Fiction > Harvard Classics > Euripides > The Bacchæ
Euripides (480 or 485–406 B.C.).  The Bacchæ.
The Harvard Classics.  1909–14.
Lines 1–399

BEHOLD, God’s Son is come unto this land
Of heaven’s hot splendour lit to life, when she
Of Thebes, even I, Dionysus, whom the brand
Who bore me, Cadmus’ daughter Semelê,        4
Died here. So, changed in shape from God to man,
I walk again by Dirce’s streams and scan
Ismenus’ shore. There by the castle side
I see her place, the Tomb of the Lightning’s Bride,        8
The wreck of smouldering chambers, and the great
Faint wreaths of fire undying—as the hate
Dies not, that Hera held for Semelê.
  Aye, Cadmus bath done well; in purity        12
He keeps this place apart, inviolate,
His daughter’s sanctuary; and I have set
My green and clustered vines to robe it round.
  Far now behind me lies the golden ground        16
Of Lydian and of Phrygian; far away
The wide hot plains where Persian sunbeams play,
The Bactrian war-holds, and the storm-oppressed
Clime of the Mede, and Araby the Blest,        20
And Asia all, that by the salt sea lies
In proud embattled cities, motley-wise
Of Hellene and Barbarian interwrought;
And now I come to Hellas—having taught        24
All the world else my dances and my rite
Of mysteries, to show me in men’s sight
Manifest God.
              And first of Helene lands        28
I cry this Thebes to waken; set her hands
To clasp my wand, mine ivied javelin,
And round her shoulders hang my wild fawn-skin.
For they have scorned me whom it least beseemed,        32
Semelê’s sisters; mocked my birth, nor deemed
That Dionysus sprang from Dian seed.
My mother sinned, said they; and in her need,
With Cadmus plotting, cloaked her human shame        36
With the dread name of Zeus; for that the flame
From heaven consumed her, seeing she lied to God.
  Thus must they vaunt; and therefore bath my rod
On them first fallen, and stung them forth wild-eyed        40
From empty chambers; the bare mountain side
Is made their home, and all their hearts are flame.
Yea, I have bound upon the necks of them
The harness of my rites. And with them all        44
The seed of womankind from hut and hall
Of Thebes, bath this my magic goaded out.
And there, with the old King’s daughters, in a rout
Confused, they make their dwelling-place between        48
The roofless rocks and shadowy pine trees green.
Thus shall this Thebes, how sore soe’er it smart,
Learn and forget not, till she crave her part
In mine adoring; thus must I speak clear        52
To save my mother’s fame, and crown me here
As true God, born by Semelê to Zeus.
  Now Cadmus yieldeth up his throne and use
Of royal honour to his daughter’s son        56
Pentheus; who on my body hath begun
A war with God. He thrusteth me away
From due drink-offering, and, when men pray,
My name entreats not. Therefore on his own        60
Head and his people’s shall my power he shown.
Then to another land, when all things here
Are well, must I fare onward, making clear
My godhead’s might. But should this Theban town        64
Essay with wrath and battle to drag down
My maids, lo, in their path myself shall be,
And maniac armies battled after me!
For this I veil my godhead with the wan        68
Form of the things that die, and walk as Man.
  O Brood of Tmolus o’er the wide world flown,
O Lydian band, my chosen and mine own,
Damsels uplifted o’er the orient deep        72
To wander where I wander, and to sleep
Where I sleep; up, and wake the old sweet sound,
The clang that I and mystic Rhea found,
The Timbrel of the Mountain! Gather all        76
Thebes to your song round Pentheus’ royal hall.
I seek my new-made worshippers, to guide
Their dances up Kithaeron’s pine clad side.  [As he departs, there comes stealing in from the left a band of fifteen Eastern Women, the light of the sunrise streaming upon their long white robes and ivy-bound hair. They wear fawn-skins over the robes, and carry some of them timbrels, some pipes and other instruments. Many bear the thyrsus or sacred Wand, made of reed ringed with ivy. They enter stealthily till they see that the place is empty, and then begin their mystic song of worship.

A Maiden
From Asia, from the dayspring that uprises,
  To Bromios ever glorying we came.
We laboured for our Lord in many guises;
We toiled, but the toil is as the prize is;        84
  Thou Mystery, we hail thee by thy name!

Who lingers in the road? Who espies us?
  We shall hide him in his house nor be bold.
Let the heart keep silence that defies us;        88
For I sing this day to Dionysus
  The song that is appointed from of old.
All the Maidens

Oh, blessèd he in all wise,
  Who hath drunk the Living Fountain,        92
    Whose life no folly staineth,
      And his soul is near to God;
Whose sins are lifted, pall-wise,
  As he worships on the Mountain,        96
    And where Cybele ordaineth,
      Our Mother, he has trod:
      His head with ivy laden
        And his thyrsus tossing high,        100
          For our God he lifts his cry;
      “Up, O Bacchæ, wife and maiden,
          Come, O ye Bacchæ, come;
    Oh, bring the Joy-bestower,        104
    God-seed of God the Sower,
    Bring Bromios in his power
          From Phrygia’s mountain dome;
      To street and town and tower,        108
            Oh, bring ye Bromios home.”
Whom erst in anguish lying
  For an unborn life’s desire,
    As a dead thing in the Thunder        112
      His mother cast to earth;
For her heart was dying, dying,
  In the white heart of the fire;
    Till Zeus, the Lord of Wonder,        116
      Devised new lairs of birth;
        Yea, his own flesh tore to hide him,
          And with clasps of hitter gold
          Did a secret son enfold,        120
      And the Queen knew not beside him;
          Till the perfect hour was there;
      Then a hornèd God was found,
      And a God of serpents crowned;        124
      And for that are serpents wound
          In the wands his maidens bear,
      And the songs of serpents sound
          In the mazes of their hair.        128
Some Maidens

All hail, O Thebes, thou nurse of Semelê!
  With Semelê’s wild ivy crown thy towers;
Oh, burst in bloom of wreathing bryony,
      Berries and leaves and flowers;        132
    Uplift the dark divine wand,
    The oak-wand and the pine-wand,
And don thy fawn-skin, fringed in purity
      With fleecy white, like ours.        136
Oh, cleanse thee in the wands’ waving pride!
  Yea, all men shall dance with us and pray,
When Bromios his companies shall guide
  Hillward, ever hillward, where they stay,        140
    The flock of the Believing,
    The maids from loom and weaving
  By the magic of his breath borne away.

    Hail thou, O Nurse of Zeus, O Caverned Haunt
      Where fierce arms clanged to guard God’s cradle rare,
    For thee of old crested Corybant
      First woke in Cretan air
    The wild orb of our orgies,        148
    The Timbrel; and thy gorges
Rang with this Strain; and blended Phrygian chant
      And sweet keen pipes were there.
  But the Timbrel, the Timbrel was another’s,        152
    And away to Mother Rhea it must wend;
  And to our holy singing from the Mother’s
    The mad Satyrs carried it, to blend
      In the dancing and the cheer        156
      Of our third and perfect Year;
And it serves Dionysus in the end!
A Maiden

O glad, glad on the mountains
  To swoon in the race outworn,        160
    When the holy fawn-skin clings,
      And all else sweeps away,
To the joy of the red quick fountains,
  The blood of the hill-goat torn,        164
    The glory of wild-beast ravenings,
      Where the hill-tops catch the day;
To the Phrygian, Lydian, mountains!
    ’Tis Bromios leads the way.        168
Another Maiden

Then streams the earth with milk, yea, streams
With wine and nectar of the bee,
And through the air dim perfume steams
Of Syrian frankincense; and He,        172
Our leader, from his thyrsus spray
A torchlight tosses high and higher,
A torchlight like a beacon-fire,
To waken all that faint and stray;        176
And sets them leaping as he sings,
His tresses rippling to the sky,
And deep beneath the Maenad cry
His proud voice rings:        180
      “Come, O ye Bacchæ, come!”
All the Maidens

Hither, O fragrant of Tmolus the Golden,
  Come with the voice of timbrel and drum;
Let the cry of your joyance uplift and embolden        184
  The God of the joy-cry; O Bacchanals, come!
With pealing of pipes and with Phrygian clamour,
  On, where the vision of holiness thrills,
And the music climbs and the maddening glamour,        188
  With the wild White Maids, to the hills, to the hills!
Oh, then, like a colt as he runs by a river,
  A colt by his dam, when the heart of him sings,
With the keen limbs drawn and the fleet foot a-quiver,        192
          Away the Bacchanal springs!
Enter TEIRESIAS. He is an old man and blind, leaning upon a staff and moving with slow stateliness, though wearing the Ivy and the Bacchic fawn-skin.


Ho, there, who keeps the gate?—Go, summon me
Cadmus, Agênor’s son, who crossed the sea        196
From Sidon and upreared this Theban hold.
Go, whosoe’er thou art. See he be told
Teiresias seeketh him. Himself will gauge
Mine errand, and the compact, age with age,        200
I vowed with him, grey hair with snow-white hair,
To deck the new God’s thyrsus, and to wear
His fawn-skin, and with ivy crown our brows.
Enter CADMUS from the Castle. He is even older than TEIRESIAS, and wears the same attire.


True friend! I knew that voice of thine, that flows
Like mellow wisdom from a fountain wise.
And, lo, I come prepared, in all the guise
And harness of this God. Are we not told
His is the soul of that dead life of old        208
That sprang from mine own daughter? Surely then
Must thou and I with all the strength of men
Exalt him.
            Where then shall I stand, where tread        212
The dance and toss this bowed and hoary head?
O friend, in thee is wisdom; guide my grey
And eld-worn steps, eld-worn Teiresias.—Nay;
I am not weak.  [At the first movement of worship his manner begins to change; a mysterious strength and exaltation enter into him.        216
                Surely this arm could smite
The wild earth with its thyrsus, day and night,
And faint not! Sweetly and forgetfully
The dim years fall from off me!        220

                                As with thee,
With me ’tis likewise. Light am I and young,
And will essay the dancing and the song.

Quick, then, our chariots to the mountain road.

Nay; to take steeds were to mistrust the God.

So be it. Mine old arms shall guide thee there.

The God himself shall guide! Have thou no care.

And in all Thebes shall no man dance but we?

Aye, Thebes is blinded. Thou and I can see.

’Tis weary waiting; hold my hand, friend; so.

Lo, there is mine. So linked let us go.

Shall things of dust the Gods’ dark ways despise?

Or prove our wit on Heaven’s high mysteries?
Not thou and I! That heritage sublime
Our sires have left us, wisdom old as time,
No word of man, how deep soe’er his thought        236
And won of subtlest toil, may bring to naught.
  Aye, men will rail that I forgot my years,
To dance and wreath with ivy these white hairs;
What recks it? Seeing the God no line bath told        240
To mark what man shall dance, or young or old;
But craves his honours from mortality
All, no man marked apart; and great shall be!
CADMUS (after looking away toward the Mountain).

Teiresias, since this light thou canst not read,
I must be seer for thee. Here comes in speed
Pentheus, Echîon’s son, whom I have raised
To rule my people in my stead.—Amazed
He seems. Stand close, and mark what we shall hear.  [The two stand back, partially concealed, while there enters in hot haste PENTHEUS, followed by a bodyguard. He is speaking to the SOLDIER in command.        248

Scarce had I crossed our borders, when mine ear
Was caught by this strange rumour, that our own
Wives, our own sisters, from their hearths are flown
To wild and secret rites; and cluster there        252
High on the shadowy hills, with dance and prayer
To adore this new-made God, this Dionyse,
Whate’er he be!—And in their companies
Deep wine-jars stand, and ever and anon        256
Away into the loneliness now one
Steals forth, and now a second, maid or dame,
Where love lies waiting, not of God! The flame,
They say, of Bacchios wraps them. Bacchios! Nay,        260
’Tis more to Aphrodite that they pray.
  Howbeit, all that I have found, my men
Hold bound and shackled in our dungeon den;
The rest, I will go hunt them! Aye, and snare        264
My birds with nets of iron, to quell their prayer
And mountain song and rites of rascaldom!
  They tell me, too, there is a stranger come,
A man of charm and spell, from Lydian seas,        268
A head all gold and cloudy fragrancies,
A wine-red cheek, and eyes that hold the light
Of the very Cyprian. Day and livelong night
He haunts amid the damsels, o’er each lip        272
Dangling his cup of joyance!—Let me grip
Him once, but once, within these walls, right swift
That wand shall cease its music, and that drift
Of tossing curls lie still—when my rude sword        276
Falls between neck and trunk! ’Tis all his word,
This tale of Dionysus; how that same
Babe that was blasted by the lightning flame
With his dead mother, for that mother’s lie,        280
Was re-conceived, born perfect from the thigh
Of Zeus, and now is God! What call ye these?
Dreams? Gibes of the unknown wanderer? Blasphemies
That crave the very gibbet?        284
                            Stay! God wot,
Here is another marvel! See I not
In motley fawn-skins robed the vision-seer
Teiresias? And my mother’s father here—        288
O depth of scorn!—adoring with the wand
Of Bacchios?—Father!—Nay, mine eyes are fond;
It is not your white heads so fancy-flown!
It cannot be! Cast off that ivy crown,        292
O mine own mother’s sire! Set free that hand
That cowers about its staff.
                              ’Tis thou bast planned
This work, Teiresias! ’Tis thou must set        296
Another altar and another yet
Amongst us, watch new birds, and win more hire
Of gold, interpreting new signs of fire!
But for thy silver hairs, I tell thee true,        300
Thou now wert sitting chained amid thy crew
Of raving damsels, for this evil dream
Thou hast brought us, of new Gods! When once the gleam
Of grapes hath lit a Woman’s Festival,        304
In all their prayers is no more health at all!
LEADER OF THE CHORUS (the words are not heard by PENTHEUS)

Injurious King, hast thou no fear of God,
Nor Cadmus, sower of the Giants’ Sod,
Life-spring to great Echîdon and to thee?        308

Good words, my son, come easily, when he
That speaks is wise, and speaks but for the right.
Else come they never! Swift are thine, and bright
As though with thought, yet have no thought at all.        312
  Lo, this new God, whom thou dost flout withal,
I cannot speak the greatness wherewith He
In Hellas shall be great! Two spirits there be,
Young Prince, that in man’s world are first of worth.        316
Dêmêtêr one is named; she is the Earth—
Call her which name thou will!—who feeds man’s frame
With sustenance of things dry. And that which came
Her work to perfect, second, is the Power        320
From Semelê born. He found the liquid shower
Hid in the grape. He rests man’s spirit dim
From grieving, when the vine exalteth him.
He giveth sleep to sink the fretful day        324
In cool forgetting. Is there any way
With man’s sore heart, save only to forget?
  Yea, being God, the blood of him is set
Before the Gods in sacrifice, that we        328
For his sake may be blest.—And so, to thee,
That fable shames him, how this God was knit
Into God’s flesh? Nay, learn the truth of it,
Cleared from the false.—When from that deadly light        332
Zeus saved the babe, and up to Olympus’ height
Raised him, and Hera’s wrath would cast him thence,
Then Zeus devised him a divine defence.
A fragment of the world-encircling fire        336
He rent apart, and wrought to his desire
Of shape and hue, in the image of the child,
And gave to Hera’s rage. And so, beguiled
By change and passing time, this tale was born,        340
How the babe-god was hidden in the torn
Flesh of his sire. He hath no shame thereby.
  A prophet is he likewise. Prophecy
Cleaves to all frenzy, but beyond all else        344
To frenzy of prayer. Then in us verily dwells
The God himself, and speaks the thing to be.
Yea, and of Ares’ realm a part hath he.
When mortal armies, mailèd and arrayed,        348
Have in strange fear, or ever blade met blade,
Fled maddened, ’tis this God hath palsied them.
Aye, over Delphi’s rock-built diadem
Thou yet shalt see him leaping with his train        352
Of fire across the twin-peaked mountain-plain,
Flaming the darkness with his mystic wand,
And great in Hellas.—List and understand,
King Pentheus! Dream not thou that force is power;        356
Nor, if thou hast a thought, and that thought sour
And sick, oh, dream not thought is wisdom!—Up,
Receive this God to Thebes; pour forth the cup
Of sacrifice, and pray, and wreathe thy brow.        360
  Thou fearest for the damsels? Think thee now;
How toucheth this the part of Dionyse
To hold maids pure perforce? In them it lies,
And their own hearts; and in the wildest rite        364
Cometh no stain to her whose heart is white.
  Nay, mark me! Thou hast thy joy, when the Gate
Stands thronged, and Pentheus’ name is lifted great
And high by Thebes in clamour; shall not He        368
Rejoice in his due meed of majesty?
  Howbeit, this Cadmus whom thou scorn’st and I
Will wear His crown, and tread His dances! Aye,
Our hairs are white, yet shall that dance be trod!        372
I will not lift mine arm to war with God
For thee nor all thy words. Madness most fell
Is on thee, madness wrought by some dread spell,
But not by spell nor leechcraft to be cured!        376

Grey prophet, worthy of Phoebus is thy word,
And wise in honouring Bromios, our great God.

My son, right well Teiresias points thy road.
Oh, make thine habitation here with us,        380
Not lonely, against men’s uses. Hazardous
Is this quick bird-like beating of thy thought
Where no thought dwells.—Grant that this God be naught,
Yet let that Naught be Somewhat in thy mouth;        384
Lie boldly, and say He is! So north and south
Shall marvel, how there sprang a thing divine
From Semelê’s flesh, and honour all our line.  [Drawing nearer to PENTHEUS.
  Is there not blood before thine eyes even now?        388
Our lost Actaeon’s blood, whom long ago
His own red hounds through yonder forest dim
Tore unto death, because he vaunted him
Against most holy Artemis? Oh, beware,        392
And let me wreathe thy temples. Make thy prayer
With us, and walk thee humbly in God’s sight.  [He makes as if to set the wreath on PENTHEUShead.

Down with that hand! Aroint thee to thy rite,
Nor smear on me thy foul contagion!  [Turning upon TEIRESIAS.        396
Thy folly’s head and prompter shall not miss
The justice that he needs!—Go, half my guard,


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