Reference > Farmer's Cookbook > BREAD AND BREAD MAKING

Chapter IV. 
BREAD is the most important article of food, and history tells of its use thousands of years before the Christian era. Many processes have been employed in making and baking; and as a result, from the first flat cake has come the perfect loaf. The study of bread making is of no slight importance, and deserves more attention than it receives.   1
  Considering its great value, it seems unnecessary and wrong to find poor bread on the table; and would that our standard might be raised as high as that of our friends across the water ! Who does not appreciate the loaf produced by the French baker, who has worked months to learn the art of bread making?   2
  Bread is made from flour of wheat, or other cereals, by addition of water, salt, and a ferment. Wheat flour is best adapted for bread making, as it contains gluten in the right proportion to make the spongy loaf. But for its slight deficiency in fat, wheat bread is a perfect food; hence arose the custom of spreading it with butter. It should be remembered, in speaking of wheat bread as perfect food, that it must be made of flour rich in gluten. Next to wheat flour ranks rye in importance for bread making; but it is best used in combination with wheat, for alone it makes heavy, sticky, moist bread. Corn also needs to be used in combination with wheat for bread making, for if used alone the bread will be crumbly.   3
  The miller, in order to produce flour which will make the white loaf (so sightly to many), in the process of grinding wheat has been forced to remove the inner bran coats, so rich in mineral matter, and much of the gluten intimately connected with them.   4
  To understand better the details of bread making, wheat, from which bread is principally made, should be considered.   5
  A grain of wheat consists of (1) an outer covering or husk, which is always removed before milling; (2) bran coats, which contain mineral matter; (3) gluten, the proteid matter and fat; and (4) starch, the centre and largest part of the grain. Wheat is distinguished as white and soft, or red and hard. The former is known as winter wheat, having been sown in the fall, and living through the winter; the latter is known as spring wheat, having been sown in the spring. From winter wheat, pastry flour, sometimes called St. Louis, is made; from spring wheat, bread flour, also called Haxall. St. Louis flour takes its name from the old process of grinding; Haxall, from the name of the inventor of the new process. All flours are now milled by the same process. For difference in composition of wheat flours, consult table in Chapter VI on Cereals.   6
  Wheat is milled for converting into flour by processes producing essentially the same results, all requiring cleansing, grinding, and bolting. Entire wheat flour has only the outer husk removed, the remainder of the kernel being finely ground. Graham flour, confounded with entire wheat, is too often found to be an inferior flour, mixed with coarse bran.   7
  Grinding is accomplished by one of four systems: (1) low milling; (2) Hungarian system, or high milling; (3) roller milling; and (4) by a machine known as distintegrator.   8
  In low milling process, grooved stones are employed for grinding. The stones are enclosed in a metal case, and provision is made within case for passage of air to prevent wheat from becoming overheated. The lower stone being permanently fixed, the upper stone being so balanced above it that grooves may exactly correspond, when upper stone rotates, sharp edges of grooves meet each other, and operate like a pair of scissors. By this process flour is made ready for bolting by one grinding.   9
  In high milling process, grooved stones are employed, but are kept so far apart that at first the wheat is only bruised, and a series of grindings and siftings is necessary. This process is applicable only to the hardest wheats, and is partially supplanted by roller-milling.   10
  In roller-milling, wheat is subjected to action of a pair of steel or chilled-iron horizontal rollers, having toothed surfaces. They revolve in opposite directions, at different rates of speed, and have a cutting action.   11
  Porcelain rollers, with rough surfaces, are sometimes employed. In this system, grinding is accomplished by cutting rather than crushing.   12
  “The disintegrator consists of a pair of circular metal disks, set face to face, studded with circles of projecting bars so arranged that circles of bars on one disk alternate with those of the other. The disks are mounted on the same centre, and so closely set to one another that projecting bars of one disk come quite close to plane surface of the other. They are inclosed within an external casing. The disks are caused to rotate in opposite directions with great rapidity, and the grain is almost instantaneously reduced to a powder.”   13
  After grinding comes bolting, by which process the different grades of flour are obtained. The ground wheat is placed in octagonal cylinders (covered with silk or linen bolting-cloth of different degrees of fineness), which are allowed to rotate, thus forcing the wheat through. The flour from first siftings contains the largest percentage of gluten.   14
  Flour is branded under different names to suit manufacturer or dealer. In consequence, the same wheat, milled by the same process, makes flour which is sold under different names.   15
  In buying flour, whether bread or pastry, select the best kept by your grocer. Some of the well-known brands of bread flour are King Arthur, Swansdown, Bridal Veil, Columbia, Washburn’s Extra, and Pillsbury’s Best; of pastry, Best St. Louis. Bread flour should be used in all cases where yeast is called for, with few exceptions; in other cases, pastry flour. The difference between bread and pastry flour may be readily determined. Take bread flour in the hand, close hand tightly, then open, and flour will not keep in shape; if allowed to pass through fingers it will feel slightly granular. Take pastry flour in the hand, close hand tightly, open, and flour will be in shape, having impression of the lines of the hand, and feeling soft and velvety to touch. Flour should always be sifted before measuring.   16
  Entire wheat flour differs from ordinary flour inasmuch as it contains all the gluten found in wheat, the outer husk of kernels only being removed, the remainder ground to different degrees of fineness and left unbolted. Such flours are now quite generally sold by all first class grocers. Included in this class are the Arlington Wheat Meal and the Old Grist Mill Entire Wheat Flour.   17
  Gluten, the proteid of wheat, is a gray, tough, elastic substance, insoluble in water. On account of its great power of expansion, it holds the gas developed in bread dough by fermentation, which otherwise would escape.   18

Yeast is a microscopic plant of fungous growth, and is the lowest form of vegetable life. It consists of spores, or germs, found floating in air, and belongs to a family of which there are many species. These spores grow by budding and division, and multiply very rapidly under favorable conditions, and produce fermentation.   19
  Fermentation is the process by which, under influence of air, warmth, moisture, and some ferment, sugar (or dextrose, starch converted into sugar) is changed into alcohol (C2H5HO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The product of all fermentation is the same. Three kinds are considered,—alcoholic, acetic, and lactic. Where bread dough is allowed to ferment by addition of yeast, the fermentation is alcoholic; where alcoholic fermentation continues too long, acetic fermentation sets in, which is a continuation of alcoholic. Lactic fermentation is fermentation which takes place when milk sours.   20
  Liquid, dry, or compressed yeast may be used for raising bread. The compressed yeast cakes done up in tinfoil have long proved satisfactory, and are now almost universally used, having replaced the home-made liquid yeast. Never use a yeast cake unless perfectly fresh, which may be determined by its light color and absence of dark streaks.   21
  The yeast plant is killed at 212° F.; life is suspended, but not entirely destroyed, 32° F. The temperature best suited for its growth is from 65° F. The most favorable conditions for the growth of yeast are a warm, moist, sweet, nitrogenous soil. These must be especially considered in bread making.   22

Bread Making
Fermented bread is made by mixing to a dough, flour, with a definite quantity of water, milk, or water and milk, salt, and a ferment. Sugar is usually added to hasten fermentation. Dought is them kneaded that the ingredients may be thoroughly incorporated, covered, and allowed to rise in a temperature of 68° F., until dough has doubled its bulk. This change has been caused by action of the ferment, which attacks some of the starch in flour, and changes it to sugar, and sugar in turn to alcohol and carbon dioxide, thus lightening the whole mass. Dough is then kneaded a second time to break bubbles and distribute evenly the carbon dioxide. It is shaped in loaves, put in greased bread pans (they being half filled), covered, allowed to rise in temperature same as for first rising, to double its bulk. If risen too long, it will be full of large holes; if not risen long enough, it will be heavy and soggy. If pans containing loaves are put in too hot a place while rising, a heavy streak will be found near bottom of loaf.   23
  How to Shape Loaves and Biscuits. To shape bread dough in loaves, divide dough in parts, each part large enough for a loaf, knead until smooth, and if possible avoid seams in under part of loaf. If baked in brick pan, place two loaved in one pan, brushed between with a little melted butter. If baked in long shallow pan, when well kneaded, roll with both hands to lengthen, care being taken that it is smooth and of uniform thickness. Where long loaves are baked on sheets, shape and roll loosely in a towel sprinkled with corn meal for last rising.   24
  To shape bread dough in biscuits, pull or cut off as many small pieces (having them of uniform size) as there are to be biscuits. Flour palms of hands slightly; take up each piece and shape separately, lifting, with thumb and first two fingers of right hand, and placing in palm of left hand, constantly moving dough round and round, while folding towards the centre; when smooth, turn it over and roll between palms of hands. Place in greased pans near together, brushed between with a little melted butter, which will cause biscuits to separate easily after baking. For finger rolls, shape biscuits and roll with one hand on part of board where there is no flour, until of desired length, care being taken to make smooth, of uniform size, and round at ends.   25
  Biscuits may be shaped in a great variety of ways, but they should always be small. Large biscuits, though equally good, never tempt one by their daintiness.   26
  Bread is often brushed over with milk or butter before baking, to make a darker crust.   27
  Where bread is allowed to rise over night, a small piece of yeast cake must be used; one-fourth yeast cake to one pint liquid is sufficient, one-third yeast cake to one quart liquid. Bread mixed and baked during the day requires a large quantity of yeast; one yeast cake, or sometimes even more, to one pint of liquid. Bread dough mixed with a large quantity of yeast should be watched during rising, and cut down as soon as mixture doubles its bulk. If proper care is taken, the bread will be found most satisfactory, having neither “yeasty” nor sour taste.   28
  Fermented bread was formerly raised by means of leaven.   29

Baking of Bread
Bread is baked; (1) To kill ferment, (2) to make soluble the starch, (3) to drive off alcohol and carbon dioxide, and (4) to form brown crust of pleasant flavor. Bread should be baked in a hot oven. If the oven be too hot the crust will brown quickly before the heat has reached the centre, and prevent further rising; loaf should continue rising for first fifteen minutes of baking, when it should begin to brown, and continue browning for the next twenty minutes. The last fifteen minutes it should finish baking, when the heat may be reduced. When bread is done, it will not cling to sides of pan, and may be easily removed. Biscuits require more heat than loaf bread, should continue rising the first five minutes, and begin to brown in eight minutes. Experience is the best guide for testing temperature of oven. Various oven themometers have been made, but none have proved practical. Bread may be brushed over with melted butter, three minutes before removal from oven, if a more tender crust is desired.   30

Care of Bread after Baking
Remove loaves at once from pans, and place side down on a wire bread or cake cooler. If a crisp crust is desired, allow bread to cool without covering; if soft crust, cover with a towel during cooling. When cool, put in tin box or stone jar, and cover closely.   31
  Never keep bread wrapped in cloth, as the cloth will absorb moisture and transmit an unpleasant taste to bread. Bread tins or jars should be washed and scalded twice a week in winter, and every other day in summer; otherwise bread is apt to mould. As there are so many ways of using small and stale pieces of bread, care should be taken that none is wasted.   32
  Unfermented bread is raised without a ferment, the carbon dioxide being produced by the use of soda (alkaline salt) and an acid. Soda, employed in combination with cream of tartar, for raising mixtures, in proportion of one-third soda to two-thirds cream of tartar, was formerly used to a great extent, but has been generally superseded by baking powder.   33
  Soda bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is manufactured from sodium chloride (NaCl), common salt or cryolite.   34
  Baking powder is composed of soda and cream of tartar in definite, correct proportions, mixed with small quantity of dry material (flour or cornstarch) to keep action from taking place. If found to contain alum or ammonia, it is impure. In using baking powder, allow two teaspoons baking powder to each cup of flour, when eggs are not used; to egg mixtures allow one and one-half teaspoons baking powder. When a recipe calls for soda and cream of tartar, in substituting baking powder use double amount of cream of tartar given.   35
  Soda and cream of tartar, or baking powder mixtures, are made light by liberation of gas in mixture; the gas in soda is set free by the acid in cream of tartar; in order to accomplish this, moisture and heat are both required. As soon as moisture is added to baking powder mixtures, the gas will begin to escape; hence the necessity of baking as soon as possible. If baking powder only is used for raising, put mixture to be cooked in a hot oven.   36
  Cream of tartar (HKC4O6H4) is obtained from argols found adhering to bottom and sides of wine casks, which are ninety per cent cream of tartar. The argols are ground and dissolved in boiling water, coloring matter removed by filtering through animal charcoal, and by a process of recrystallization the cream of tartar of commerce is obtained.   37
  The acid found in molasses, sour milk, and lemon juice will liberate gas in soda, but the action is much quicker than when cream of tartar is used.   38
  Fermented and unfermented breads are raised to be made light and porous, that they may be easily acted upon by the digestive ferments. Some mixtures are made light by beating sufficiently to enclose a large amount of air, and when baked in a hot oven air is forced to expand.   39
  Aerated bread is made light by carbon dioxide forced into dough under pressure. The carbon dioxide is generated from sulphuric acid and lime. Aerated bread is of close texture, and has a flavor peculiar to itself. It is a product of the baker’s skill, but has found little favor except in few localities.   40
Water Bread
2 cups boiling water21/2 teaspoons salt
1 tablespoon butter1/4 yeast cake dissolved in
1 tablespoon lard1/4 cup lukewarm water
2 tablespoon sugar6 cups sifted flour
Put butter, lard, sugar, and salt in bread raiser, or large bowl without a lip; pour on boiling water; when lukewarm, add dissolved yeast cake and five cups of flour; then stir until thoroughly mixed, using a knife or mixing-spoon. Add remaining flour, mix, and turn on a floured board, leaving a clean bowl; knead until mixture is smooth, elastic to touch, and bubbles may be seen under the surface. Some practice is required to knead quickly, but the motion once acquired will never be forgotten. Return to bowl, cover with a clean cloth kept for the purpose, and board or tin cover; let rise over night in temperature of 65° F. In morning cut down : this is accomplished by cutting through and turning over dough several times with a case knife, and checks fermentation for a short time; dough may be again raised, and recut down if it is not convenient to shape into loaves or biscuits after first cutting. When properly cared for, bread need never sour. Toss on board slightly floured, knead, shape into loaves or biscuits, place in greased pans, having pans nearly half full. Cover, let rise again to double its bulk, and bake in hot oven. (See Baking of Bread and Time-Table for Baking.) This recipe will make a double loaf of bread and pan of biscuit. Cottolene, crisco, or beef drippings may be used for shortening, one-third less being required. Bread shortened with butter has a good flavor, but is not as white as when lard is used.

Milk and Water Bread
1 cup scalded milk1 yeast cake dissolved in
1 cup boiling water1/4 cup lukewarm water
1 tablespoon lard6 cups sifted flour, or one cup white flour and enough entire wheat flour to knead
1 tablespoon butter
21/2 teaspoon salt
Prepare and bake as Water Bread. When entire wheat flour is used add three tablespoons molasses. Bread may be mixed, raised, and baked in five hours, by using one yeast cake. Bread made in this way has proved most satisfactory. It is usually mixed in the morning, and the cook is able to watch the dough while rising and keep it at uniform temperature. It is often desirable to place bowl containing dough in pan of water, keeping water at uniform temperature of from 95° to 100° F. Cooks who have not proved themselves satisfactory bread makers are successful when employing this method.

Entire Wheat Bread
2 cups scalded milk2 teaspoons salt
1/4 cup sugar or1 yeast cake dissolved in
1/3 cup molasses1/4 cup lukewarm water
42/3 cups coarse entire wheat flour
Add sweetening and salt to milk; cool, and when lukewarm add dissolved yeast cake and flour; beat well, cover, and let rise to double its bulk. Again beat, and turn into greased bread pans, having pans one-half full; let rise, and bake. Entire Wheat Bread should not quite double its bulk during last rising. This mixture may be baked in gem pans.

German Caraway Bread
Follow recipe for Milk and Water Bread , using rye flour in place of entire wheat flour, and one tablespoon sugar for sweetening. After first rising while kneading add one-third tablespoon caraway seed. Shape, let rise again, and bake in a loaf.

Entire Wheat and White Flour Bread
Use same ingredients as for Entire Wheat Bread, with exception of flour. For flour use three and one-fourth cups entire wheat and two and three-fourths cups white flour. The dough should be slightly kneaded, and if handled quickly will not stick to board. Loaves and biscuits should be shaped with hands instead of pouring into pans, as in Entire Wheat Bread.

Graham Bread
2 cups hot liquid (water, or milk and water)1/4 yeast cake dissolved in
1/4 cup lukewarm water
1/3 cup molasses3 cups flour
21/2 teaspoons salt3 cups Graham flour
Prepare and bake as Entire Wheat Bread. The bran remaining in sieve after sifting Graham flour should be discarded. If used for muffins, use two and one-half cups liquid.

Third Bread
2 cups lukewarm water1 cup rye flour
1 yeast cake1 cup granulated corn meal
1/2 tablespoon salt
1/2 cup molasses3 cups flour
Dissolve yeast cake in water, add remaining ingredients, and mix thoroughly. Let rise, shape, let rise again, and bake as Entire Wheat Bread.

Rolled Oats Bread
2 cups boiling water1/2 yeast cake dissolved in
1/2 cup molasses1/2 cup lukewarm water
1/2 tablespoon salt1 cup rolled oats
1 tablespoon butter5 cups flour
Add boiling water to oats and let stand one hour; add molasses, salt, butter, dissolved yeast cake, and flour; let rise, beat thoroughly, turn into buttered bread pans, let rise again, and bake. To make shaping of biscuits easy, take up mixture by spoonfuls, drop into plate of flour, and have palms of hands well covered with flour before attempting to shape, or drop from spoon into buttered muffin tins.

Rye Biscuit
1 cup boiling water11/2 teaspoons salt
1 cup rye flakes1 yeast cake dissolved in
2 tablespoons butter1 cup lukewarm water
1/3 cup molassesFlour
Make same as Rolled Oats Bread.

Rye Bread
1 cup scalded milk11/2 teaspoons salt
1 cup boiling water1/4 yeast cake dissolved in
1 tablespoon lard1/4 cup lukewarm water
1 tablespoon butter3 cups flour
1/3 cup brown sugarRye meal
To milk and water add lard, butter, sugar, and salt; when lukewarm, add dissolved yeast cake and flour, beat thoroughly, cover, and let rise until light. Add rye meal until dough is stiff enough to knead; knead thoroughly, let rise, shape in loaves, let rise again, and bake.

Date Bread
Use recipe for Health Food Muffins . After the first rising, while kneading, add two-thirds cup each of English walnut meats cut in small pieces, and dates stoned and cut in pieces. Shape in a loaf, let rise in pan, and bake fifty minutes in a moderate oven. This bread is well adapted for sandwiches.

Boston Brown Bread
1 cup rye meal3/4 tablespoon soda
1 cup granulated corn meal1 teaspoon salt
1 cup Graham flour3/4 cup molasses
2 cups sour milk, or 13/4 cups sweet milk or water
Mix and sift dry ingredients, add molasses and milk, stir until well mixed, turn into a well-buttered mould, and steam three and one-half hours. The cover should be buttered before being placed on mould, and then tied down with string; otherwise the bread in rising might force off cover. Mould should never be filled more than two-thirds full. A melon-mould or one-pound baking-powder boxes make the most attractive-shaped loaves, but a five-pound lard pail answers the purpose. For steaming, place mould on a trivet in kettle containing boiling water, allowing water to come half-way up around mould, cover closely, and steam, adding, as needed, more boiling water.

New England Brown Bread
11/2 cups stale bread11/2 Rye meal
31/4 cups cold water11/2 Granulated corn meal
3/4 cup molasses11/2 Graham flour
11/2 teaspoons salt3 teaspoons soda
Soak bread in two cups of the water over night. In the morning rub through colander, add molasses, dry ingredients mixed and sifted, and remaining water. Stir until well mixed, fill buttered one-pound baking-powder boxes two-thirds full, cover, and steam two hours.

Indian Bread
11/2 cups Graham flour1 teaspoon salt
1 cup Indian meal1/2 cup molasses
1/2 tablespoon soda12/3 cups milk
Mix and steam same as Boston Brown Bread.

Steamed Graham Bread
3 cups Arlington meal1 teaspoon salt
1 cup flour1 cup molasses (scant)
31/2 teaspoons soda21/2 cups sour milk
Mix same as Boston Brown Bread and steam four hours. This bread may often be eaten when bread containing corn meal could not be digested.

Parker House Rolls
2 cups scalded milk2 teaspoons salt
3 tablespoons butter1 yeast cake dissolved in
2 tablespoons sugar1/4 cup lukewarm water
Add butter, sugar, and salt to milk; when lukewarm, add dissolved yeast cake and three cups of flour. Beat thoroughly, cover, and let rise until light; cut down, and add enough flour to knead (it will take about two and one-half cups). Let rise again, toss on slightly floured board, knead, pat, and roll out to one-third inch thickness. Shape with biscuit-cutter, first dipped in flour. Dip the handle of a case knife in flour, and with it make a crease through the middle of each piece; brush over one-half of each piece with melted butter, fold, and press edges together. Place in greased pan, one inch apart, cover, let rise, and bake in hot oven twelve to fifteen minutes. As rolls rise they will part slightly, and if hastened in rising are apt to lose their shape.

  Parker House Rolls may be shaped by cutting or tearing off small pieces of dough, and shaping round like a biscuit; place in rows on floured board, cover, and let rise fifteen minutes. With handle of large wooden spoon, or toy rolling-pin, roll through centre of each biscuit, brush edge of lower halves with melted butter, fold, press lightly, place in buttered pan one inch apart, cover, let rise, and bake.   57
Salad or Dinner Rolls
Use same ingredients as for Parker House Rolls, allowing one-fourth cup butter. Shape in small biscuits, place in rows on a floured board, cover with cloth and pan, and let rise until light and well puffed. Flour handle of wooden spoon and make a deep crease in middle of each biscuit, take up, and press edges together. Place closely in buttered pan brushing with butter between biscuits, cover, let rise, and bake twelve to fifteen minutes in hot oven. From this same mixture crescents, braids, twists, bow-knots, clover leaves, and other fancy shapes may be made.

1 cup scalded milk1 yeast cake dissolved in
1/4 cup butter1/4 cup lukewarm water
11/2 tablespoons sugarWhite 1 egg
1/2 teaspoon salt33/4 cups flour
Add butter, sugar, and salt to milk; when lukewarm, add dissolved yeast cake, white of egg well beaten, and flour. Knead, let rise, shape, let rise again, and start baking in a hot oven, reducing heat, that sticks may be crisp and dry. To shape sticks, first shape as small biscuits, roll on board (where there is no flour) with hands until eight inches in length, keeping of uniform size and rounded ends, which may be done by bringing fingers close to, but not over, ends of sticks.

Salad Sticks
Follow recipe for Sticks. Let rise, and add salt to dough, allowing two teaspoons to each cup of dough. Shape in small sticks, let rise again, sprinkle with salt, and bake in a slow oven. If preferred glazed, brush over with egg yolk slightly beaten and diluted with one-half tablespoon cold water.

Swedish Rolls
Use recipe for Salad Rolls. Roll to one-fourth inch thickness, spread with butter, and sprinkle with two tablespoons sugar mixed with one-third teaspoon cinnamon, one-third cup stoned raisins finely chopped, and two tablespoons chopped citron; roll up like jelly roll, and cut in three-fourths inch pieces. Place pieces in pan close together, flat side down. Again let rise, and bake in a hot oven. When rolls are taken from oven, brush over with white of egg slightly beaten, diluted with one-half tablespoon water; return to oven to dry egg, and thus glaze top.

Sweet French Rolls
1 cup milk1 teaspoon salt
1 yeast cake dissolved in1 egg
1/4 cup lukewarm waterYolk one egg
Flour1/8 teaspoon mace
1/4 cup sugar1/4 cup melted butter
Scald milk; when lukewarm, add dissolved yeast cake and one and one-half cups flour; beat well, cover, and let rise until light. Add sugar, salt, eggs well beaten, mace, and butter, and enough more flour to knead; knead, let rise again, shape, and bake same as Salad Rolls, or roll in a long strip to one-fourth inch in thickness, spread with butter, roll up like jelly roll, and cut in one-inch pieces. Place pieces in pan close together, flat side down. A few gratings from the rind of a lemon or one-half teaspoon lemon extract may be substituted in place of mace.

Luncheon Rolls
1/2 cup scalded milk2 tablespoons melted butter
2 tablespoons sugar1 egg
1/2 teaspoon saltFew gratings from rind of lemon
1/2 yeast cake dissolved in
2 tablespoons lukewarm waterFlour
Add sugar and salt to milk; when lukewarm, add dissolved yeast cake and three-fourths cup flour. Cover and let rise; then add butter, egg well beaten, grated rind of lemon, and one and one-fourth cups flour. Let rise again, roll to one-half inch thickness, shape with small biscuitcutter, place in buttered pan close together, let rise again, and bake. These rolls may be ready to serve in three hours if one and one-half yeast cakes are used.

French Rusks
2 cups scalded milkFlour
1/4 cup butter1 egg
1/4 cup sugarYolks 2 eggs
1 teaspoon saltWhites 2 eggs
1 yeast cake dissolved in3/4 teaspoon vanilla
1/4 cup lukewarm water
Add butter, sugar, and salt to scalded milk; when lukewarm add dissolved yeast cake and three cups flour. Cover and let rise; add egg and egg yolks well beaten, and enough flour to knead. Let rise again, and shape as Parker House Rolls. Before baking, make three parallel creases on top of each roll. When nearly done, brush over with whites of eggs beaten slightly, diluted with one tablespoon cold water and vanilla. Sprinkle with sugar.

Rusks (Zweiback)
1/2 cup scalded milk1/4 cup sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt1/4 cup melted butter
2 yeast cakes3 eggs
Add yeast cakes to milk when lukewarm; then add salt and one cup flour, and let rise until very light. Add sugar, butter, eggs unbeaten, and flour enough to handle.

  Shape as finger rolls, and place close together on a buttered sheet in parallel rows, two inches apart; let rise again and bake twenty minutes. When cold, cut diagonally in one-half inch slices, and brown evenly in oven.   66
German Coffee Bread
1 cup scalded milk1 egg
1/3 cup butter, or butter and lard1/3 yeast cake dissolved in
1/4 cup sugar1/4 cup lukewarm milk
1/2 teaspoon salt1/2 cup raisins stoned and cut in pieces
Add butter, sugar, and salt to milk; when lukewarm, add dissolved yeast cake, egg well beaten, flour to make stiff batter, and raisins; cover, and let rise over night; in morning spread in buttered dripping-pan one-half inch thick. Cover and let rise again. Before baking, brush over with beaten egg, and cover with following mixture : Melt three tablespoons butter, add one-third cup sugar and one teaspoon cinnamon. When sugar is partially melted, add three tablespoons flour.

Coffee Cakes (Brioche)
1 cup scalded milk1/2 cup sugar
4 yolks of eggs2 yeast cakes
3 eggs1/2 teaspoon extract lemon or
2/3 cup butter2 pounded cardamon seeds
42/3 cups flour
French Confectioner
Cool milk; when lukewarm, add yeast cakes, and when they are dissolved add remaining ingredients, and beat thoroughly with hand ten minutes; let rise six hours. Keep in ice-box over night; in morning turn on floured board, roll in long rectangular piece one-fourth inch thick; spread with softened butter, fold from sides toward centre to make three layers. Cut off pieces three-fourths inch wide; cover and let rise. Take each piece separately in hands and twist from ends in opposite directions, coil and bring ends together at top of cake. Let rise in pans and bake twenty minutes in a moderate oven; cool and brush over with confectioners’ sugar, moistened with boiling water to spread, and flavored with vanilla.

Coffee Rolls
2 cups milk1 egg
11/2 yeast cakes1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
Butter1 teaspoon salt
Lard 1/2 cup eachMelted butter
SugarConfectioners’ sugar
Scald milk, when lukewarm add yeast cakes, and as soon as dissolved add three and one-half cups flour. Beat thoroughly, cover, and let rise; then add butter, lard, sugar, egg unbeaten, cinnamon, salt, and flour enough to knead. Knead until well mixed, cover, and let rise. Turn mixture on a floured cloth. Roll into a long, rectangular piece one-fourth inch thick. Brush over with melted butter, fold from ends toward centre to make three layers and cut off pieces three-fourths inch wide. Cover and let rise. Take each piece separately in hands and twist from ends in opposite directions, then shape in a coil. Place in buttered pans, cover, again let rise, and bake in a moderate oven twenty minutes. Cool slightly, and brush over with confectioners’ sugar moistened with boiling water and flavored with vanilla.

Swedish Bread
21/2 cups scalded milk2/3 cup sugar
1 yeast cake1 egg, well beaten
Flour1/4 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup melted butter1 teaspoon almond extract
Add yeast cake to one-half cup milk which has been allowed to cool until lukewarm; as soon as dissolved add one-half cup flour, beat thoroughly, cover, and let rise. When light, add remaining milk and four and one-half cups flour. Stir until thoroughly mixed, cover, and again let rise; then add remaining ingredients and one and one-half cups flour. Toss on a floured cloth and knead, using one-half cup flour, cover, and again let rise. Shape as Swedish Tea Braid or Tea Ring I or II, and bake.

  Swedish Tea Braid. Cut off three pieces of mixture of equal size and roll, using the hands, in pieces of uniform size; then braid. Put on a buttered sheet, cover, let rise, brush over with yolk of one egg, slightly beaten, and diluted with one-half tablespoon cold water, and sprinkle with finely chopped blanched almonds. Bake in a moderate oven.   71
  Swedish Tea Ring I. Shape as tea braid, form in shape of ring, and proceed as with tea braid, having almonds blanched and cut in slices crosswise.   72
  Swedish Tea Ring II. Take one-third Swedish Bread mixture and shape, using the hands, in a long roll. Put on an unfloured board and roll, using a rolling-pin, as thinly as possible. Mixture will adhere to board but may be easily lifted with a knife. Spread with melted butter, sprinkle with sugar and chopped blanched almonds or cinnamon. Roll like a jelly roll, cut a piece from each end and join ends to form ring. Place on a buttered sheet, and cut with scissors and shape . Let rise, and proceed as with Tea Ring I.   73
Dutch Apple Cake
1 cup scalded milk23/4 cups flour
1/3 cup butterMelted butter
1/3 cup sugar5 sour apples
1/3 teaspoon salt1/4 cup
1 yeast cake1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
2 eggs2 tablespoons currants
Mix first four ingredients. When lukewarm add yeast cake, eggs unbeaten, and flour to make a soft dough. Cover, let rise, beat thoroughly, and again let rise. Spread in a buttered dripping-pan as thinly as possible and brush over with melted butter. Pare, cut in eighths, and remove cores from apples.

  Press sharp edges of apples into the dough in parallel rows lengthwise of pan. Sprinkle with sugar mixed with cinnamon and sprinkle with currants. Cover, let rise, and bake in a moderate oven thirty minutes. Cut in squares and serve hot or cold with whipped cream sweetened and flavored.   75
1 cup scalded milk1/2 teaspoon salt
1/3 cup butter1/2 cup raisins stoned and cut in quarters
1/3 cup sugar
1 yeast cake dissolved in1 teaspoon extract lemon
1/4 cup lukewarm waterFlour, cinnamon
Add one-half sugar and salt to milk; when lukewarm, add dissolved yeast cake and one and one-half cups flour; cover, and let rise until light; add butter, remaining sugar, raisins, lemon, and flour to make a dough; let rise, shape like biscuits, let rise again, and bake. If wanted glazed, brush over with beaten egg before baking.

Hot Cross Buns
1 cup scalded milk3/4 teaspoon cinnamon
1/4 cup sugar3 cups flour
2 tablespoons butter1 egg
1/2 teaspoon salt1/4 cup raisins stoned and quartered, or
1/2 yeast cake dissolved in
1/4 cup lukewarm water1/4 cup currants
Add butter, sugar, and salt to milk; when lukewarm, add dissolved yeast cake, cinnamon, flour, and egg well beaten; when thoroughly mixed, add raisins, cover, and let rise over night. In morning, shape in forms of large biscuits, place in pan one inch apart, let rise, brush over with beaten egg, and bake twenty minutes; cool, and with ornamental frosting make a cross on top of each bun

Raised Muffins
1 cup scalded milk3/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup boiling water1/4 yeast cake
2 tablespoons butter1 egg
1/4 cup sugar4 cups flour
Add butter, sugar, and salt to milk and water; when lukewarm, add yeast cake, and when dissolved, egg well beaten, and flour; beat thoroughly, cover, and let rise over night. In morning, fill buttered muffin rings two-thirds full; let rise until rings are full, and bake thirty minutes in hot oven.

Grilled Muffins
Put buttered muffin rings on a hot greased griddle. Fill one-half full with raised muffin mixture, and cook slowly until well risen and browned underneath; turn muffins and rings and brown the other side. This is a convenient way of cooking muffins when oven is not in condition for baking.

Raised Hominy Muffins
1 cup warm cooked hominy1 teaspoon salt
1/4 cup butter1/4 yeast cake
1 cup scalded milk1/4 cup lukewarm water
3 tablespoons sugar31/4 cups flour
Mix first five ingredients; when lukewarm add yeast cake, dissolved in lukewarm water and flour. Cover, and let rise over night. In the morning cut down, fill buttered gem pans two-thirds full, let rise, one hour, and bake in a moderate oven. Unless cooked hominy is rather stiff more flour will be needed.

Raised Rice Muffins
Make same as Raised Hominy Muffins, substituting one cup hot boiled rice in place of hominy, and adding the whites of two eggs beaten until stiff.

Raised Oatmeal Muffins
3/4 cup scalded milk1/4 yeast cake dissolved in
1/4 cup sugar1/4 cup lukewarm milk
1/2 teaspoon salt1 cup cold cooked oatmeal
21/2 cups flour
Add sugar and salt to scalded milk; when lukewarm, add dissolved yeast cake. Work oatmeal into flour with tips of fingers, and add to first mixture; beat thoroughly, cover, and let rise over night. In morning, fill buttered iron gem pans two-thirds full, let rise on back of range that pan may gradually heat and mixture rise to fill pan. Bake in moderate oven twenty-five to thirty minutes.

Health Food Muffins
1 cup warm wheat mush1 tablespoon butter
1/4 cup brown sugar1/4 yeast cake
1/2 teaspoon salt1/4 cup lukewarm water
21/4 cups flour
Mix first four ingredients, add yeast cake dissolved in lukewarm water, and flour; then knead. Cover, and let rise over night. In the morning cut down, fill buttered gem pans two-thirds full, again let rise and bake in a moderate oven. This mixture, when baked in a loaf, makes a delicious bread.

Squash Biscuits
1/2 cup squash (steamed and sifted)1/4 yeast cake dissolved in
1/4 cup sugar1/4 cup lukewarm water
1/2 teaspoon salt1/4 cup butter
1/2 cup scalded milk21/2 cups flour
Add squash, sugar, salt, and butter to milk; when lukewarm, add dissolved yeast cake and flour; cover, and let rise over night. In morning shape into biscuits, let rise, and bake.

Imperial Muffins
1 cup scalded milk13/4 cups flour
1/4 cup sugar1 cup corn meal
1/2 teaspoon salt1/4 cup butter
1/3 yeast cake dissolved in1/4 cup lukewarm water
Add sugar and salt to milk; when lukewarm add dissolved yeast cake, and one and one-fourth cups flour. Cover, and let rise until light, then add corn meal, remaining flour, and butter. Let rise over night; in the morning fill buttered muffin rings two-thirds full; let rise until rings are full and bake thirty minutes in hot oven.

Dry Toast
Cut stale bread in one-fourth inch slices. Crust may or may not be removed. Put slices on wire toaster, lock toaster and place over clear fire to dry, holding some distance from coals; turn and dry other side. Hold nearer to coals and color a golden brown on each side. Toast, if piled compactly and allowed to stand, will soon become moist. Toast may be buttered at table or before sending to table.

Water Toast
Dip slices of dry toast quickly in boiling salted water, allowing one-half teaspoon salt to one cup boiling water. Spread slices with butter, and serve at once.

Milk Toast I
1 pint scalded milk1/2 teaspoon salt
2 tablespoons butter4 tablespoons cold water
21/2 tablespoons bread flour6 slices dry toast
Add cold water gradually to flour to make a smooth, thin paste. Add to milk, stirring constantly until thickened, cover, and cook twenty minutes; then add salt and butter in small pieces. Dip slices of toast separately in sauce; when soft, remove to serving dish. Pour remaining sauce over all.

Milk Toast II
Use ingredients given in Milk Toast I, omitting cold water, and make as Thin White Sauce. Dip toast in sauce.

Brown Bread Milk Toast
Make same as Milk Toast, using slices of toasted brown bread in place of white bread. Brown bread is better toasted by first drying slices in oven.

Cream Toast
Substitute cream for milk, and omit butter in recipe for Milk Toast I or II.

Tomato Cream Toast
11/2 cups stewed and strained tomato3 tablespoons butter
1/2 cup scalded cream3 tablespoons flour
1/4 teaspoon soda1/2 teaspoon salt
6 slices toast
Put butter in saucepan; when melted and bubbling, add flour, mixed with salt, and stir in gradually tomato, to which soda has been added, then add cream. Dip slices of toast in sauce. Serve as soon as made.

German Toast
3 eggs2 tablespoons sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt1 cup milk
6 slices stale bread
Beat eggs slightly, add salt, sugar, and milk; strain into a shallow dish. Soak bread in mixture until soft. Cook on a hot, well-greased griddle; brown on one side, turn and brown other side. Serve for breakfast or luncheon, or with a sauce for dessert.

Break stale bits or slices of brown and white bread in small pieces, allowing one and one-half cups brown bread to one-half cup white bread. Butter a hot frying pan, put in bread, and cover with equal parts milk and water. Cook until soft; add butter and salt to taste.


Bread for Garnishing
Dry toast is often used for garnishing, cut in various shapes. Always shape before toasting. Cubes of bread, toast points, and small oblong pieces are most common. Cubes of stale bread, from which centres are removed, are fried in deep fat and called croûstades; half-inch cubes, browned in butter, or fried in deep fat, are called croûtons.   95

Uses for Stale Bread
All pieces of bread should be saved and utilized. Large pieces are best for toast. Soft stale bread, from which crust is removed, when crumbed, is called stale bread crumbs, or raspings, and is used for puddings, griddle-cakes, omelets, scalloped dishes, and dipping food to be fried. Remnants of bread, from which crusts have not been removed, are dried in oven, rolled, and sifted. These are called dry bread crumbs, and are useful for crumbing croquettes, cutlets, fish, meat, etc.   96


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