Reference > World Factbook, 2008
  The World Factbook.  2008.
Afghanistanmostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
Albaniamostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
Algeriamostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
American Samoafive volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)
Andorrarugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Angolanarrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Anguillaflat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
Antarcticaabout 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to nearly 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent
Antigua and Barbudamostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
Arctic Oceancentral surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that, on average, is about 3 meters thick, although pressure ridges may be three times that thickness; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)
Argentinarich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
ArmeniaArmenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Arubaflat with a few hills; scant vegetation
Ashmore and Cartier Islandslow with sand and coral
Atlantic Oceansurface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and coastal portions of the Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm-water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic, counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin
Australiamostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
Austriain the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Azerbaijanlarge, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Bahamas, Thelong, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills
Bahrainmostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Bangladeshmostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Barbadosrelatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
Belarusgenerally flat and contains much marshland
Belgiumflat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast
Belizeflat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
Beninmostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains
Bermudalow hills separated by fertile depressions
Bhutanmostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Boliviarugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Bosnia and Herzegovinamountains and valleys
Botswanapredominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Bouvet Islandvolcanic; coast is mostly inaccessible
Brazilmostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
British Indian Ocean Territoryflat and low (most areas do not exceed two meters in elevation)
British Virgin Islandscoral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly
Bruneiflat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Bulgariamostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Burkina Fasomostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
Burmacentral lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands
Burundihilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
Cambodiamostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
Cameroondiverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north
Canadamostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Cape Verdesteep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Cayman Islandslow-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs
Central African Republicvast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in northeast and southwest
Chadbroad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
Chilelow coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
Chinamostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
Christmas Islandsteep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau
Clipperton Islandcoral atoll
Cocos (Keeling) Islandsflat, low-lying coral atolls
Colombiaflat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains
Comorosvolcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills
Congo, Democratic Republic of thevast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east
Congo, Republic of thecoastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin
Cook Islandslow coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south
Coral Sea Islandssand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)
Costa Ricacoastal plains separated by rugged mountains including over 100 volcanic cones, of which several are major volcanoes
Cote d'Ivoiremostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
Croatiageographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
Cubamostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast
Cypruscentral plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast
Czech RepublicBohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Denmarklow and flat to gently rolling plains
Djibouticoastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Dominicarugged mountains of volcanic origin
Dominican Republicrugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys interspersed
Ecuadorcoastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Egyptvast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
El Salvadormostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
Equatorial Guineacoastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
Eritreadominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling plains
Estoniamarshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Ethiopiahigh plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
European Unionfairly flat along the Baltic and Atlantic coast; mountainous in the central and southern areas
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains
Faroe Islandsrugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast
Fijimostly mountains of volcanic origin
Finlandmostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Francemetropolitan France: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east
French Guiana: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains
Guadeloupe: Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grande-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin
Martinique: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano
Reunion: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast
French Polynesiamixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs
French Southern and Antarctic LandsIle Amsterdam (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul): a volcanic island with steep coastal cliffs; the center floor of the volcano is a large plateau
Ile Saint-Paul (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul): triangular in shape, the island is the top of a volcano, rocky with steep cliffs on the eastern side; has active thermal springs
Iles Crozet: a large archipelago formed from the Crozet Plateau is divided into two groups of islands
Iles Kerguelen: the interior of the large island of Ile Kerguelen is composed of rugged terrain of high mountains, hills, valleys, and plains with a number of peninsulas stretching off its coasts
Bassas da India (Iles Eparses): atoll, awash at high tide; shallow (15 m) lagoon
Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island: low, flat, and sandy
Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses): low, flat, sandy; likely volcanic seamount
Gabonnarrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south
Gambia, Theflood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills
Gaza Stripflat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain
Georgialargely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
Germanylowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Ghanamostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Gibraltara narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
Greecemostly mountains with ranges extending into the sea as peninsulas or chains of islands
Greenlandflat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous, barren, rocky coast
Grenadavolcanic in origin with central mountains
Guamvolcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat coralline limestone plateau (source of most fresh water), with steep coastal cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north, low hills in center, mountains in south
Guatemalamostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau
Guernseymostly level with low hills in southwest
Guineagenerally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior
Guinea-Bissaumostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east
Guyanamostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south
Haitimostly rough and mountainous
Heard Island and McDonald IslandsHeard Island - 80% ice-covered, bleak and mountainous, dominated by a large massif (Big Ben) and an active volcano (Mawson Peak); McDonald Islands - small and rocky
Holy See (Vatican City)urban; low hill
Hondurasmostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Hong Konghilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north
Hungarymostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Icelandmostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks, icefields; coast deeply indented by bays and fiords
Indiaupland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Indian Oceansurface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the southern Indian Ocean; unique reversal of surface currents in the northern Indian Ocean; low atmospheric pressure over southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents, while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, and Ninetyeast Ridge
Indonesiamostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Iranrugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts
Iraqmostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey
Irelandmostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast
Isle of Manhills in north and south bisected by central valley
IsraelNegev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley
Italymostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
Jamaicamostly mountains, with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Jan Mayenvolcanic island, partly covered by glaciers
Japanmostly rugged and mountainous
Jerseygently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast
Jordanmostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River
Kazakhstanextends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia
Kenyalow plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
Kiribatimostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs
Korea, Northmostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east
Korea, Southmostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west and south
Kosovoflat fluvial basin with an elevation of 400-700 m above sea level surrounded by several high mountain ranges with elevations of 2,000 to 2,500 m
Kosovoflat fluvial basin with an elevation of 400-700 m above sea level surrounded by several high mountain ranges with elevations of 2,000 to 2,500 m
Kuwaitflat to slightly undulating desert plain
Kyrgyzstanpeaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation
Laosmostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus
Latvialow plain
Lebanonnarrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Lesothomostly highland with plateaus, hills, and mountains
Liberiamostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling plateau and low mountains in northeast
Libyamostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Liechtensteinmostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
Lithuanialowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Luxembourgmostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Macaugenerally flat
Macedoniamountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Madagascarnarrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Malawinarrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains
Malaysiacoastal plains rising to hills and mountains
Maldivesflat, with white sandy beaches
Malimostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Maltamostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs
Marshall Islandslow coral limestone and sand islands
Mauritaniamostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills
Mauritiussmall coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains encircling central plateau
Mayottegenerally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks
Mexicohigh, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert
Micronesia, Federated States ofislands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low, coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Chuuk
Moldovarolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Monacohilly, rugged, rocky
Mongoliavast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Montenegrohighly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
Montserratvolcanic island, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland
Morocconorthern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaus, intermontane valleys, and rich coastal plains
Mozambiquemostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Namibiamostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east
Naurusandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs with phosphate plateau in center
Navassa Islandraised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating; ringed by vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 m high)
NepalTarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north
Netherlandsmostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast
Netherlands Antillesgenerally hilly, volcanic interiors
New Caledoniacoastal plains with interior mountains
New Zealandpredominately mountainous with some large coastal plains
Nicaraguaextensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes
Nigerpredominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
Nigeriasouthern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Niuesteep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau
Norfolk Islandvolcanic formation with mostly rolling plains
Northern Mariana Islandssouthern islands are limestone with level terraces and fringing coral reefs; northern islands are volcanic
Norwayglaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
Omancentral desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
Pacific Oceansurface currents in the northern Pacific are dominated by a clockwise, warm-water gyre (broad circular system of currents) and in the southern Pacific by a counterclockwise, cool-water gyre; in the northern Pacific, sea ice forms in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk in winter; in the southern Pacific, sea ice from Antarctica reaches its northernmost extent in October; the ocean floor in the eastern Pacific is dominated by the East Pacific Rise, while the western Pacific is dissected by deep trenches, including the Mariana Trench, which is the world's deepest
Pakistanflat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
Palauvarying geologically from the high, mountainous main island of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually fringed by large barrier reefs
Panamainterior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills
Papua New Guineamostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Paracel Islandsmostly low and flat
Paraguaygrassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere
Peruwestern coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Philippinesmostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
Pitcairn Islandsrugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs
Polandmostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
Portugalmountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south
Puerto Ricomostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north; mountains precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal areas
Qatarmostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel
Romaniacentral Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Russiabroad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
Rwandamostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
Saint Barthelemyhilly, almost completely surrounded by shallow-water reefs, with 20 beaches
Saint Helenathe islands of this group result from volcanic activity associated with the Atlantic Mid-Ocean Ridge
Saint Helena: rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains
Ascension: surface covered by lava flows and cinder cones of 44 dormant volcanoes; ground rises to the east
Tristan da Cunha: sheer cliffs line the coastline of the nearly circular island; the flanks of the central volcanic peak are deeply dissected; narrow coastal plain lies between The Peak and the coastal cliffs
Saint Kitts and Nevisvolcanic with mountainous interiors
Saint Luciavolcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys
Saint Pierre and Miquelonmostly barren rock
Saint Vincent and the Grenadinesvolcanic, mountainous
Samoatwo main islands (Savaii, Upolu) and several smaller islands and uninhabited islets; narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged mountains in interior
San Marinorugged mountains
Sao Tome and Principevolcanic, mountainous
Saudi Arabiamostly uninhabited, sandy desert
Senegalgenerally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Serbiaextremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills
SeychellesMahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs
Sierra Leonecoastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country, upland plateau, mountains in east
Singaporelowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve
Slovakiarugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
Sloveniaa short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Solomon Islandsmostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls
Somaliamostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
South Africavast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islandsmost of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some active volcanoes
Southern Oceanthe Southern Ocean is deep, 4,000 to 5,000 m over most of its extent with only limited areas of shallow water; the Antarctic continental shelf is generally narrow and unusually deep, its edge lying at depths of 400 to 800 m (the global mean is 133 m); the Antarctic icepack grows from an average minimum of 2.6 million sq km in March to about 18.8 million sq km in September, better than a sixfold increase in area; the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (21,000 km in length) moves perpetually eastward; it is the world's largest ocean current, transporting 130 million cubic meters of water per second - 100 times the flow of all the world's rivers
Spainlarge, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in north
Spratly Islandsflat
Sri Lankamostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior
Sudangenerally flat, featureless plain; mountains in far south, northeast and west; desert dominates the north
Surinamemostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps
Svalbardwild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of ice about one-half of the year; fjords along west and north coasts
Swazilandmostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
Swedenmostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Switzerlandmostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes
Syriaprimarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in west
Taiwaneastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling plains in west
TajikistanPamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Tanzaniaplains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Thailandcentral plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere
Togogently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Tokelaulow-lying coral atolls enclosing large lagoons
Tongamost islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base
Trinidad and Tobagomostly plains with some hills and low mountains
Tunisiamountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south merges into the Sahara
Turkeyhigh central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Turkmenistanflat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west
Turks and Caicos Islandslow, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps
Tuvaluvery low-lying and narrow coral atolls
Ugandamostly plateau with rim of mountains
Ukrainemost of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, mountains being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the Crimean Peninsula in the extreme south
United Arab Emiratesflat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of vast desert wasteland; mountains in east
United Kingdommostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and southeast
United Statesvast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii
United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refugeslow and nearly level sandy coral islands with narrow fringing reefs that have developed at the top of submerged volcanic mountains, which in most cases rise steeply from the ocean floor
Uruguaymostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Uzbekistanmostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Vanuatumostly mountainous islands of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains
VenezuelaAndes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast
Vietnamlow, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest
Virgin Islandsmostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land
Wake Islandatoll of three low coral islands, Peale, Wake, and Wilkes, built up on an underwater volcano; central lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim
Wallis and Futunavolcanic origin; low hills
West Bankmostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west, but barren in east
Western Saharamostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or sandy surfaces rising to small mountains in south and northeast
Worldthe greatest ocean depth is the Mariana Trench at 10,924 m in the Pacific Ocean
Yemennarrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula
Zambiamostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Zimbabwemostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east


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