Reference > World Factbook, 2008
  The World Factbook.  2008.
Flag of Macedonia                                Map of Macedonia
Background:Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991, but Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. The United States began referring to Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia, in 2004 and negotiations continue between Greece and Macedonia to resolve the name issue. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency in 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonia's Albanian population and led to the internationally-brokered Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting by establishing a set of new laws enhancing the rights of minorities. The undetermined status of neighboring Kosovo, implementation of the Framework Agreement, and slow economic growth continue to be challenges for Macedonia.
Location:Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Geographic coordinates:41 50 N, 22 00 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 25,333 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
water: 477 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries:total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Serbia 221 km
Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Terrain:mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
Natural resources:low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Land use:arable land: 22.01%
permanent crops: 1.79%
other: 76.2% (2005)
Irrigated land:550 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:6.4 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 2.27
per capita: 1,118 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:high seismic risks
Environment—current issues:air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment—international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
Population:2,055,915 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 19.8% (male 210,418/female 195,884)
15-64 years: 69.1% (male 715,997/female 704,739)
65 years and over: 11.1% (male 99,892/female 128,985) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 34.4 years
male: 33.5 years
female: 35.5 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:0.263% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:12.02 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:8.78 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:-0.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.074 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.016 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.774 male(s)/female
total population: 0.997 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 9.53 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.69 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 74.21 years
male: 71.73 years
female: 76.88 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.57 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:less than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian
Ethnic groups:Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)
Religions:Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.37%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002 census)
Languages:Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.1%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.1% (2002 census)
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: Macedonia
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija
note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Government type:parliamentary democracy
Capital:name: Skopje
geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:85 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aerodrom (Skopje), Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Butel (Skopje), Cair (Skopje), Caska, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Debartsa, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Drugovo, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gjorce Petrov (Skopje), Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rastusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Saraj (Skopje), Skopje, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
note: the ten municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute the larger Skopje Municipality
Independence:8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:Ilinden Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day
Constitution:adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended November 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights and in 2005 with amendments related to the judiciary
Legal system:based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 May 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 26 August 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO/DPMNE, NSDP, PDSh/DPA, and several small parties
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election last held 14 April and 28 April 2004 (next to be held by April 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections
election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%
Legislative branch:unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats; members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral districts; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 5 July 2006 (next to be held by July 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE 33%, SDSM 22%, BDI/DUI 12%, PDSh/DPA 7%, NSDP 6%, VMRO-Narodna 6%, other 14%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 45, SDSM 32, BDI/DUI 17, PDSh/DPA 11, NSDP 7, VMRO-Narodna 6, other 2
Judicial branch:Supreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges
Political parties and leaders:Democratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic League of Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh/DPA [Menduh THACI]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Renewal of Macedonia [Liljana POPOVSKA]; Democratic Union of Albanians or BDSh [BardYL MAHMUTI]; Democratic Union of Vlachs for Macedonia [Mitko KOSTOV]; Democratic Union for Integration or BDI/DUI [Ali AHMETI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-People's Party or VMRO-Narodna [Gjorgji TRENDAFILOV]; League for Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Jovan MANSIEVSKI]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Alternative [Harun ALIU]; National Democratic Union or BDK [Hysni SHAQIR]; New Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Abduljhadi VEJSELI]; Party for European Future or PEI [Fijat CANOSKI]; Party of Free Democrats or PSD [Ljubco JORDANOVSKI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Radmila SEKERINSKA]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV-ZINGO]; Union of Romas or SR [Saliu SHABAN]; United Party for Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Federation of Free Trade Unions [Svetlana PETROVIC]; Federation of Trade Unions [Vanco MURATOVSKI]; World Macedonian Congress [Todor PETROV]
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Zoran JOLEVSKI
chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
consulate(s) general: Southfield (Michigan)
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Gillian A. MILOVANOVIC
embassy: Bul. Ilindenska bb, 1000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] 2 311-6180
FAX: [389] 2 311-7103
Flag description:a yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field
Economy—overview:At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the central government and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the downsized Yugoslavia, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leadership's commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth barely recovered in 2002 to 0.9%, then averaged 4% per year during 2003-07. Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability with low inflation, but it has so far lagged the region in attracting foreign investment and job creation despite making extensive fiscal and business sector reforms. Official unemployment remains the highest in Europe at 35%, but may be somewhat overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be more than 20 percent of GDP, that falls outside official statistics.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$17.26 billion
note: Macedonia has a large informal sector (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$6.85 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:4.6% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$8,400 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 12.1%
industry: 28.6%
services: 59.3% (2007 est.)
Labor force:890,000 (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 21.7%
industry: 32.6%
services: 45.7% (September 2006)
Unemployment rate:35% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:30% (2005)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:39 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):2% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):18% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $2.381 billion
expenditures: $2.456 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:26.1% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:grapes, wine, tobacco, vegetables; milk, eggs
Industries:food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate:1.6% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:5.935 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity—consumption:8.929 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2006)
Electricity—imports:2.994 billion kWh (2006)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil—consumption:20,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:4,134 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:23,150 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:95.91 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:95.91 million cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$5 million (2007 est.)
Exports:$2.844 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:food, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Exports—partners:Serbia and Montenegro 23.2%, Germany 15.6%, Greece 15.1%, Italy 9.9%, Bulgaria 5.4%, Croatia 5.2% (2006)
Imports:$4.079 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
Imports—partners:Russia 15.1%, Germany 9.8%, Greece 8.5%, Serbia and Montenegro 7.5%, Bulgaria 6.7%, Italy 6% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$1.803 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$2.561 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:$646 million (2005)
Economic aid—recipient:$230.3 million (2005)
Currency (code):Macedonian denar (MKD)
Exchange rates:Macedonian denars per US dollar - 45.174 (2007), 48.978 (2006), 48.92 (2005), 49.41 (2004), 54.322 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
Telephones—main lines in use:490,900 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:1.417 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: competition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop in fixed-line telephone subscriptions
domestic: combined fixed line and mobile telephone density exceeds 90 per 100 persons
international: country code - 389
Radio broadcast stations:AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country
Internet hosts:6,001 (2007)
Internet users:268,000 (2006)
Airports:17 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2007)
Railways:total: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (223 km electrified) (2006)
Roadways:total: 8,684 km
paved: 5,540 km
unpaved: 3,144 km (1999)
Military branches:Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM): Joint Operational Command, with subordinate Air Wing (Makedonsko Voeno Vozduhoplovstvo, MVV), Special Operations Regiment (2007)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for voluntary military service (2007)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 498,259
females age 18-49: 481,317 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 411,156
females age 18-49: 397,839 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 16,686
females age 18-49: 15,664 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:6% (2005 est.)
Transnational Issues
Disputes—international:ethnic Albanians in Kosovo object to demarcation of the boundary with Serbia in accordance with the 2000 Macedonia-Serbia and Montenegro delimitation agreement; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
Refugees and internally displaced persons:IDPs: fewer than 1,000 (ethnic conflict in 2001) (2006)
Illicit drugs:major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement


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