Reference > World Factbook, 2008
  The World Factbook.  2008.
Flag of Montenegro                                Map of Montenegro
Background:The use of the name Montenegro began in the 15th century when the Crnojevic dynasty began to rule the Serbian principality of Zeta; over subsequent centuries Montenegro was able to maintain its independence from the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro became a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it was transformed into a secular principality. After World War I, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, first as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, in a looser union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally declare its independence on 3 June 2006.
Location:Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Geographic coordinates:42 30 N, 19 18 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 14,026 sq km
land: 13,812 sq km
water: 214 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:total: 625 km
border countries: Albania 172 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, Croatia 25 km, Serbia 203 km
Coastline:293.5 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: defined by treaty
Climate:Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
Terrain:highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m
Natural resources:bauxite, hydroelectricity
Land use:arable land: 13.7%
permanent crops: 1%
other: 85.3%
Irrigated land:NA
Natural hazards:destructive earthquakes
Environment—current issues:pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor
Environment—international agreements:party to: Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ship Pollution
Geography—note:strategic location along the Adriatic coast
Population:684,736 (July 2007 est.)
Population growth rate:-1% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:11.18 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:8.39 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne disease: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (2008)
Nationality:noun: Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Montenegrin
Ethnic groups:Montenegrin 43%, Serbian 32%, Bosniak 8%, Albanian 5%, other (Muslims, Croats, Roma (Gypsy)) 12%
Religions:Orthodox, Muslim, Roman Catholic
Languages:Serbian (official; Ijekavian dialect), Bosnian, Albanian, Croatian
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Montenegro
conventional short form: Montenegro
local long form: Republika Crna Gora
local short form: Crna Gora
former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro
Government type:republic
Capital:name: Podgorica
geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:21 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berana, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak
Independence:3 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)
National holiday:National Day, 13 July (1878)
Constitution:19 October 2007 (was approved by the Assembly)
Legal system:based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 11 May 2003)
head of government: Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 29 February 2008)
cabinet: Ministries act as cabinet
elections: president elected by direct vote for five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 11 May 2003 (next to be held in 2008); prime minister proposed by president, accepted by Assembly
election results: Filip VUJANOVIC elected on the third round; Filip VUJANOVIC 63.3%, Miodrag ZIVKOVIC 30.8%
Legislative branch:unicameral Assembly (81 seats; members elected by direct vote for four-year terms; changed from 74 seats in 2006)
elections: last held 10 September 2006 (next to be held 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 47.7%, Serbian List 14.4%, Coalition SNP-NS-DSS 13.8%, PZP 12.9%, Liberals and Bosniaks 3.7%, other (including Albanian minority parties) 7.5%; seats by party - Coalition for European Montenegro 41, Serbian List 12, Coalition SNP/NS/DSS 11, PZP 11, Liberals and Bosniaks 3, Albanian minority parties 3
Judicial branch:Constitutional Court (five judges with nine-year terms); Supreme Court (judges have life tenure)
Political parties and leaders:Albanian Alternative or AA [Vesel SINISHTAJ]; Coalition for European Montenegro or DPS-SDP (bloc) [Milo DUKANOVIC] (includes Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DUKANOVIC] and Social Democratic Party of SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]); Coalition SNP-NS-DSS (bloc) (includes Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC], People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Predrag POPOVIC], and Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Ranko KADIC]); Democratic League-Party of Democratic Prosperity or SPP [Mehmet BARHDI]; Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Ferhat DINOSA]; Liberals and the Bosniak Party (bloc) [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC] (includes Liberal Party of Montenegro or LP [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC] and Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]); Movement for Changes or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]; Serbian List (bloc) [Andrija MANDIC] (includes Party of Serb Radicals or SSR [Dusko SEKULIC], People's Socialist Party or NSS [Emilo LABUDOVIC], and Serbian People's Party of Montenegro or SNS [Andrija MANDIC])
International organization participation:CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Miodrag VLAHOVIC
chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Roderick W. MOORE
embassy: Ljubljanska bb, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [382] 81 225 417
FAX: [382] 81 241 358
Flag description:a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered
Economy—overview:The republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and maintained its own central bank, used the euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar as official currency, collected customs tariffs, and managed its own budget. The dissolution of the loose political union between Serbia and Montenegro in 2006 led to separate membership in several international financial institutions, such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. On 18 January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF. Montenegro is pursuing its own membership in the World Trade Organization as well as negotiating a Stabilization and Association agreement with the European Union in anticipation of eventual membership. Severe unemployment remains a key political and economic problem for this entire region. Montenegro has privatized its large aluminum complex - the dominant industry - as well as most of its financial sector, and has begun to attract foreign direct investment in the tourism sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$26.38 billion (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$2.27 billion (2006 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:6% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$3,800 (2005 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Labor force:259,100 (2004)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 2%
industry: 30%
services: 68% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:14.7% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:7% (2007 est.)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:30 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):3.4% (2004)
Investment (gross fixed):30.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budget:revenues: NA
expenditures: NA
Public debt:38% of GDP (2006)
Agriculture—products:grains, tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheepherding; commercial fishing negligible
Industries:steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
Electricity—production:2.864 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity—consumption:18.6 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—consumption:450 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:NA cu m (2005)
Current account balance:$NA
Exports:$171.3 million (2003)
Exports—partners:Switzerland 83.9%, Italy 6.1%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.3% (2006)
Imports:$601.7 million (2003)
Imports—partners:Greece 10.2%, Italy 10.2%, Germany 9.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.2% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:NA
Debt—external:$650 million (2006)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$NA
Economic aid—recipient:$NA
Currency (code):euro (EUR)
Exchange rates:euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8089 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
Telephones—main lines in use:353,300 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:821,800 (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites
domestic: GSM wireless service, available through 2 providers with national coverage, is growing rapidly
international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system
Radio broadcast stations:31 (station types NA) (2004)
Television broadcast stations:13 (2004)
Internet country
Internet users:266,000 (2006)
Airports:5 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Heliports:1 (2007)
Railways:total: 250 km
standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 169 km) (2006)
Roadways:total: 7,353 km
paved: 4,274 km
unpaved: 3,079 km (2005)
Merchant marine:total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 9,458 GRT/10,172 DWT
by type: cargo 4
registered in other countries: 3 (Bahamas 2, St Vincent and The Grenadines 1) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Bar
Military service age and obligation:compulsory national military service abolished August 2006
Military—note:Montenegrin plans call for the establishment of a fully professional armed forces
Transnational Issues
Refugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 7,000 (Kosovo), note - mostly ethnic Serbs and Roma who fled Kosovo in 1999


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