Reference > World Factbook, 2008
  The World Factbook.  2008.
Flag of Togo                                Map of Togo
Background:French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and fire from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.
Location:Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates:8 00 N, 1 10 E
Map references:Africa
Area:total: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Coastline:56 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain:gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resources:phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land use:arable land: 44.2%
permanent crops: 2.11%
other: 53.69% (2005)
Irrigated land:70 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:14.7 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.17 cu km/yr (53%/2%/45%)
per capita: 28 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Environment—current issues:deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 42% (male 1,201,840/female 1,193,416)
15-64 years: 55.3% (male 1,535,855/female 1,617,631)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 61,658/female 91,179) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 18.4 years
male: 18 years
female: 18.9 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:2.718% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:36.83 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:9.65 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.007 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.949 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.676 male(s)/female
total population: 0.965 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 59.12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 66.56 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 51.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 57.86 years
male: 55.81 years
female: 59.96 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:4.9 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:4.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:110,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:10,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)
Nationality:noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groups:African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Religions:Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%
Languages:French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.9%
male: 75.4%
female: 46.9% (2003 est.)
Country name:conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
Government type:republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Capital:name: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 08 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
Independence:27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Constitution:multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992, adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Legal system:French-based court system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:NA years of age; universal (adult)
Executive branch:chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 February 2005 and was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE, with the support of the military following international condemnation for the unconstitutional move he then stepped aside pending elections, and Abass BONFOH served as interim president; Faure GNASSINGBE later won popular elections in April 2005
head of government: Prime Minister Komlan MALLY (since 3 December 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held by 2010); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE elected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.2%, Emmanuel Akitani BOB 38.3%, Nicolas LAWSON 1%, Harry OLYMPIO 0.5%
Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 14 October 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - RPT 39.4%, UFC 37.0%, CAR 8.2%, independents 2.5%, other 12.9%; seats by party - RPT 50, UFC 27, CAR 4
Judicial branch:Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party for Renewal or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces for a Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:ABEDA, ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Lorempo LANDJERGUE
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador David B. DUNN
embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome
telephone: [228] 261-5470
FAX: [228] 261-5501
Flag description:five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Economy—overview:This small, sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is working with donors to write a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) that could eventually lead to a debt reduction plan. Economic growth remains marginal due to declining cotton production, underinvestment in phosphate mining, and strained relations with donors.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$5.132 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$2.393 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:2.5% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$900 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 40%
industry: 25%
services: 35% (2003 est.)
Labor force:1.302 million (1998)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:NA%
Population below poverty line:32% (1989 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):3% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):21.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $478.1 million
expenditures: $554.1 million (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Industries:phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:3% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:176 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:576 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:486 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:16,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:15,130 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-165.5 million (2007 est.)
Exports:$675 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports—partners:Ghana 16.7%, Burkina Faso 14.4%, Benin 9.1%, Belgium 6.1%, Mali 5.8%, Germany 5.4%, India 4.6%, Netherlands 4.6% (2006)
Imports:$1.181 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports—partners:China 29.8%, UK 10.9%, France 8.9%, Netherlands 6%, Belgium 5.8%, US 4.6%, Estonia 4.2% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$362.6 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$2 billion (2005)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$NA
Economic aid—recipient:ODA, $86.71 million (2005 est.)
Currency (code):Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Exchange rates:Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 482.71 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
Telephones—main lines in use:82,100 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:708,000 (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 15 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie
Radio broadcast stations:AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:3 (plus 2 repeaters) (1997)
Internet country
Internet hosts:702 (2007)
Internet users:320,000 (2006)
Airports:9 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Railways:total: 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 7,520 km
paved: 2,376 km
unpaved: 5,144 km (1999)
Waterways:50 km (seasonally on Mono River depending on rainfall) (2005)
Merchant marine:total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,918 GRT/3,852 DWT
by type: cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1 (2007)
Ports and terminals:Kpeme, Lome
Military branches:Togolese Armed Forces (FAT): Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie (2005)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 1,102,661
females age 18-49: 1,124,463 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 696,933
females age 18-49: 707,821 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:1.6% (2005 est.)
Transnational Issues
Disputes—international:in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; in 2006 14,000 Togolese refugees remain in Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005
Refugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 8,000 (Ghana)
IDPs: 1,500 (2006)
Illicit drugs:transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem


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