Reference > William Shakespeare > The Oxford Shakespeare > King Richard II.
William Shakespeare (1564–1616).  The Oxford Shakespeare.  1914.
The Tragedy of King Richard the Second
Act I. Scene III.
Open Space, near Coventry.  Lists set out, and a Throne. Heralds, &c., attending.
Enter the Lord Marshal and AUMERLE.
  Mar.  My Lord Aumerle, is Harry Hereford arm’d?
  Aum.  Yea, at all points, and longs to enter in.
  Mar.  The Duke of Norfolk, sprightfully and bold,        5
Stays but the summons of the appellant’s trumpet.
  Aum.  Why then, the champions are prepar’d, and stay
For nothing but his majesty’s approach.
Flourish.  Enter KING RICHARD, who takes his seat on his Throne; GAUNT, BUSHY, BAGOT, GREEN, and Others, who take their places.  A trumpet is sounded, and answered by another trumpet within.  Then enter MOWBRAY, in armour, defendant, preceded by a Herald.
  K. Rich.  Marshal, demand of yonder champion        10
The cause of his arrival here in arms:
Ask him his name, and orderly proceed
To swear him in the justice of his cause.
  Mar.  In God’s name, and the king’s, say who thou art,
And why thou com’st thus knightly clad in arms,        15
Against what man thou com’st, and what thy quarrel.
Speak truly, on thy knighthood and thine oath;
As so defend thee heaven and thy valour!
  Mow.  My name is Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk,
Who hither come engaged by my oath,—        20
Which God defend a knight should violate!—
Both to defend my loyalty and truth
To God, my king, and his succeeding issue,
Against the Duke of Hereford that appeals me;
And, by the grace of God and this mine arm,        25
To prove him, in defending of myself,
A traitor to my God, my king, and me:
And as I truly fight, defend me heaven!  [He takes his seat.
Trumpet sounds.  Enter BOLINGBROKE, appellant, in armour, preceded by a Herald.
  K. Rich.  Marshal, ask yonder knight in arms,        30
Both who he is and why he cometh hither
Thus plated in habiliments of war;
And formally, according to our law,
Depose him in the justice of his cause.
  Mar.  What is thy name? and wherefore com’st thou hither,        35
Before King Richard in his royal lists?
Against whom comest thou? and what’s thy quarrel?
Speak like a true knight, so defend thee heaven!
  Boling.  Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby,
Am I; who ready here do stand in arms,        40
To prove by God’s grace and my body’s valour,
In lists, on Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk,
That he’s a traitor foul and dangerous,
To God of heaven, King Richard, and to me:
And as I truly fight, defend me heaven!        45
  Mar.  On pain of death, no person be so bold
Or daring-hardy as to touch the lists,
Except the marshal and such officers
Appointed to direct these fair designs.
  Boling.  Lord marshal, let me kiss my sovereign’s hand,        50
And bow my knee before his majesty:
For Mowbray and myself are like two men
That vow a long and weary pilgrimage;
Then let us take a ceremonious leave
And loving farewell of our several friends.        55
  Mar.  The appellant in all duty greets your highness,
And craves to kiss your hand and take his leave.
  K. Rich.  [Descends from his throne.]  We will descend and fold him in our arms.
Cousin of Hereford, as thy cause is right,
So be thy fortune in this royal fight!        60
Farewell, my blood; which if to-day thou shed,
Lament we may, but not revenge thee dead.
  Boling.  O! let no noble eye profane a tear
For me, if I be gor’d with Mowbray’s spear.
As confident as is the falcon’s flight        65
Against a bird, do I with Mowbray fight.
My loving lord, I take my leave of you;
Of you, my noble cousin, Lord Aumerle;
Not sick, although I have to do with death,
But lusty, young, and cheerly drawing breath.        70
Lo! as at English feasts, so I regreet
The daintiest last, to make the end most sweet:
O thou, the earthly author of my blood,
Whose youthful spirit, in me regenerate,
Doth with a two-fold vigour lift me up        75
To reach at victory above my head,
Add proof unto mine armour with thy prayers,
And with thy blessings steel my lance’s point,
That it may enter Mowbray’s waxen coat,
And furbish new the name of John a Gaunt,        80
Even in the lusty haviour of his son.
  Gaunt.  God in thy good cause make thee prosperous!
Be swift like lightning in the execution;
And let thy blows, doubly redoubled,
Fall like amazing thunder on the casque        85
Of thy adverse pernicious enemy:
Rouse up thy youthful blood, be valiant and live.
  Boling.  Mine innocency and Saint George to thrive!  [He takes his seat.
  Mow.  [Rising.]  However God or fortune cast my lot,
There lives or dies, true to King Richard’s throne,        90
A loyal, just, and upright gentleman.
Never did captive with a freer heart
Cast off his chains of bondage and embrace
His golden uncontroll’d enfranchisement,
More than my dancing soul doth celebrate        95
This feast of battle with mine adversary.
Most mighty liege, and my companion peers,
Take from my mouth the wish of happy years.
As gentle and as jocund as to jest,
Go I to fight: truth has a quiet breast.        100
  K. Rich.  Farewell, my lord: securely I espy
Virtue with valour couched in thine eye.
Order the trial, marshal, and begin.  [The KING and the Lords return to their seats.
  Mar.  Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby,
Receive thy lance; and God defend the right!        105
  Boling.  [Rising.]  Strong as a tower in hope, I cry ‘amen.’
  Mar.  [To an Officer.]  Go bear this lance to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk.
  First Her.  Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby,
Stands here for God, his sovereign, and himself,
On pain to be found false and recreant,        110
To prove the Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray,
A traitor to his God, his king, and him;
And dares him to set forward to the fight.
  Sec. Her.  Here standeth Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk,
On pain to be found false and recreant,        115
Both to defend himself and to approve
Henry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby,
To God, his sovereign, and to him, disloyal;
Courageously and with a free desire,
Attending but the signal to begin.        120
  Mar.  Sound, trumpets; and set forward, combatants.  [A charge sounded.
Stay, stay, the king hath thrown his warder down.
  K. Rich.  Let them lay by their helmets and their spears,
And both return back to their chairs again:
Withdraw with us; and let the trumpets sound        125
While we return these dukes what we decree.  [A long flourish.
[To the Combatants.]  Draw near,
And list what with our council we have done.
For that our kingdom’s earth should not be soil’d
With that dear blood which it hath fostered;        130
And for our eyes do hate the dire aspect
Of civil wounds plough’d up with neighbours’ swords;
And for we think the eagle-winged pride
Of sky-aspiring and ambitious thoughts,
With rival-hating envy, set on you        135
To wake our peace, which in our country’s cradle
Draws the sweet infant breath of gentle sleep;
Which so rous’d up with boist’rous untun’d drums,
With harsh-resounding trumpets’ dreadful bray,
And grating shock of wrathful iron arms,        140
Might from our quiet confines fright fair peace
And make us wade even in our kindred’s blood:
Therefore, we banish you our territories:
You, cousin Hereford, upon pain of life,
Till twice five summers have enrich’d our fields,        145
Shall not regreet our fair dominions,
But tread the stranger paths of banishment.
  Boling.  Your will be done: this must my comfort be,
That sun that warms you here shall shine on me;
And those his golden beams to you here lent        150
Shall point on me and gild my banishment.
  K. Rich.  Norfolk, for thee remains a heavier doom,
Which I with some unwillingness pronounce:
The sly slow hours shall not determinate
The dateless limit of thy dear exile;        155
The hopeless word of ‘never to return’
Breathe I against thee, upon pain of life.
  Mow.  A heavy sentence, my most sovereign liege,
And all unlook’d for from your highness’ mouth:
A dearer merit, not so deep a maim        160
As to be cast forth in the common air,
Have I deserved at your highness’ hands.
The language I have learn’d these forty years,
My native English, now I must forego;
And now my tongue’s use is to me no more        165
Than an unstringed viol or a harp,
Or like a cunning instrument cas’d up,
Or, being open, put into his hands
That knows no touch to tune the harmony:
Within my mouth you have engaol’d my tongue,        170
Doubly portcullis’d with my teeth and lips;
And dull, unfeeling, barren ignorance
Is made my gaoler to attend on me.
I am too old to fawn upon a nurse,
Too far in years to be a pupil now:        175
What is thy sentence then but speechless death,
Which robs my tongue from breathing native breath?
  K. Rich.  It boots thee not to be compassionate:
After our sentence plaining comes too late.
  Mow.  Then, thus I turn me from my country’s light,        180
To dwell in solemn shades of endless night.  [Retiring.
  K. Rich.  Return again, and take an oath with thee.
Lay on our royal sword your banish’d hands;
Swear by the duty that you owe to God—
Our part therein we banish with yourselves—        185
To keep the oath that we administer:
You never shall,—so help you truth and God!—
Embrace each other’s love in banishment;
Nor never look upon each other’s face;
Nor never write, regreet, nor reconcile        190
This low’ring tempest of your home-bred hate;
Nor never by advised purpose meet
To plot, contrive, or complot any ill
’Gainst us, our state, our subjects, or our land.
  Boling.  I swear.        195
  Mow.  And I, to keep all this.
  Boling.  Norfolk, so far, as to mine enemy:—
By this time, had the king permitted us,
One of our souls had wander’d in the air,
Banish’d this frail sepulchre of our flesh,        200
As now our flesh is banish’d from this land:
Confess thy treasons ere thou fly the realm;
Since thou hast far to go, bear not along
The clogging burden of a guilty soul.
  Mow.  No, Bolingbroke: if ever I were traitor,        205
My name be blotted from the book of life,
And I from heaven banish’d as from hence!
But what thou art, God, thou, and I do know;
And all too soon, I fear, the king shall rue.
Farewell, my liege. Now no way can I stray;        210
Save back to England, all the world’s my way.  [Exit.
  K. Rich.  Uncle, even in the glasses of thine eyes
I see thy grieved heart: thy sad aspect
Hath from the number of his banish’d years
Pluck’d four away.—[To BOLINGBROKE.]  Six frozen winters spent,        215
Return with welcome home from banishment.
  Boling.  How long a time lies in one little word!
Four lagging winters and four wanton springs
End in a word: such is the breath of kings.
  Gaunt.  I thank my liege, that in regard of me        220
He shortens four years of my son’s exile;
But little vantage shall I reap thereby:
For, ere the six years that he hath to spend
Can change their moons and bring their times about,
My oil-dried lamp and time-bewasted light        225
Shall be extinct with age and endless night;
My inch of taper will be burnt and done,
And blindfold death not let me see my son.
  K. Rich.  Why, uncle, thou hast many years to live.
  Gaunt.  But not a minute, king, that thou canst give:        230
Shorten my days thou canst with sullen sorrow,
And pluck nights from me, but not lend a morrow;
Thou canst help time to furrow me with age.
But stop no wrinkle in his pilgrimage;
Thy word is current with him for my death,        235
But dead, thy kingdom cannot buy my breath.
  K. Rich.  Thy son is banish’d upon good advice,
Whereto thy tongue a party-verdict gave:
Why at our justice seem’st thou then to lower?
  Gaunt.  Things sweet to taste prove in digestion sour.        240
You urg’d me as a judge; but I had rather
You would have bid me argue like a father.
O! had it been a stranger, not my child,
To smooth his fault I should have been more mild:
A partial slander sought I to avoid,        245
And in the sentence my own life destroy’d.
Alas! I look’d when some of you should say,
I was too strict to make mine own away;
But you gave leave to my unwilling tongue
Against my will to do myself this wrong.        250
  K. Rich.  Cousin, farewell; and, uncle, bid him so:
Six years we banish him, and he shall go.  [Flourish. Exeunt KING RICHARD and Train.
  Aum.  Cousin, farewell: what presence must not know,
From where you do remain let paper show.
  Mar.  My lord, no leave take I; for I will ride,        255
As far as land will let me, by your side.
  Gaunt.  O! to what purpose dost thou hoard thy words,
That thou return’st no greeting to thy friends?
  Boling.  I have too few to take my leave of you,
When the tongue’s office should be prodigal        260
To breathe the abundant dolour of the heart.
  Gaunt.  Thy grief is but thy absence for a time.
  Boling.  Joy absent, grief is present for that time.
  Gaunt.  What is six winters? they are quickly gone.
  Boling.  To men in joy; but grief makes one hour ten.        265
  Gaunt.  Call it a travel that thou tak’st for pleasure.
  Boling.  My heart will sigh when I miscall it so,
Which finds it an inforced pilgrimage.
  Gaunt.  The sullen passage of thy weary steps
Esteem as foil wherein thou art to set        270
The precious jewel of thy home return.
  Boling.  Nay, rather, every tedious stride I make
Will but remember me what a deal of world
I wander from the jewels that I love.
Must I not serve a long apprenticehood        275
To foreign passages, and in the end,
Having my freedom, boast of nothing else
But that I was a journeyman to grief?
  Gaunt.  All places that the eye of heaven visits
Are to a wise man ports and happy havens.        280
Teach thy necessity to reason thus;
There is no virtue like necessity.
Think not the king did banish thee,
But thou the king. Woe doth the heavier sit,
Where it perceives it is but faintly borne.        285
Go, say I sent thee forth to purchase honour,
And not the king exil’d thee; or suppose
Devouring pestilence hangs in our air,
And thou art flying to a fresher clime.
Look, what thy soul holds dear, imagine it        290
To lie that way thou go’st, not whence thou com’st.
Suppose the singing birds musicians,
The grass whereon thou tread’st the presence strew’d,
The flowers fair ladies, and thy steps no more
Than a delightful measure or a dance;        295
For gnarling sorrow hath less power to bite
The man that mocks at it and sets it light.
  Boling.  O! who can hold a fire in his hand
By thinking on the frosty Caucasus?
Or cloy the hungry edge of appetite        300
By bare imagination of a feast?
Or wallow naked in December snow
By thinking on fantastic summer’s heat?
O, no! the apprehension of the good
Gives but the greater feeling to the worse:        305
Fell sorrow’s tooth doth never rankle more
Than when it bites, but lanceth not the sore.
  Gaunt.  Come, come, my son, I’ll bring thee on thy way.
Had I thy youth and cause, I would not stay.
  Boling.  Then, England’s ground, farewell; sweet soil, adieu:        310
My mother, and my nurse, that bears me yet!
Where’er I wander, boast of this I can,
Though banish’d, yet a true-born Englishman.  [Exeunt.

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