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Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch
On the Art of Writing
> V. Interlude: On Jargon
Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch
On the Art of Writing.
Interlude: On Jargon
Thursday, May 1
parted, Gentlemen, upon a promise to discuss the capital difficulty of Prose, as we have discussed the capital difficulty of Verse. But, although we shall come to it, on second thoughts I ask leave to break the order of my argument and to interpose some words upon a kind of writing which, from a superficial likeness, commonly passes for prose in these days, and by lazy folk is commonly written for prose, yet actually is not prose at all; my excuse being the simple practical one that, by first clearing this sham prose out of the way, we shall the better deal with honest prose when we come to it. The proper difficulties of prose will remain: but we shall be agreed in understanding what it is, or at any rate what it is not, that we talk about. I remember to have heard somewhere of a religious body in the United States of America which had reason to suspect one of its churches of accepting Spiritual consolation from a coloured preacher—an offence against the laws of the Synod—and despatched a Disciplinary Committee with power to act; and of the Committee’s returning to report itself unable to take any action under its terms of reference, for that while a person undoubtedly coloured had undoubtedly occupied the pulpit and had audibly spoken from it in the Committee’s presence, the performance could be brought within no definition of preaching known or discoverable. So it is with that infirmity of speech—that flux, that determination of words to the mouth, or to the pen—which, though it be familiar to you in parliamentary debates, in newspapers, and as the staple language of Blue Books, Committees, Official Reports, I take leave to introduce to you as prose which is not prose and under its real name of Jargon.
You must not confuse this Jargon with what is called Journalese. The two overlap, indeed, and have a knack of assimilating each other’s vices. But Jargon finds, maybe, the most of its votaries among good douce people who have never written to or for a newspaper in their life, who would never talk of ‘adverse climatic conditions’ when they mean ‘bad weather’; who have never trifled with verbs such as ‘obsess,’ ‘recrudesce,’ ‘envisage,’ ‘adumbrate,’ or with phrases such as ‘the psychological moment,’ ‘the true inwardness,’ ‘it gives furiously to think.’ It dallies with Latinity—‘sub silentio,’ ‘de die in diem,’ ‘cui bono?’ (always in the sense, unsuspected by Cicero, of ‘What is the profit?’)—but not for the sake of style. Your journalist at the worst is an artist in his way: he daubs paint of this kind upon the lily with a professional zeal; the more flagrant (or, to use his own word, arresting) the pigment, the happier is his soul. Like the Babu he is trying all the while to embellish our poor language, to make it more floriferous, more poetical—like the Babu for example who, reporting his mother’s death, wrote, ‘Regret to inform you, the hand that rocked the cradle has kicked the bucket.’
is a sense of poetry, though as yet groping in a world unrealised. No such gusto marks—no such zeal, artistic or professional, animates—the practitioners of Jargon, who are, most of them (I repeat), douce respectable persons. Caution is its father: the instinct to save everything and especially trouble: its mother, Indolence. It looks precise, but it is not. It is, in these times,
a thousand men have said it before and not one to your knowledge had been prosecuted for it. And so, like respectability in Chicago, Jargon stalks unchecked in our midst. It is becoming the language of Parliament: it has become the medium through which Boards of Government, County Councils, Syndicates, Committees, Commercial Firms, express the processes as well as the conclusions of their thought and so voice the reason of their being.
Has a Minister to say ‘No’ in the House of Commons? Some men are constitutionally incapable of saying no: but the Minister conveys it thus—‘The answer to the question is in the negative.’ That means ‘no.’ Can you discover it to mean anything less, or anything more except that the speaker is a pompous person?—which was no part of the information demanded.
That is Jargon, and it happens to be accurate. But as a rule Jargon is by no means accurate, its method being to walk circumspectly around its target; and its faith, that having done so it has either hit the bull’s-eye or at least achieved something equivalent, and safer.
Thus the Clerk of a Board of Guardians will minute that—
In the case of John Jenkins deceased the coffin provided was of the usual character.
Now this is not accurate. ‘In the case of John Jenkins deceased,’ for whom a coffin was supplied, it is wholly superfluous to tell us that he is deceased. But actually John Jenkins never had more than one case, and that was the coffin. The Clerk says he had two,—a coffin in a case: but I suspect the Clerk to be mistaken, and I am sure he errs in telling us that the coffin was of the usual character: for coffins have no character, usual or unusual.
For another example (I shall not tell you whence derived)—
In the case of every candidate who is placed in the first class [So you see the lucky fellow gets a case as well as a first-class. He might be a stuffed animal: perhaps he is] In the case of every candidate who is placed in the first class the class-list will show by some convenient mark (1) the Section or Sections for proficiency in which he is placed in the first class and (2) the Section or Sections (if any) in which he has passed with special distinction.
‘The Section or Sections (if any)’—But, how, if they are not any, could they be indicated by a mark however convenient?
The Examiners will have regard to the style and method of the candidate’s answers, and will give credit for excellence
in these respects.
Have you begun to detect the two main vices of Jargon? The first is that it uses circumlocution rather than short straight speech. It says ‘In the case of John Jenkins deceased, the coffin’ when it means ‘John Jenkins’s coffin’: and its yea is not yea, neither is its nay nay: but its answer is in the affirmative or in the negative, as the foolish and superfluous ‘case’ may be. The second vice is that it habitually chooses vague woolly abstract nouns rather than concrete ones. I shall have something to say by-and-by about the concrete noun, and how you should ever be struggling for it whether in prose or in verse. For the moment I content myself with advising you, if you would write masculine English, never to forget the old tag of your Latin Grammar—
Masculine will only be
Things that you can touch and see.
But since these lectures are meant to be a course in First Aid to writing, I will content myself with one or two extremely rough rules: yet I shall be disappointed if you do not find them serviceable.
The first is:—Whenever in your reading you come across one of these words,
case, instance, character, nature, condition, persuasion, degree
—whenever in writing your pen betrays you to one or another of them—pull yourself up and take thought. If it be ‘case’ (I choose it as Jargon’s dearest child—‘in Heaven yclept Metonomy’) turn to the dictionary, if you will, and seek out what meaning can be derived from
its Latin ancestor: then try how, with a little trouble, you can extricate yourself from that case. The odds are, you will feel like a butterfly who has discarded his chrysalis.
Here are some specimens to try your hand on—
(1) All those tears which inundated Lord Hugh Cecil’s head were dry in the case of Mr Harold Cox.
Poor Mr Cox! left gasping in his aquarium!
(2) [From a cigar-merchant] In any case, let us send you a case on approval.
(3) It is contended that Consols have fallen in consequence: but such is by no means the case.
by the way, is another spoilt child of Jargon, especially in Committee’s Rules—‘Co-opted members may be eligible as such; such members to continue to serve for such time as’—and so on.
(4) Even in the purely Celtic areas, only in two or three cases do the Bishops bear Celtic names.
For ‘cases’ read ‘dioceses.’
In most instances the players were below their form.
But what were they playing at? Instances?
There can be no doubt that the accident was caused through the dangerous nature of the spot, the hidden character of the by-road, and the utter absence of any warning or danger signal.
Mark the foggy wording of it all! And yet the man hit something and broke his neck! Contrast that explanation with the verdict of a coroner’s jury in the West of England on a drowned postman—‘We find that deceased met his death by an act of God, caused by sudden overflowing of the river Walkhan and helped out by the scandalous neglect of the way-wardens.’
The Aintree course is notoriously of a trying nature.
On account of its light character, purity and age, Usher’s whiskey is a whiskey that will agree with you.
The mésalliance was of a pronounced order.
He was conveyed to his place of residence in an intoxicated condition.
‘He was carried home drunk.’
Quality and Section.
Mr ——, exhibiting no less than five works, all of a superior quality, figures prominently in the oil section.
—This was written of an exhibition of pictures.
A singular degree of rarity prevails in the earlier editions of this romance.
That is Jargon. In prose it runs simply ‘The earlier editions of this romance are rare’—or ‘are very rare’—or even (if you believe what I take leave to doubt), ‘are singularly rare’; which should mean that they are rarer than the editions of any other work in the world.
Now what I ask you to consider about these quotations is that in each the writer was using Jargon to shirk prose, palming off periphrases upon us when with a little trouble he could have gone straight to the point. ‘A singular degree of rarity prevails,’ ‘the accident was caused through the dangerous nature of the spot,’ ‘but such is by no means the case.’ We may not be capable of much; but we can all write better than that, if we take a little trouble. In place of, ‘the Aintree course is of a trying nature’ we can surely say ‘Aintree is a trying course’ or ‘the Aintree course is a trying one’—just that and nothing more.
Next, having trained yourself to keep a look-out for these worst offenders (and you will be surprised to find how quickly you get into the way of it), proceed to push your suspicions out among the whole cloudy host of abstract terms. ‘How excellent a thing is sleep,’ sighed Sancho Panza; ‘it wraps a man round like a cloak’—an excellent example, by the way, of how to say a thing concretely: a Jargoneer would have said that ‘among the beneficent qualities of sleep its capacity for withdrawing the human consciousness from the contemplation of immediate circumstances may perhaps be accounted not the least remarkable.’ How vile a thing—shall we say?—is the abstract noun! It wraps a man’s thoughts round like cotton wool.
Here is a pretty little nest of specimens, found in
newspaper by Messrs. H. W. and F. G. Fowler, authors of that capital little book
The King’s English
One of the most important reforms mentioned in the rescript is the unification of the organisation of judicial institutions and the guarantee for all the tribunals of the independence necessary for securing to all classes of the community equality before the law.
I do not dwell on the cacophony; but, to convey a straightforward piece of news, might not the Editor of
as well employ a man to write:—
One of the most important reforms is that of the Courts, which need a uniform system and to be made independent. In this way only can men be assured that all are equal before the law.
I think he might.
A day or two ago the musical critic of the
MR LAMOND IN BEETHOVEN
Mr Frederick Lamond, the Scottish pianist, as an interpreter of Beethoven has few rivals. At his second recital of the composer’s works at Bechstein Hall on Saturday afternoon he again displayed a complete sympathy and understanding of his material that extracted the very essence of aesthetic and musical value from each selection he undertook. The delightful intimacy of his playing and his unusual force of individual expression are invaluable assets, which, allied to his technical brilliancy, enable him to achieve an artistic triumph. The two lengthy Variations in E flat major (Op. 35) and in D major, the latter on the Turkish March from ‘The Ruins of Athens,’ when included in the same programme, require a master hand to provide continuity of interest.
To say that Mr Lamond successfully avoided moments that might at times, in these works, have inclined to comparative disinterestedness, would be but a moderate way of expressing the remarkable fascination with which his versatile playing endowed them,
at the same time
two of the sonatas given included a similar form of composition, and no matter how intellectually brilliant may be the interpretation, the extravagant use of a certain mode is bound in time to become somewhat ineffective. In the Three Sonatas, the E major (Op. 109), the A major (Op. 2), No. 2, and the C minor (Op. 111), Mr Lamond signalised his perfect insight into the composer’s varying moods.
Will you not agree with me that here is no writing, here is no prose, here is not even English, but merely a flux of words to the pen?
Here again is a string, a concatenation—say, rather, a tiara—of gems of purest ray serene from the dark unfathomed caves of a Scottish newspaper:—
The Chinese viewpoint, as indicated in this letter, may not be without interest to your readers, because it evidently is suggestive of more than an academic attempt to explain an unpleasant aspect of things which, if allowed to materialise, might suddenly culminate in disaster resembling the Chang-Sha riots. It also ventures to illustrate incidents having their inception in recent premature endeavours to accelerate the development of Protestant missions in China; but we would hope for the sake of the interests involved that what my correspondent describes as ‘the irresponsible ruffian element’ may be known by their various religious designations only within very restricted areas.
Well, the Chinese have given it up, poor fellows! and are asking the Christians—as to-day’s newspapers inform us—to pray for them. Do you wonder? But that is, or was, the Chinese ‘viewpoint,’—and what a willow-pattern viewpoint! Observe its delicacy. It does not venture to interest or be interesting; merely ‘to be not without interest.’ But it does ‘venture to illustrate incidents’—which, for a viewpoint, is brave enough: and this illustration ‘is suggestive of something more than an academic attempt to explain an unpleasant aspect of things which, if allowed to materialise, might suddenly culminate.’
materialises? The unpleasant aspect? or the things? Grammar says the ‘things,’ ‘things which if allowed to materialise.’ But things are materialised already, and as a condition of their being things. It must be the aspect, then, that materialises. But, if so, it is also the aspect that culminates, and an aspect, however unpleasant, can hardly do that, or at worst cannot culminate in anything resembling the Chang-Sha riots.… I give it up.
Let us turn to another trick of Jargon: the trick of Elegant Variation, so rampant in the Sporting Press that there, without needing to attend these lectures, the Undergraduate detects it for laughter:—
Haywords and C. B. Fry now faced the bowling; which apparently had no terrors for the Surrey crack. The old Oxonian, however, took some time in settling to work.…
Yes, you all recognise it and laugh at it. But why do you practise it in your Essays? An undergraduate brings me an essay on Byron. In an essay on Byron, Byron is (or ought to be) mentioned many times. I expect, nay exact, that Bryon shall be mentioned again and again. But my undergraduate has a blushing sense that to call Byron Byron twice on one page is indelicate. So Byron, after starting bravely as Byron, in the second sentence turns into ‘that great but unequal poet’ and thenceforward I have as much trouble with Byron as ever Telemachus with Proteus to hold and pin him back to his proper self. Half-way down the page he becomes ‘the gloomy master of Newstead’: overleaf he is reincarnated into ‘the meteoric darling of society’: and so proceeds through successive avatars—‘this arch-rebel,’ ‘the author of Childe Harold,’ ‘the apostle of scorn,’ ‘the ex-Harrovian, proud, but abnormally sensitive of his club-foot,’ ‘the martyr of Missolonghi,’ ‘the pageant-monger of a bleeding heart.’ Now this again is Jargon. It does not, as most Jargon does, come of laziness; but it comes of timidity, which is worse. In literature as in life he makes himself felt who not only calls a spade a spade but has the pluck to double spades and re-double.
For another rule—just as rough and ready, but just as useful: Train your suspicions to bristle up whenever you come upon ‘as regards,’ ‘with regard to,’ ‘in respect of,’ ‘in connection with,’ ‘according as to whether,’ and the like. They are all dodges of Jargon, circumlocutions for evading this or that simple statement: and I say that it is not enough to avoid them nine times out of ten, or nine-and-ninety times out of a hundred. You should never use them. That is positive enough, I hope? Though I cannot admire his style, I admire the man who wrote to me, ‘Re Tennyson—your remarks anent his
make me sick’: for though
is not a preposition of the first water, and ‘anent’ has enjoyed its day, the finish crowned the work. But here are a few specimens far, very far, worse:—
The special difficulty in Professor Minocelsi’s case [our old friend ‘case’ again] arose
in connexion with
the view he holds
the historical value of the opening pages of Genesis.
That is Jargon. In prose, even taking the miserable sentence as it stands constructed, we should write ‘the difficulty arose over the views he holds about the historical value,’ etc.
From a popular novelist:—
I was entirely indifferent
the results of the game, caring nothing at all
I had losses or gains—
Cut out the first ‘as’ in ‘as to,’ and the second ‘as to’ altogether, and the sentence begins to be prose—‘I was indifferent to the results of the game, caring nothing whether I had losses or gains.’
But why, like Dogberry, have ‘had losses’? Why not simply ‘lose.’ Let us try again. ‘I was entirely indifferent to the results of the game, caring nothing at all whether I won or lost.’
Still the sentence remains absurd: for the second clause but repeats the first without adding one jot. For if you care not at all whether you win or lose, you must be entirely indifferent to the results of the game. So why not say ‘I was careless if I won or lost,’ and have done with it?
A man of simple and charming character, he was fitly
the distinction of the Order of Merit.
I take this gem with some others from a collection made three years ago, by the
and I hope you admire it as one beyond price. ‘He was associated with the distinction of the Order of Merit’ means ‘he was given the Order of Merit.’ If the members of that Order make a society then he was associated with them; but you cannot associate a man with a distinction. The inventor of such fine writing would doubtless have answered Canning’s Needy Knife-grinder with:—
I associate thee with sixpence! I will see thee in another association first!
But let us close our
and attempt to illustrate Jargon by the converse method of taking a famous piece of English (say Hamlet’s soliloquy) and remoulding a few lines of it in this fashion:—
To be, or the contrary? Whether the former or the latter be preferable would seem to admit of some difference of opinion; the answer in the present case being of an affirmative or of a negative character according as to whether one elects on the one hand to mentally suffer the disfavour of fortune, albeit in an extreme degree, or on the other to boldly envisage adverse conditions in the prospect of eventually bringing them to a conclusion. The condition of sleep is similar to, if not indistinguishable from, that of death; and with the addition of finality the former might be considered identical with the latter: so that in this connection it might be argued with regard to sleep that, could the addition be effected, a termination would be put to the endurance of a multiplicity of inconveniences, not to mention a number of downright evils incidental to our fallen humanity, and thus a consummation achieved of a most gratifying nature.
That is Jargon: and to write Jargon is to be perpetually shuffling around in the fog and cotton-wool of abstract terms; to be for ever hearkening, like Ibsen’s Peer Gynt, to the voice of the Boyg exhorting you to circumvent the difficulty, to beat the air because it is easier than to flesh your sword in the thing. The first virtue, the touchstone of a masculine style, is its use of the active verb and the concrete noun. When you write in the active voice, ‘They gave him a silver teapot,’ you write as a man. When you write ‘He was made the recipient of a silver teapot,’ you write jargon. But at the beginning set even higher store on the concrete noun. Somebody—I think it was FitzGerald—once posited the question ‘What would have become of Christianity if Jeremy Bentham had had the writing of the Parables?’ Without pursuing that dreadful enquiry I ask you to note how carefully the Parables—those exquisite short stories—speak only of ‘things which you can touch and see’—‘A sower went forth to sow,’ ‘The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took,’—and not the Parables only, but the Sermon on the Mount and almost every verse of the Gospel. The Gospel does not, like my young essayist, fear to repeat a word, if the word be good. The Gospel says ‘Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s’—not ‘Render unto Caesar the things that appertain to that potentate.’ The Gospel does not say ‘Consider the growth of the lilies,’ or even ‘Consider how the lilies grow.’ It says, ‘Consider the lilies, how they grow.’
Or take Shakespeare. I wager you that no writer of English so constantly chooses the concrete word, in phrase after phrase forcing you to touch and see. No writer so insistently teaches the general through the particular. He does it even in
Venus and Adonis
(as Professor Wendell, of Harvard, pointed out in a brilliant little monograph on Shakespeare, published some ten years ago). Read any page of
Venus and Adonis
side by side with any page of Marlowe’s
Hero and Leander
and you cannot but mark the contrast: in Shakespeare the definite, particular, visualised image, in Marlowe the beautiful generalisation, the abstract term, the thing seen at a literary remove. Take the two openings, both of which start out with the sunrise. Marlowe begins:—
Now had the Morn espied her lover’s steeds:
Whereat she starts, puts on her purple weeds,
And, red for anger that he stay’d so long,
All headlong throws herself the clouds among.
Shakespeare wastes no words on Aurora and her feelings, but gets to his hero and to business without ado:—
Even as the sun with purple-colour’d face—
(You have the sun visualised at once),
Even as the sun with purple-colour’d face
Had ta’en his last leave of the weeping morn,
Rose-cheek’d Adonis hied him to the chase;
Hunting he loved, but love he laugh’d to scorn.
When Shakespeare has to describe a horse, mark how definite he is:—
Round-hoof’d, short-jointed, fetlocks shag and long,
Broad breast, full eye, small head and nostril wide,
High crest, short ears, straight legs and passing strong;
Thin mane, thick tail, broad buttock, tender hide.
Or again, in a casual simile, how definite:—
Upon this promise did he raise his chin,
Like a dive-dipper peering through a wave,
Which, being look’d on, ducks as quickly in.
Or take, if you will, Marlowe’s description of Hero’s first meeting Leander:—
It lies not in our power to love or hate,
For will in us is over-ruled by fate…,
and set against it Shakespeare’s description of Venus’ last meeting with Adonis, as she came on him lying in his blood:—
Or as a snail whose tender horns being hit
Shrinks backward in his shelly cave with pain,
And there, all smother’d up, in shade doth sit,
Long after fearing to creep forth again;
So, at his bloody view—
I do not deny Marlowe’s lines (if you will study the whole passage) to be lovely. You may even judge Shakespeare’s to be crude by comparison. But you cannot help noting that whereas Marlowe steadily deals in abstract, nebulous terms, Shakespeare constantly uses concrete ones, which later on he learned to pack into verse, such as:—
Sleep that knits up the ravell’d sleeve of care.
Is it unfair to instance Marlowe, who died young? Then let us take Webster for the comparison; Webster, a man of genius or of something very like it, and commonly praised by the critics for his mastery over definite, detailed, and what I may call
Let us take this admired passage from his
Duchess of Malfy:
How doth our sister Duchess bear herself
In her imprisonment?
Nobly: I’ll describe her.
She’s sad as one long used to ’t, and she seems
Rather to welcome the end of misery
Than shun it: a behaviour so noble
As gives a majesty to adversity
You may discern the shape of loveliness
More perfect in her tears than in her smiles;
She will muse for hours together;
and her silence
Methinks expresseth more than if she spake.
Now set against this the well-known passage from
where the Duke asks and Viola answers a question about someone unknown to him and invented by her—a mere phantasm, in short: yet note how much more definite is the language:—
My father had a daughter lov’d a man;
As it might be, perhaps, were I a woman,
should your lordship.
And what’s her history?
A blank, my lord. She never told her love,
But let concealment, like a worm i’ the bud,
Feed on her damask cheek; she pined in thought,
And with a green and yellow melancholy
She sat like Patience on a monument
Smiling at grief. Was not this love indeed?
Observe (apart from the dramatic skill of it) how, when Shakespeare
to use the abstract noun ‘concealment,’ on an instant it turns into a visible worm ‘feeding’ on the visible rose; how, having to use a second abstract word ‘patience,’ at once he solidifies it in tangible stone.
Turning to prose, you may easily assure yourselves that men who have written learnedly on the art agree in treating our maxim—to prefer the concrete term to the abstract, the particular to the general, the definite to the vague—as a canon of rhetoric. Whately has much to say on it. The late Mr E. J. Payne, in one of his admirable prefaces to Burke (prefaces too little known and valued, as too often happens to scholarship hidden away in a schoolbook), illustrated the maxim by setting a passage from Burke’s speech
On Conciliation with America
alongside a passage of like purport from Lord Brougham’s
Inquiry into the Policy of the European Powers.
Here is the deadly parallel:—
In large bodies the circulation of power must be less vigorous at the extremities. Nature has said it. The Turk cannot govern Ægypt and Arabia and Curdistan as he governs Thrace; nor has he the same dominion in Crimea and Algiers which he has at Brusa and Smyrna. Despotism itself is obliged to truck and huckster. The Sultan gets such obedience as he can. He governs with a loose rein, that he may govern at all; and the whole of the force and vigour of his authority in his centre is derived from a prudent relaxation in all his brothers.
In all the despotisms of the East, it has been observed that the further any part of the empire is removed from the capital, the more do its inhabitants enjoy some sort of rights and privileges: the more inefficacious is the power of the monarch; and the more feeble and easily decayed is the organisation of the government.
You perceive that Brougham has transferred Burke’s thought to his own page: but will you not also perceive how pitiably, by dissolving Burke’s vivid particulars into smooth generalities, he has enervated its hold on the mind?
‘This particularising style,’ comments Mr Payne, ‘is the essence of Poetry; and in Prose it is impossible not to be struck with the energy it produces. Brougham’s passage is excellent in its way: but it pales before the flashing lights of Burke’s sentences. The best instances of this energy of style, he adds, are to be found in the classical writers of the seventeenth century. ‘When South says, “An Aristotle was but the rubbish of an Adam, and Athens but the rudiments of Paradise,” he communicates more effectually the notion of the difference between the intellect of fallen and of unfallen humanity than in all the philosophy of his sermons put together.’
You may agree with me, or you may not, that South in this passage is expounding trash; but you will agree with Mr Payne and me that he uttered it vividly.
Let me quote to you, as a final example of this vivid style of writing, a passage from Dr John Donne far beyond and above anything that ever lay within South’s compass:—
The ashes of an Oak in the Chimney are no epitaph of that Oak, to tell me how high or how large that was; it tells me not what flocks it sheltered while it stood, nor what men it hurt when it fell. The dust of great persons’ graves is speechless, too; it says nothing, it distinguishes nothing. As soon the dust of a wretch whom thou wouldest not, as of a prince whom thou couldest not look upon will trouble thine eyes if the wind blow it thither; and when a whirlewind hath blown the dust of the Churchyard into the Church, and the man sweeps out the dust of the Church into the Churchyard, who will undertake to sift those dusts again and to pronounce, This is the Patrician, this is the noble flowre [flour], this the yeomanly, this the Plebeian bran? So is the death of
was a Queen) expressed. They shall not say
This is Iesabel;
not only not wonder that it is, nor pity that it should be; but they shall not say, they shall not know,
This is Iesabel.
Carlyle noted of Goethe, ‘his emblematic intellect, his never-failing tendency to transform into
the feeling that may dwell in him. Everything has form, has visual excellence: the poet’s imagination bodies forth the forms of things unseen, and his pen turns them into shape.’
Perpend this, Gentlemen, and maybe you will not hereafter set it down to my reproach that I wasted an hour of a May morning in a denunciation of Jargon, and in exhorting you upon a technical matter at first sight so trivial as the choice between abstract and definite words.
A lesson about writing your language may go deeper than language; for language (as in a former lecture I tried to preach to you) is your reason, your [Greek8]. So long as you prefer abstract words, which express other men’s summarised concepts of things, to concrete ones which lie as near as can be reached to things themselves and are the first-hand material for your thoughts, you will remain, at the best, writers at second-hand. If your language be Jargon, your intellect, if not your whole character, will almost certainly correspond. Where your mind should go straight, it will dodge: the difficulties it should approach with a fair front and grip with a firm hand it will be seeking to evade or circumvent. For the Style is the Man, and where a man’s treasure is there his heart, and his brain, and his writing, will be also.
Note the abstract terms. [
Here we first come on the concrete: and beautiful it is. [
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Understanding The Connection Of The Current Issue And The Tool
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich: Summary
The Current Law Regarding Teacher 's Liability For Personal Injury
Erikson 's Psychosocial Development Theory
Bel Brand Case Study
My Group Consumer Marketing Is The Most Inventive Or Innovative Thing You 've Done?
Seeking Your True Self in the Virtual World
How Technology Affects Individuals On A Social And A Spiritual Level
Informative Speech Scams
The Monarchy And A Dictatorship
The Struggles of Jenny from Forrest Gump
Financial Knowledge And Its Effects On Financial Management
The Army 's Education Of Field Grade Officers
Purpose Of Property And Casualty Insurance
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Energy Efficient Sensor Placement For Monitoring
Analysis Of Lester Horton 's ' The Beloved '
Consumer Attitudes and Purchase Intentions in Relation to Organic Foods
The Central Problems Of International Politics
How Technology Affects Our Education
My Commitment To Conserving The Environment, Setting Goals,
Latino Assimilation to American Culture
Features Of Modern Professional Sports Sector
The Problem Of Same Sex Marriage
The Between Vigne 's And Davis 's Accounts
Rock And Roll Of The 1960 ' S
Cultural Diversity : A Core Value At Tccc
Analysis Of Homer 's The Iliad
After Making The Case For Philosophical Anarchism b That
How I Learned From College Writing
The Quality Of The Restaurant
Mexican American War : The United States
Egoism, Psychological And Ethical, And Altruism
Diversity Of Escherichia Coli Isolated From Pigs Reared Using Different Husbandry Practices
How Smartphones Has Changed The World
A Great Education Is The Basis Of A Strong And Prosperous
Introduction to Business Policy
End of Segregation
Divorce Rate And Divorce Rates
The Printing Press Samuel Morse And Other Inventors
Analysis Of ' The Fox 's Hollow '
Philippines' Anti-Poverty Program Through Peoples' Participation
My Philosophy Of Being A Leader
The World Is Flat By Thomas L. Friedman
Megan Grogan. Mrs. Arnold. English 1301.78. 17 April 2017.
Star Cruise With Travel Destination
Rhetorical Analysis Of Patrick Henry 's Speech
Case Study : Supply Chain Management
John Wayne Gacy And Charles Manson
Epilepsy : A Treatable Neurological Disorder
A Christian Worldview On The World Through The Lens Of The Bible
Poland As A Developed Nation
The 's The Intellectual Faculties
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Analysis of bAugust: Osage Countyb
An Analysis Of Bob Carlisle 's ' The Album Shade Of Grace '
The Impact of Servicescape in a Restaurant on Customer Behavioral
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Hate Crimes: Matthew Shepard
Factors Affecting Community Policing
Three Major Components Of Nursing Leadership
Organizational Communication : An Organization
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High School Is A Crucial Period For All
Essentials Of Evidence Based Practice : Identifying A Researchable Problem
Report On The Economy Of Kazakhstan
Pain And The Long Term Care Facility
Harvest Video Response Core Values
Analysis Of Definebody Products, Its Market, And A Successful Interview With Charles El Moussa
It Is Not Quite Uncommon To Hear Others Say bYou Are What
My Experience At The Fire Department Of New York
Summary Of Book ' Liberty University '
A Nation at Risk
Rights and Freedoms
Too Much Pressure On American Teenagers
The European View Of The Orient
Should Drug Abuse Be Rehabilitated Drug Users Do Not Return? A Normal Social Life?
Psychodynamic Approach Within Psychoanalysis ( A Human Behavior Theory )
Investigation Of The Criminal Justice
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The Power Of Context By Malcom Gladwell
"A Government Can Run Like a Corporation and Fulfill Stakeholder Expectations." Do You Agree? (Use Singapore as an Example.)
Ethnic 14 : Starting A Family
Example a Level Psychology Experiment
Differences Between Worldview And Worldview
Why The Test Is Adequate Or Not?
Case Study : Medtech Eletronics Equipment Manufacturer
Attending A Jazz Concert At Uncw
Patrick Henry Speech Essay
Essay On My Beautiful Dog
The Observation Of The Bystander Effect
Carl Bruce Roberts : Bruce
Technology Is Too Cheap By Henry David Thoreau
Analysis Of Tony Morrison 's ' The Bluest Eye '
Industrialization Of The Industrial Revolution
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Preventing Athletes, Banning The High Risk Games
The Rape Of The United States
Clayton Industries: Rethinking Strategies in Europe
Using Structured And Unstructured Data
Descriptive Essay : ' A Cry Comes From Inside The Cage '
Often Times People Seem To Forget Where Their Water Comes
Abstract. The Purpose Of This Paper Is To Explore My Personal
Non-Violent Drug Offenders -Porp. 36
Everyone, including myself loves the sensation of security. That as a family or individual one is
Summary of The Auditor
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The Police Service And Police Services
Uniqlo Written Proposal
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Asperger 's Syndrome : A Look Into A New Face Of Autism Spectrum Disorders
My Own Personal Fitness Level
The Color Blue By Kieslowski 's Masterpiece
Film And Literature American Pop Culture
Romeo & Juliet: a Superficial Love
Music And Its Influence On Music
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Introduction to Counselling Concepts
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The And Implementation Of Web
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Psychological Effects Of Hate Crimes
Matisse 's Bonheur De Vivre ( Joy Of Life ) And Picasso 's Les Demoiselles D ' Avignon
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Diy Holiday Wreath Demonstration Speech
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Adversity In The Scarlet Letter
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Learning Theories, Behaviorism And Social Cognitive Theory
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Personal Narrative : My Best Friend
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Critical Analysis Of Hills Like White Elephants
Things Fall Apart And Purple Hibiscus Essay
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Illusion Vs. Reality : Edward Albee 's Who 's Afraid Of Virginia Woolf
A Short Note On Un Test De Depistage
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The Social Media And Communications Industry
The Effects Of Diet On Individuals With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
School Funding For Public Schools
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An Interview On College Athletes
The Constitution Of The United States
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Jessie Daniel Ames. In The Early Twentieth Century, Woman
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The And The Syrian Civil War
Leadership : The Meaning And The Definition
George Orwell 's Animal Farm
Chaucer 's Squire : An Exploration Of Character Modalities
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Fast Food Chains And Customer Satisfaction
The Client, A Hispanic Male, Age 69
Children Is The First Social Network A Child
A Dear Friend Of Mine Has Faced One Of The Hardest Struggles
Invention of Gatsby
The International Olympic Committee ( Ioc )
Divorce And The Effects On Children
Comparing and Contrasting Desires of Mathilde in bthe Necklaceb and the Unnamed Narrator in bArabyb.
Selection Of Excipients For Galantamine Hbr Orodispersible Tablet
Parsons Dance Company At Midlands Technical College
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Marketing Analysis : Starbucks Corporation
How The Media Is The Issue Of The 21st Century
Teaching And Learning Environments At The New Zealand Education System
Media 's Influence On Perceptions Of Self
Digital Evidence And Law Enforcement
Kowloon Walled City : The Lawless City
Gender Equality And Gender Discrimination
Domestic Violence And Its Effects On The Society
The Washington County School District Organizational Strategies
Bartleby, The Scrivener, By Herman Melville
Satire, Stain Glass And The Hagia Sophia
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The Intellectual Property Case Study
The Teams From Western Canada For The Stanley Cup
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I Served As The National Health Corps Member Of The Allegheny County Health Department
Major Depressive Disorder And Bipolar Disorder
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Negligence And The Negligence Tort
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American History : The Blues
Hidden Messages of the Dressing Room Satires on Jonathan Swift and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu
What Is Life? What Does It Mean?
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Digital Payment Is A Way Of Payment
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The Debate Over School Prayer
Is Reaching A Comfortable Retirement?
The Between Glaucon And The Socrates
Economic Globalization And Its Impact On The World
Examining The History And Influence Of Witch Trials
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The Coming Of John
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Cultural Awareness Of A Counselor
The Seven Deadly Sins Of Othello
Analysis Of ' The Crucible '
Different Task Related And Relationship Orientated Attitudes And Behaviors Within Leadership
New Kinord : An Ancient Settlement
Dress Codes And Sexual Violence
Role Of The Department Of Homeland Security
The Los Angeles County Sheriff 's Department
Other People Do Not Have Minds
Fed Up And Forks Over Knives
Driving While Being Drunk And Driving
How Power Can Be Corrupted Through Hubris And Invokes The Limits Of Power Of A Ruler
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Love Is The Most Miracle Drugs
Aids Among Women During The Sex Industry
Teacher, I Planted A Seed
Fate : Fate And Fate
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Power, Hubris, And Hamartia ' Sophocles ' Antigone
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My Speech On My Life
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What I Have Learned About My Personality
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An Economy Or Economic System
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Analysis Of Mark Twain 's ' The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn '
Child Behavior And Language Assessment
Testing And Its Negative Effects
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Public Health Services For Nhs England
The Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association
Enlightenment And Scientific Discovery Of The 17th Century
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Theory And Family Systems Theory
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The Declaration Of Independence Of America
Analysis Of ' The Solitude Of Self '
The French Revolution : The Revolution
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Criminal Laws And The Cruel Treatment Of Alleged Criminals
Motivation Theory Vs. Equity Theory
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Can Epidemics Be Avoided?
A Critique Of Ehrlich, David E, And Donald G Rainnie
The Black Of Black And 70s
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Risk Management Techniques For Construction Projects
Abstraction Is An Old Story With The Philosophers
Analysis Of Barack Obama 's Speech
Audience About The Roman Colosseum
The Treaty Of Versailles Was A War Of Slaughter On A New Scale
Tesco Plc And Public Limited Company
The Lynching Of Lynching, By Ida B. Wells Barnett
Domestic Violence Against Immigrant And Refugee Women
The Filipino Culture
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Standardized Testing At Mandarin High School
Hester Prynne : Should She Ever Learn From Her Sin?
Analysis Of The Book ' The '
Procedural Programming And Object Oriented Programming
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I Was The Best Player
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Analysis Of ' Don 't Judge A Book '
The Apartheid And Racial Segregation
Technology And Its Effect On Digital Books
The Police Officers When Dealing With People With Mental Health Illness
Development And Application Of Geographic Information System
Health Care Provider Is A Covered Entity
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Thomas Hobbes And The Social Contract Theory
The Hunger Games By Suzanne Collins
Understanding Grammatical Language Skills : Universal Grammar
My Life Without My Hero
The Human Right Of Practicing A Religion
Obesity And The Public Affairs Mission At Missouri State
The World Weaving A Tapestry Of Diversity
Do Schools Kill Creativity?
Development Of The Psychiatric Mental Health
The Revolution Of The American Revolution
Icd 10 : A System Of Medical Classification Of Diseases
The Ottawa Charter For Health Promotion
The Orientation Program For Our Staff Members
`` Hills Like White Elephants `` By Ernest Hemingway
Lab Report : Seed Lab
Effects Of Gentrification On Urban Areas
Book Report : ' Wonderland '
Shakespeare 's Othello - The Simplicity Of Love
The Death Penalty Is Justified
The Outsiders : A Book With A Meaning
Childhood Obesity Among Low Income Latino Population
Kill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee
The Center For American Progress
Patient Care, Quality Improvement, And Teamwork
The Case For Christ By Lee Strobel
The French Revolution And The American Revolution
Unemployment And The Unemployment Rate
My Experience At The Art Classroom
Summary Of ' The Kite Runner '
Utilitarianism Theory And Rights Theory
The Theory Of Religion And Spirituality
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My First Day Of School
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Review Of Surgery Versus Surgery Alone For Colorectal Cancer
Supervision Of Teachers And Action Plan
Symptoms And Treatment Of Cancer Treatment
Film Review of American History X"
The Fascination Of Murder, By Scott Bonn
The Federal Agencies Responsible For Food Regulation
Relationship Between Inequality And Economic Growth
Identification And Characterization Of Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus
Sunwind Ab Case
Pepsi : Pepsi 's Campaign
Time Waits For No One And I Desire
The Carter 's Inc.
Sample Resume For A Job Manager Experience
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As One Who Has Not Utilized Social Media, I Recently Took
Divorce and Children
Chuck Berry An Eccentric, African American Rock ' N ' Roller From St. Louis
The Dangers Of Toxic Secrecy Plays During Four Different Family Situations
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Relationship Between Partner Association Management
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Highest Death Rate
Slave Rebellions, By Nat Turner, Gabriel Prosser, And Denmark Vesey
Breast cancer is a type of cancer originates from breast tissue, generally from the inner lining of
Ap Us Government Unit 5: the President
The Family Smoking Prevention And Tobacco Control Act
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A Visit At The Beaverton High School Library
The Cause And Effect Of Leaded Gasoline
The Death Of A Dream
Informative Essay : Borderline Personality Disorders
Notes On Real Estate Investments
Pre Hospital Care For Trauma Patients With Massive Hemorrhage
Reaction Rates of Marble Chips
Outline Of An Outline On The Gun Ownership Of The United States
Indian Brand : The Niche Segment Successfully
The Secret Annexe By Anne Frank
Women 's Suffrage During The Nineteenth Century
Analysis Of The Poem ' Giant Dreams, Midget Abilities ' By David Sedaris
The Importance Of A Fashion Competition At Tauranga Cbd At Baycourt Theatre
Family Group Conferencing As A Method Of Intervention
Information About The Functioning Of Jbpm Business Located Handling And Possible Solution For Some Exceptional Cases
The Morality Of Sex Selection
A Comparative Study Of Public And Private Banks Of Ncr
Compare/Contrast - Clean Well Lighted Place and Sonny's Blues
Susan Sontag 's Theories About Photography
An Intervention For A Client, Friend And / Or Family Member
College Is Not Good Memories
Tobacco Smoke And Its Effects On Health
Code Of Ethics And State Board Counseling Laws
The Causes of the Soviet Union's Collapse
The Famine Of The Great Plains
Ben Franklin Autobiography Summary
The Yellow Wallpaper and Feminism
Employee Service Support Specialist At 3 Years As A Customer Service
Non Participant Observation On Science, Social Studies, And Mathematics
Google Culture and Success
What Does Ethics Mean?
The Impact Of Applying The 20 % Deduction On Various Salary Levels
Creating A Website For An Effective Website
Curriculum And Instruction For Atypical Learners
The Nationwide Student Debt Crisis
Some Of The First Humans From Africa
Reducing The Spread Of Obesity
Purpose Of A Space For Youth
Energy Usage Of The Annapolis City Government
A Doll House By Henrik Ibsen
Lewis Carroll 's Wonderland : A Magical Underworld Named Wonderland
The Friday That Changed My Life
Racism, Hatred, Skin Color, And Judging Are All Parts Of Racism
Who Should Go For College?
The Implementation Of Organizational Strategies
The Issue Of Gun Control
First One Semester Of My College Year
Climate Change Has Proved Inadequate On Many Levels
The Myth Of The Latin Woman By Judith Ortiz Cofer
My Experience At Boca Raton Elementary School
The Culture Of South Korea
The Rise Of The Qing Dynasty
Interview Questions On Client Meeting Schedule
The High Priority For School Districts
Gender Roles And Misogyny On Societal Pressures
Hamlet, By William Shakespeare
Literacy, Social Studies, And Science
Online Learning Vs. Traditional Classroom
Emotional Intelligence And The Nurse Supervisor
Is The Vice President 's Comments About Cost And Schedule Variance Correct?
Health Psychology And The Effects Of Self Esteem On Illness
My First English 101 : An Important Part For College So Far This Year, My Writing?
Tragedy Is A Better Than An Epic
Deviance And Formal Deviance Within The Workplace
Graduation Speech : My Ideal Class
Organizational Success And Performance Of Project Management
The Atomic Explosion Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki
Barriers Of Mental Health Information And Services
The Threat Of Terrorist Attacks
The Allegory Of The Cave
The Greatest Day Of My Life
Evaluation Of Students Attending Concordia College
Love : Love And Love
Globalization And Its Effects On Society
Strengths And Weaknesses Of The Classroom
Literacy Is Important And High Impact On The Core Subjects
The Friday That Changed My Life
The Primary Difference Between Classroom And Online Classes
Employee Engagement And Morale Of Employees
The Treatment Of The Transplant
What Happened Before We Got Here?
My Leadership Style By Rear Admiral Grace Hopper
Graduation Speech : Mandatory Requirements
Jean Piaget 's Theory Of Cognitive Development
Should Creativity Be Taught? Schools?
Health And Wellness Is Sleep Disorders
Representation Of The United States
Identifying The Gender Stereotype Example
Assistance For Low Income Individuals And Families