 47 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
Administrative divisions:9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick
Independence:none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday:Bermuda Day, 24 May
Constitution:8 June 1968; amended 1989 and 2003
Legal system:English law
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Sir Richard GOZNEY (since 12 December 2007)
head of government: Premier Ewart BROWN (since 30 October 2006); Deputy Premier Paula COX
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed premier by the governor
Legislative branch:bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (11 seats; members appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition) and the House of Assembly (36 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve up to five-year terms)
elections: last general election held 18 December 2007 (next to be held not later than 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 52.5%, UBP 47.3%; seats by party - PLP 22, UBP 14
Judicial branch:Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts
Political parties and leaders:Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Ewart BROWN]; United Bermuda Party or UBP [Wayne FURBERT]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Ed BALL]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
International organization participation:Caricom (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, ITUC, UPU, WCO
Diplomatic representation in the US:none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Consul General Gregory W. SLAYTON
consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVO3
mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, US Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300
telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, [1] (441) 296-9233
Flag description:red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag
Economy—overview:Bermuda enjoys the highest per capita income in the world, more than 50% higher than that of the US. Its economy is primarily based on providing financial services for international business and luxury facilities for tourists. A number of reinsurance companies relocated to the island following the 11 September 2001 attacks and again after Hurricane Katrina in August 2005, contributing to the expansion of an already robust international business sector. Bermuda's tourism industry - which derives over 80% of its visitors from the US - continues to struggle but remains the island's number two industry. Most capital equipment and food must be imported. Bermuda's industrial sector is small, although construction continues to be important; the average cost of a house in June 2003 had risen to $976,000. Agriculture is limited with only 20% of the land being arable.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$4.5 billion (2004 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$NA
GDP—real growth rate:4.6% (2004 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$69,900 (2004 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 1%
industry: 10%
services: 89% (2002 est.)
Labor force:38,360 (2004)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture and fishing 3%, laborers 17%, clerical 19%, professional and technical 21%, administrative and managerial 15%, sales 7%, services 19% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:2.1% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:19% (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):2.8% (November 2005)
Budget:revenues: $738 million
expenditures: $665 million (FY04/05)
Agriculture—products:bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products, honey
Industries:international business, tourism, light manufacturing
Industrial production growth rate:NA%
Electricity—production:618 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:574.8 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil—consumption:4,400 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil—imports:4,250 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Exports:$763 million (2006)
Exports—commodities:reexports of pharmaceuticals
Exports—partners:Spain 35.3%, UK 15.7%, Brazil 9.1%, Sweden 7.5% (2006)
Imports:$1.162 billion (2006)
Imports—commodities:clothing, fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals
Imports—partners:US 71.8%, Venezuela 6.9%, Canada 6.6% (2006)
Debt—external:$160 million (FY99/00)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:$2.125 billion (2005)
Economic aid—recipient:$90,000 (2004)
Currency (code):Bermudian dollar (BMD)
Exchange rates:Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)
Fiscal year:1 April - 31 March
Telephones—main lines in use:57,700 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:60,100 (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: good
domestic: fully automatic digital telephone system; fiber-optic trunk lines
international: country code - 1-441; landing point for the Atlantica-1 telecommunications submarine cable that extends from the US to Brazil; satellite earth stations - 3 (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (2005)
Television broadcast stations:3 (2005)
Internet country
Internet hosts:2,949 (2007)
Internet users:42,000 (2005)
Airports:1 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2007)
Roadways:total: 447 km
paved: 447 km
note: public roads - 225 km; private roads - 222 km (2002)
Merchant marine:total: 133 ships (1000 GRT or over) 8,366,999 GRT/8,615,385 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 24, container 22, liquefied gas 30, passenger 23, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 15, refrigerated cargo 10, roll on/roll off 4
foreign-owned: 126 (Australia 4, Belgium 3, China 10, France 1, Germany 21, Greece 3, Hong Kong 4, Ireland 1, Israel 3, Japan 1, Nigeria 11, Norway 5, Singapore 1, Sweden 15, UK 20, US 23)
registered in other countries: 50 (Bahamas 12, Croatia 2, Marshall Islands 5, Philippines 31) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Hamilton, Saint George
Military branches:no regular military forces; Bermuda Police Service, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary, Bermuda Regiment
Military service age and obligation:18-23 years of age; eligible men required to register for conscription as needed into the Bermuda Regiment, which is largely voluntary; term of service 39 months (2007)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 15,151 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 12,165 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 408 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:0.11% (2005 est.)
Military—note:defense is the responsibility of the UK
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