Table showing Composition of Vegetables
Vegetables include, commonly though not botanically speaking, all plants used for food except grains and fruits. With exception of beans, peas, and lentils, which contain a large amount of proteid, they are chiefly valuable for their potash salts, and should form a part of each days dietary. Many contain much cellulose, which gives needed bulk to the food. The legumes, peas, beans, and lentils may be used in place of flesh food.
|Beans, Lima, green||7.1||.7||22.||1.7||68.5|
|Beans, green string||2.2||.4||9.4||.7||87.3|
|Corn, green, sweet||2.8||1.1||14.1||.7||81.3|
|W.O. Atwaler, Ph. D.|| 1|
| For the various vegetables different parts of the plant are used. Some are eaten in the natural state, others are cooked.
|Tubers||White potatoes and Jerusalem artichokes|
|Roots||Beets, carrots, parsnips, radishes, sweet potatoes, salsify or oyster plant, and turnips|
|Bulbs||Garlic, onions, and shallots|
|Stems||Asparagus, celery, and chives|
|Leaves||Brussels sprouts, beet greens, cabbages, dandelions, lettuce, sorrel, spinach, and watercress|
|Fruit||Beans, corn, cucumbers, okra, egg-plant, peas, lentils, squash, and tomatoes.|| 3|
| Young tender vegetables,as lettuce, radishes, cucumbers, water-cress, and tomatoes,eaten uncooked, served separately or combined in salads, help to stimulate a flagging appetite, and when dressed with oil furnish considerable nutriment.
| Beans, and peas when old, should be employed in making purées and soups; by so doing, the outer covering of cellulose, so irritating to the stomach, is removed.
Care of Vegetables
|Summer vegetables should be cooked as soon after gathering as possible; in case they must be kept, spread on bottom of cool, dry, well-ventilated cellar, or place in ice-box. Lettuce may be best kept by sprinkling with cold water and placing in a tin pail closely covered. Wilted vegetables may be freshened by allowing to stand in cold water. Vegetables which contain sugar lose some of their sweetness by standing; corn and peas are more quickly affected than others. Winter vegetables should be kept in a cold, dry place. Beets, carrots, turnips, potatoes, etc., should be put in barrels or piled in bins, to exclude as much air as possible. Squash should be spread, and needs careful watching; when dark sports appear, cook at once.
| In using canned goods, empty contents from can as soon as opened, lest the acid therein act on the tin to produce poisonous compounds, and let stand one hour, that it may become reoxygenated. Beans, peas, asparagus, etc., should be emptied into a strainer, drained, and cold water poured over them and allowed to run through. In using dried vegetables, soak in cold water several hours before cooking. A few years ago native vegetables were alone sold; but now our markets are largely supplied from the Southern States and California, thus allowing us fresh vegetables throughout the year.
Cooking of Vegetables
|A small scrubbing-brush, which may be bought for five cents, and two small pointed knives for preparing vegetables should be found in every kitchen.
| Vegetables should be washed in cold water, and cooked until soft in boiling salted water; if cooked in an uncovered vessel, their color is better kept. For peas and beans add salt to water last half hour of cooking. Time for cooking the same vegetable varies according to freshness and age, therefore time-tables for cooking serve only as guides.
Mushrooms and Truffles
|These are classed among vegetables. Mushrooms, which grow about us abundantly, may be easily gathered, and as they contain considerable nutriment, should often be found on the table. While there are hundreds of varieties, one by a little study may acquaint herself with a dozen or more of the most common ones which are valuable as food. Consult W. Hamilton Gibson, "Our Edible Toadstools and Mushrooms." Many might cause illness, but only a few varieties of the Amanita family are deadly poison. Mushrooms require heat and moisture,a severe drought or very wet soil being unfavorable for their growth. Never gather mushrooms in the vicinity of decaying matter. They appear the middle of May, and last until frost comes. Campestris is the variety always found in market; French canned are of this family. Boleti are dried, canned, and sold as cepes.
|Truffles belong to the same family as mushrooms, and are grown underground. France is the most famous field for their production, from which country they are exported in tin cans, and are too expensive for ordinary use.
|French artichokes, imported throughout the year, are the ones principally used. They retail from thirty to forty cents each, and are cheapest and best in November, December, and January. Artichokes are appearing in market from California and are somewhat cheaper in price than the French Artichoke. Jerusalem artichokes are employed for pickling, and can be bought for fifteen cents per quart.
| Boiled Artichokes
Cut off stem close to leaves, remove outside bottom leaves, trim artichoke, cut off one inch from top of leaves, and with a sharp knife remove choke; then tie artichoke with a string to keep its shape. Soak one-half hour in cold water. Drain, and cook thirty to forty-five minutes in boiling, salted, acidulated water. Remove from water, place upside down to drain, then take off string. Serve with Bechamél or Hollandaise Sauce. Boiled Artichokes often constitute a course at dinner. Leaves are drawn out separately with fingers, dipped in sauce, and fleshy ends only eaten, although the bottom is edible. Artichokes may be cut in quarters, cooked, drained, and served with Sauce Béarnaise. When prepared in this way they are served with mutton.
| Fried Artichokes
Sprinkle Boiled Artichokes cut in quarters with salt, pepper, and finely chopped parsley. Dip in Batter I, fry in deep fat, and drain. In preparing artichokes, trim off tops of leaves closer than when served as Boiled Artichokes.
| Artichoke Bottoms
Remove all leaves and the choke. Trim bottoms in shape, and cook until soft in boiling, salted, acidulated water. Serve with Hollandaise or Béchamel Sauce.
| Stuffed Artichokes
Prepare and cook as Boiled Artichokes, having them slightly underdone. Fill with Chicken Force-meat I or II, and bake thirty minutes in a moderate oven, basting twice with Thin White Sauce. Remove to serving dish and pour around Thin White Sauce.
|Hothouse asparagus is found in market during winter, but is not very satisfactory, and is sold for about one dollar per bunch. Oyster Bay (white asparagus) appears first of May, and commands a very high price. Large and small green stalk asparagus is in season from first of June to middle of July, and cheapest the middle of June.
| Boiled Asparagus
Cut off lower parts of stalks as far down as they will snap, untie bunches, wash, remove scales, and retie. Cook in boiling salted water fifteen minutes or until soft, leaving tips out of water first ten minutes. Drain, remove string, and spread with soft butter, allowing one and one-half tablespoons butter to each bunch asparagus. Asparagus is often broken or cut in inch pieces for boiling, cooking tips a shorter time than stalks.
| Asparagus on Toast
Serve Boiled Asparagus on Buttered or Milk Toast.
| Asparagus in White Sauce
Boil asparagus cut in one-inch pieces, drain, and add to White Sauce I, allowing one cup sauce to each bunch asparagus. Serve in Croustades of Bread for a vegetable course.
| Asparagus à la Hollandaise
Pour Hollandaise Sauce I over Boiled Asparagus.
| Asparagus in Crusts
Remove centres from small rolls, fry shells in deep fat, drain, and fill with Asparagus in White Sauce.
|String Beans that are obtainable in winter come from California; natives appear in market the last of June and continue until the last of September. There are two varieties, green (pole cranberry being best flavored) and yellow (butter bean).
| Shell Beans, including horticultural and sieva, are sold in the pod or shelled, five quarts in pod making one quart shelled. They are found in market during July and August. Common lima and improved lima shell beans are in season in August and September. Dried lima beans are procurable throughout the year.
| String Beans
Remove strings, and snap or cut in one-inch pieces; wash, and cook in boiling water from one to three hours, adding salt last half-hour of cooking. Drain, season with butter and salt.
| Shell Beans
Wash, and cook in boiling water from one to one and a half hours, adding salt last half-hour of cooking. Cook in sufficiently small quantity of water, that there may be none left to drain off when beans are cooked. Season with butter and salt.
| Cream of Lima Beans
Soak one cup dried beans over night, drain, and cook in boiling salted water until soft; drain, add three-fourths cup cream, and season with butter and salt. Reheat before serving.
| Boiled Beets
Wash, and cook whole in boiling water until soft; time required being from one to four hours. Old beets will never be tender, no matter how long they may be cooked. Drain, and put in cold water that skins may be easily removed. Serve cut in quarters or slices.
| Sugared Beets
Cut beets in one-fourth inch slices, add butter, sugar, and salt; reheat for serving.
|4 hot boiled beets||11/2 tablespoons sugar|
|3 tablespoons butter||1/2 teaspoon salt|
| Pickled Beets
Slice cold boiled beets and cover with vinegar.
| Beets, Sour Sauce
Wash beets, and cook in boiling salted water until soft. Drain, and reserve one-half cup water in which beets were cooked. Plunge into cold water, rub off skins and cut into cubes. Reheat in
| Sour Sauce. Melt two tablespoons butter, add two tablespoons flour, and pour on the beet water. Add one-fourth cup, each, vinegar and cream, one teaspoon sugar, one-half teaspoon salt, and a few grains pepper.
| Harvard Beets
Wash twelve small beets, cook in boiling water until soft, remove skins, and cut beets in thin slices, small cubes, or fancy shapes, using French vegetable cutter. Mix one-half cup sugar and one-half tablespoon corn-starch. Add one-half cup vinegar and let boil five minutes. Pour over beets, and let stand on back of range one-half hour. Just before serving add two tablespoons butter.
| Brussels Sprouts
Brussels sprouts belong to the same family as cabbage, and the small heads grow from one to two inches apart. on the axis of the entire stem, one root yielding about two quarts. They are imported, and also grow in this country, being cheapest and best in December and January.
| Brussels Sprouts in White Sauce
Pick over, remove wilted leaves, and soak in cold water fifteen minutes. Cook in boiling salted water twenty minutes, or until easily pierced with a skewer. Drain, and to each pint add one cup White Sauce I.
| Scalloped Brussels Sprouts
Pick over, remove wilted leaves, and soak in cold water one quart sprouts. Cook in boiling salted water until soft, then drain. Wash celery and cut in pieces; there should be one and one-half cups. Melt three tablespoons butter, add celery, cook two minutes, add three tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually one and one-half cups scalded milk; add sprouts and turn mixture into a baking-dish. Cover with buttered crumbs and bake in a hot oven until crumbs are brown.
|There are four kinds of cabbage in the market,drumhead, sugar-loaf, Savoy, and purple; and some variety may be found throughout the year. The Savoy is best for boiling; drum-head and purple for Cole-Slaw. In buying, select heavy cabbages.
| Boiled Cabbage
Take off outside leaves, cut in quarters, and remove tough stalk. Soak in cold water and cook in an uncovered vessel in boiling salted water, to which is added one-fourth teaspoon soda; this prevents disagreeable odor during cooking. Cook from thirty minutes to one hour, drain, and serve; or chop, and season with butter, salt, and pepper.
| Escalloped Cabbage
Cut one-half boiled cabbage in pieces; put in buttered baking-dish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and add one cup White Sauce I. Lift cabbage with fork, that it may be well mixed with sauce, cover with buttered crumbs, and bake until crumbs are brown.
| German Cabbage
Slice red cabbage and soak in cold water. Put one quart in stewpan with two tablespoons butter, one-half teaspoon salt, one tablespoon finely chopped onion, few gratings of nutmeg, and few grains cayenne; cover, and cook until cabbage is tender. Add two tablespoons vinegar and one-half tablespoon sugar, and cook five minutes.
Select a small, heavy cabbage, take off outside leaves, and cut in quarters; with a sharp knife slice very thinly. Soak in cold water until crisp, drain, dry between towels, and mix with Cream Salad Dressing.
| Hot Slaw
Slice cabbage as for Cole-Slaw, using one-half cabbage. Heat in a dressing made of yolks of two eggs slightly beaten, one-fourth cup cold water, one tablespoon butter, one-fourth cup hot vinegar, and one-half teaspoon salt, stirred over hot water until thickened.
|Carrots may always be found in market. New carrots appear last of April, and are sold in bunches; these may be boiled and served, but carrots are chiefly used for flavoring soups, and for garnishing, on account of their bright color. To prepare carrots for cooking, wash and scrape, as best flavor and brightest color are near the skin.
| Carrots and Peas
Wash, scrape, and cut young carrots in small cubes or fancy shapes; cook until soft in boiling salted water or stock. Drain, add an equal quantity of cooked green peas, and season with butter, salt, and pepper.
| Carrots, Poulette Sauce
Wash, scrape, and cut carrots in strips, cubes, or fancy shapes, cover with boiling water, let stand five minutes; drain, and cook in boiling salted water, to which is added one-half tablespoon butter, until soft. Add to recipe for sauce given under Macédoine of Vegetables à la Poulette .
|Cauliflowers comprise the stalks and flowerets of a plant which belongs to the same family as Brussels sprouts and cabbage; they may be obtained throughout the year, but are cheapest and best in September and October. In selecting cauliflowers, choose those with white heads and fresh green leaves; if dark spots are on the heads, they are not fresh.
| Creamed Cauliflower
Remove leaves, cut off stalk, and soak thirty minutes (head down) in cold water to cover. Cook (head up) twenty minutes or until soft in boiling salted water; drain, separate flowerets, and reheat in one and one-half cups White Sauce I.
| Cauliflower à la Hollandaise
Prepare as for Creamed Cauliflower, using Hollandaise Sauce I instead of White Sauce.
| Cauliflower au Gratin
Place a whole cooked cauliflower on a dish for serving, cover with buttered crumbs, and place on oven grate to brown crumbs; remove from oven and pour one cup Thin White Sauce around cauliflower.
| Cauliflower à la Parmesan
Prepare as Cauliflower au Gratin. Sprinkle with grated cheese before covering with crumbs.
| Cauliflower à la Huntington
Prepare cauliflower as for boiled cauliflower, and steam until soft. Separate in pieces and pour over the following sauce:
| Mix one and one-half teaspoons mustard, one and one-fourth teaspoons salt, one teaspoon powdered sugar, and one-fourth teaspoon paprika. Add yolks three eggs slightly beaten, one-fourth cup olive oil, and one-half cup vinegar in which one-half teaspoon finely chopped shallot has infused five minutes. Cook over hot water until mixture thickens. Remove from range, and add one-half tablespoon curry powder, two tablespoons melted butter, and one teaspoon finely chopped parsley.
|Celery may be obtained from last of July until April. It is best and cheapest in December. Celery stalks are green while growing; but the white celery seen in market has been bleached, with the exception of Kalamazoo variety, which grows white. To prepare celery for table, cut off roots and leaves, separate stalks, wash, scrape, and chill in ice-water. By adding a slice of lemon to ice-water celery is kept white and made crisp. If tops of stalks are gashed several times before putting in water, they will curl back and make celery look more attractive.
| Celery in White Sauce
Wash, scrape, and cut celery stalks in one-inch pieces; cook twenty minutes or until soft in boiling salted water; drain, and to two cups celery add one cup White Sauce I. This is a most satisfactory way of using the outer stalks of celery.
| Fried Celery, Tomato Sauce
Wash and scrape celery, cut in three-inch pieces, dip in batter, fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Serve with Tomato Sauce.
| Batter. Mix one-half cup bread flour, one-fourth teaspoon salt, a few grains pepper, one-third cup milk, and one egg well beaten.
Chiccory or Endive
|Chiccory or endive may be obtained throughout the year, but during January, February, March and April supply is imported. It is used only for salads.
|Corn may be found in market from first of June to first of October. Until native corn appears it is the most unsatisfactory vegetable. Native corn is obtainable the last of July, but is most abundant and cheapest in August. Among the best varieties are Crosby for early corn and Evergreen for late corn.
| Boiled Green Corn
Remove husks and silky threads. Cook ten to twenty minutes in boiling water. Place on platter covered with napkin; draw corners of napkin over corn; or cut from cob and season with butter and salt.
Cut hot boiled corn from cob, add equal quantity of hot boiled shelled beans; season with butter and salt; reheat before serving.
| Corn Oysters
Grate raw corn from cobs. To one cup pulp add one well-beaten egg, one-fourth cup flour, and season highly with salt and pepper. Drop by spoonfuls and fry in deep fat, or cook on a hot, well-greased griddle. They should be made about the size of large oysters.
| Corn Fritters
Chop corn, drain, and add dry ingredients mixed and sifted, then add yolks of eggs, beaten until thick, and fold in whites of eggs beaten stiff. Cook in a frying-pan in fresh hot lard. Drain on paper.
|1 can corn||2 teaspoons salt|
|1 cup flour||1/4 teaspoon paprika|
|1 teaspoon baking powder||2 eggs|
| Corn à la Southern
To one can chopped corn add two eggs slightly beaten, one teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon pepper, one and one-half tablespoons melted butter, and one pint scalded milk; turn into a buttered pudding-dish and bake in slow oven until firm.
|French and Italian chestnuts are served in place of vegetables.
| Chestnut Purée
Remove shells from chestnuts, cook until soft in boiling salted water; drain, mash, moisten with scalded milk, season with salt and pepper, and beat until light. Chestnuts are often boiled, riced, and piled lightly in centre of dish, then surrounded by meat.
| Baked Chestnuts
Remove shells from one pint chestnuts, put in a baking-dish, cover with Chicken Stock highly seasoned with salt and cayenne, and bake until soft, keeping covered until nearly done. There should be a small quantity of stock in pan to serve with chestnuts.
|Cucumbers may be obtained throughout the year, and are generally served raw. During the latter part of the summer they are gathered and pickled for subsequent use. Small pickled cucumbers are called gherkins.
| Sliced Cucumbers
Remove thick slices from both ends and cut off a thick paring, as the cucumber contains a bitter principle, a large quantity of which lies near the skin and stem end. Cut in thin slices and keep in cold water until ready to serve. Drain, and cover with crushed ice for serving.
| Boiled Cucumbers
Old cucumbers may be pared, cut in pieces, cooked until soft in boiling salted water, drained, mashed, and seasoned, with butter, salt, and pepper.
| Fried Cucumbers
Pare cucumbers and cut lengthwise in one-third inch slices. Dry between towels, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in deep fat, and drain.
| Stuffed Cucumbers
Pare three cucumbers, cut in halves crosswise, remove seeds, and let stand in cold water thirty minutes. Drain, wipe, and fill with force meat, using recipe for Chicken Force meat I or II, substituting veal for chicken. Place upright on a trivet in a saucepan. Half surround with White Stock, cover, and cook forty minutes. place on thin slices of dry toast, cut in circular shapes, and pour around one and one-half cups Béchamel Sauce. Serve as a vegetable course or an entrée.
| Fried Eggplant I
Pare an egg plant and cut in very thin slices. Sprinkle slices with salt and pile on a plate. Cover with a weight to express the juice, and let stand one and one-half hours. Dredge with flour and sautée slowly in butter until crisp and brown. Eggplant is in season from September to February.
| Fried Eggplant II
Pare an egg plant, cut in one-fourth inch slices, and soak over night in cold salted water. Drain, let stand in cold water one-half hour, drain again, and dry between towels. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in batter, or dip in flour, egg, and crumbs, and fry in deep fat.
| Stuffed Eggplant
Cook eggplant fifteen minutes in boiling salted water to cover. Cut a slice from top, and with a spoon remove pulp, taking care not to work too closely to skin. Chop pulp, and add one cup soft stale bread crumbs. Melt two tablespoons butter, add one-half tablespoon finely chopped onion, and cook five minutes, or try out three slices of bacon, using bacon fat in place of butter. Add to chopped pulp and bread, season with salt and pepper. Add to chopped pulp and bread, season with salt and pepper, and if necessary moisten with a little stock or water; cook five minutes, cool slightly, and add one beaten egg. Refill eggplant, cover with buttered bread crumbs, and bake twenty minutes in a hot oven.
| Scalloped Eggplant
Pare an eggplant and cut in two-thirds inch cubes, Cook in a small quantity of boiling water until soft, then drain. Cook two tablespoons butter with one-half onion, finely chopped, until yellow, add three-fourths tablespoon finely chopped parsley and eggplant. Turn into a buttered baking-dish. Cover with buttered crumbs and bake until crumbs are brown.
|Hothouse beet greens and dandelions appear in market the first of March, when they command a high price. Those grown out of doors are in season from middle of May to first of July.
| Boiled Beet Greens
Wash thoroughly and scrape roots, cutting off ends. Drain, and cook one hour or until tender in a small quantity boiling salted water. Season with butter, salt, and pepper, Serve with vinegar.
Wash thoroughly, remove roots, drain, and cook one hour or until tender in boiling salted water. Allow two quarts water to on peck dandelions. Season with butter, salt, and pepper. Serve with vinegar.
|Lettuce is obtainable all the year, and is especially valuable during the winter and spring, when other green vegetables in market command a high price. Although containing but little nutriment, it is useful for the large quantity of water and potash salts that it contains, and assists in stimulating the appetite. Curly lettuce is of less value than Tennis Ball, but makes an effective garnish.
| Lettuce should be separated by removing leaves from stalk (discarding wilted outer leaves), washed, kept in cold water until crisp, drained, and so placed on a towel that water may drop from leaves. A bag made from white mosquito netting is useful for drying lettuce. Wash lettuce
leaves, place in bag, and hand in lower part of ice-box to drain. Wire baskets are used for the same purpose. Arrange lettuce for serving in nearly its original shape.
| Leeks on Toast
Wash and trim leeks, cook in boiling salted water until soft, and drain. Arrange on pieces of buttered toast and pour over melted butter, seasoned with salt and pepper.
|The onion belongs to the same family (Lily) as do shallot, garlic, leek, and chive. Onions are cooked and served as a vegetable. They are wholesome, and contain considerable nutriment, but are objectionable on account of the strong odor they impart to the breath, due to volatile substances absorbed by the blood, and by the blood carried to the lungs, where they are set free. The common garden onion is obtainable throughout the year, the new ones appearing in market about the first of June. In large centres Bermuda and Spanish onions are procurable from March 1st to June 1st, and are of delicate flavor.
| Shallot, leek, garlic, and chive are principally used to give additional flavor to food. Shallot, garlic, and chive are used, to some extent, in making salads.
| Boiled Onions
Put onions in cold water and remove skins while under water. Drain, put in a saucepan, and cover with boiling salted water; boil five minutes, drain, and again cover with boiling salted water. Cook one hour or until soft, but no broken. Drain, add a small quantity of milk, cook five minutes, and season with butter, salt, and pepper.
| Onions in Cream
Prepare and cook as Boiled Onions, changing the water twice during boiling; drain, and cover with Cream or Thin White Sauce.
| Scalloped Onions
Cut Boiled Onions in quarters. Put in a buttered baking-dish cover with White Sauce I, sprinkle with buttered cracker crumbs, and place on centre grate in oven to brown crumbs.
| Glazed Onions
Peel small silver skinned onions, and cook in boiling water fifteen minutes. Drain, dry on cheese-cloth, put in a buttered baking-dish, add highly seasoned brown stock to cover bottom of dish, sprinkle with sugar, and bake until soft, basting with stock in pan.
| Fried Onions
Remove skins from four medium-sized onions. Cut in thin slices and put in a hot omelet pan with one and one-half tablespoons butter. Cook until brown, occasionally shaking pan that onions may not burn, or turn onions, using a fork. Sprinkle with salt one minute before taking from fire.
| French Fried Onions
Peel onions, cut in one-fourth inch slices, and separate into rings. Dip in milk, drain, and dip in flour. Fry in deep fat, drain on brown paper, and sprinkle with salt.
| Stuffed Onions
Remove skins from onions, and parboil ten minutes in boiling salted water to cover. Turn upside down to cool, and remove part of centres. Fill cavities with equal parts of finely chopped cooked chicken, stale soft bread crumbs, and finely chopped onion which was removed, seasoned with salt and pepper, and moistened with cream or melted butter. Place in buttered shallow baking-pan, sprinkle with buttered crumbs, and bake in a moderate oven until onions are soft.
| Creamed Oyster Plant (Salsify)
Wash, scrape, and put at once into cold acidulated water to prevent discoloration. Cut in inch slices, cook in boiling salted water until soft, drain, and add to White Sauce I. Oyster plant is in season from October to March.
| Salsify Fritters
Cook oyster plant as for Creamed Oyster Plant. Mash, season with butter, salt, and pepper. Shape in small flat cakes, roll in flour, and sauté in butter.
|Parsnips are not so commonly served as other vegetables; however, they often accompany a boiled dinner. They are raised mostly for feeding cattle. Unless young they contain a large amount of woody fibre, which extends through centre of roots and makes them undesirable as food.
| Parsnips with Drawn Butter Sauce
Wash and scrape parsnips, and cut in pieces two inches long and one-half inch wide and thick. Cook five minutes in boiling salted water, or until soft. Drain, and to two cups add one cup Drawn Butter Sauce.
| Parsnip Fritters
Wash parsnips and cook forty-five minutes in boiling salted water. Drain, plunge into cold water, when skins will be found to slip off easily. Mash, season with butter, salt, and pepper, shape in small flat round cakes, roll in flour, and sauté in butter.
|Peas contain, next to beans, the largest percentage of proteid of any of the vegetables, and when young are easy of digestion. They appear in market as early as April, coming from Florida and California, and although high in price are hardly worth buying, having been picked so long. Native peas may be obtained the middle of June, and last until the first of September. The early June are small peas, contained in a small pod. McLean, the best peas, are small peas in large flat pods. Champion peas are large, and the pods are well filled, but they lack sweetness. Marrowfat peas are the largest in the market, and are usually sweet.
| Boiled Peas
Remove peas from pods, cover with cold water, and let stand one-half hour. Skim off undeveloped peas which rise to top of water, and drain remaining peas. Cook until soft in a small quantity of boiling water, adding salt the last fifteen minutes of cooking. (Consult Time Table for Cooking, p.28). There should be but little, if any, water to drain from peas when they are cooked. Season with butter, salt, and pepper. If peas have lost much of their natural sweetness, they are improved by the addition of a small amount of sugar.
| Creamed Peas
Drain Boiled Peas, and to two cups pea add three-fourths cup White Sauce II. Canned peas are often drained, rinsed, and reheated in this way.
| Pea Timbales
Drain and rinse on can peas, and rub through a sieve. To one cup pea pulp add two beaten eggs, two tablespoons melted butter, two-thirds teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon pepper, few grains cayenne, and few drops onion juice. Turn into buttered moulds, set in pan of hot water, cover with buttered paper, and bake until firm. Serve with one cup white sauce to which is added one-third cup canned peas drained and rinsed.
| Stuffed Peppers I
Cut a slice from stem end of each pepper, remove seeds, and parboil peppers, fifteen minutes.
|6 green peppers||1/3 cup Brown Sauce|
|6 green peppers||1/3 cup Brown Sauce|
|1 onion, finely chopped||3 tablespoons bread crumbs|
|2 tablespoons butter||Salt ad pepper|
|4 tablespoons chopped mushrooms||Buttered bread crumbs|
| 4 tablespoons lean raw ham, finely chopped|
| Cook onion in butter three minutes; add mushrooms and ham, and cook one minute, then add Brown Sauce and bread crumbs. Cool mixture, sprinkle peppers with salt, fill with cooked mixture, cover with buttered bread crumbs and bake ten minutes. Serve on toast with Brown Sauce.
| Stuffed Peppers II
Prepare peppers as for Stuffed Peppers I. Fill with equal parts of finely chopped cold cooked chicken or veal, and softened bread crumbs, seasoned with onion juice, salt, and pepper.
|Pumpkins are boiled or steamed same as squash, but require longer cooking. They are principally used for making pies.
|Radishes may be obtained throughout the year. There are round and long varieties, the small round ones being considered best. They are bought in bunches, six or seven constituting a bunch. Radishes are used merely for a relish, and are served uncooked. To prepare radishes for table, remove leaves, stems, and tip end of root, scrape roots, and serve on crushed ice. Round radishes look very attractive cut to imitate tulips, when they should not be scraped; to accomplish this, begin at root end and make six incisions through skin running three-fourths length of radish. Pass knife under sections of skin, and cut down as far as incisions extend. Place in cold water, and sections of skin will fold back, giving radish a tulip-like appearance.
|Spinach is cheapest and best in early summer, but is obtainable throughout the year. It gives variety to winter diet, when most green vegetables are expensive and of inferior quality.
| Boiled Spinach
Remove roots, carefully pick over (discarding wilted leaves), and wash in several waters to be sure that it is free from all sand. When young and tender put in a stewpan, allow to heat gradually, and boil twenty-five minutes, or until tender, in its own juices. Old spinach is better cooked in boiling salted water, allowing two quarts water to one peck spinach. Drain thoroughly, chop finely, reheat, and season with butter, salt and pepper. Mound on a serving dish and garnish with slices of hard-boiled eggs and toast points. The green color of spinach is better retained by cooking in an uncovered vessel, in a large quantity of water to which has been added one-third teaspoon soda.
| Spinach à Ia Béchamel
Prepare one-half peck Boiled Spinach. Put three table spoons butter in hot omelet pan; when melted, add chopped spinach, cook three minutes. Sprinkle with two tablespoons flour, stir thoroughly, and add gradually three-fourths cup milk; cook five minutes.
| Purée of Spinach
Wash and pick over one-half peck spinach. Cook in an uncovered vessel with a large quantity of boiling salted water to which is added one-third teaspoon soda and one-half teaspoon sugar. Drain, chop finely, and rub through a sieve. Reheat, add three tablespoons butter, one tablespoon flour, and one-half cup cream. Arrange one serving dish and garnish with yolk and white of hard-boiled egg and fried bread cut in fancy shapes.
| Spinach (French Style)
Pick over and wash one peck spinach, and cook in boiling salted water twenty-five minutes. Drain, and finely chop. Reheat in hot pan with four tablespoons butter to which have been added three tablespoons flour and two-thirds cup Chicken Stock. Season with one teaspoon powdered sugar, salt, pepper, and a few gratings each of nutmeg and lemon rind.
|Summer squash, which are in market during the summer months, should be young, tender, and thin skinned. The common varieties are the white round and yellow crook-neck. Some of the winter varieties appear in market as early as the middle of August; among the most common are Marrow, Turban, and Hubbard. Turban and Hubbard are usually drier than Marrow. Marrow and Turban have a thin shell, which may be pared off before cooking. Hubbard Squash has a very hard shell, which must be split in order to separate squash in pieces, and squash then cooked in the shell. In selecting winter squash, see that it is heavy in proportion to its size.
| Boiled Summer Squash
Wash squash and cut in thick slices or quarters. Cook twenty minutes in boiling salted water, or until soft. Turn in a cheese cloth place over a colander, drain, and wring in cheese-cloth. Mash, and season with butter, salt, and pepper.
| Fried Summer Squash I
Wash, and cut in one-half inch slices. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in hot fat, and drain.
| Fried Summer Squash II
Follow recipe for Fried Eggplant I.
| Steamed Winter Squash
Cut in pieces, remove seeds and stringy portion, and pare. Place in a strainer and cook thirty minutes, or until soft, over boiling water. Mash, and season with butter, salt, and pepper. If lacking in sweetness, add a small quantity of sugar.
| Boiled Winter Squash
Prepare as for Steamed Winter Squash. Cook in boiling salted water, drain, mash, and season. Unless squash is very dry, it is much better steamed than boiled.
| Baked Winter Squash I
Cut in pieces two inches square, remove seeds and stringy portion, place in a dripping pan, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and allow for each square one-half teaspoon molasses and one-half teaspoon melted butter. Bake fifty minutes, or until soft, in a moderate oven, keeping covered the first half-hour of cooking. Serve in the shell.
| Backed Winter Squash II
Cut squash in halves, remove seeds and stringy portion, place in a dripping-pan, cover, and bake two hours, or until soft, in a slow oven. Remove from shell, mash, and season with butter, salt and pepper.
|Tomatoes are obtainable throughout the year, but are cheapest and best in September. Hothouse tomatoes are in market during the winter, and command a very high price, sometimes retailing for one and one-half dollars a pound.
| Southern tomatoes appear as early as May 1st, and although of good color, lack flavor. Of the many varieties of tomatoes, Acme is among the best.
| Sliced Tomatoes
Wipe, and cover with boiling water; let stand one minute, when they may be easily skinned. Chill thoroughly, and cut in one-third inch slices.
| Stewed Tomatoes
Wipe, pare, cut in pieces, put in stewpan, and cook slowly twenty minutes, stirring occasionally. Season with butter, salt, and pepper.
| Scalloped Tomatoes
Remove contents from one can tomatoes and drain tomatoes from some of their liquor. Season with salt, pepper, a few drops of onion juice, and sugar if preferred sweet. Cover the bottom of a buttered baking-dish with buttered bread crumbs, cover with tomatoes, and sprinkle top thickly with buttered crumbs. Bake in a hot oven until crumbs are brown.
| Broiled Tomatoes
Wipe and cut in halves crosswise, cut off a thin slice from rounding part of each half. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, place in a well-buttered broiler, and broil six to eight minutes.
| Tomatoes á la Crême
Wipe, peel, and slice three tomatoes. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and sauté in butter. Place on a hot platter and pour over them one cup White Sauce I.
| Devilled Tomatoes
Wipe, peel, and cut tomatoes in slices. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and sauté in butter. Place on a hot platter and pour over the dressing made by creaming the butter, adding dry ingredients, yolk of egg rubbed to a paste, egg beaten slightly, and vinegar, then cooking over hot water, stirring constantly until it thickens.
|3 tomatoes||1 teaspoon mustard|
|Salt and pepper||1/4 teaspoon salt|
|Flour||Few grains cayenne|
|Butter for sautéing||Yolk 1 "hard-boiled" egg|
|4 tablespoons butter||1 egg|
|2 teaspoons powdered sugar||2 tablespoons vinegar|
| Baked Tomatoes I
Wipe, and remove a thin slice from stem end of six smooth, medium-sized tomatoes. Take out seeds and pulp, and drain off most of the liquid. Add and equal quantity of bread crumbs, season with salt, pepper, and a few drops onion juice, and refill tomatoes with mixture. Place in a buttered pan, sprinkle with buttered crumbs, and bake twenty minutes in a hot oven. Two tablespoons, each, chopped green pepper and onion are an improvement.
| Baked Tomatoes II
Wipe six small, selected tomatoes and make two one-inch gashes on blossom end of each, having gashes cross each other at right angles. Place in granite-ware pan and bake until thoroughly heated. Serve with sauce for Devilled Tomatoes, adding, just before serving, one tablespoon heavy cream.
| Stuffed Tomatoes
Wipe, and remove thin slices from stem end of six medium-sized tomatoes. Take out seeds and pulp, sprinkle inside of tomatoes with salt, invert, and let stand one-half hour. Cook five minutes two tablespoons butter with one-half tablespoon finely chopped onion. Add one-half cup finely chopped cold cooked chicken or veal, one cup stale soft bread crumbs, tomato pulp, and salt and pepper to taste. Cook five minutes, then add one egg slightly beaten, cook one minute, and refill tomatoes with mixture. Place in buttered pan, sprinkle with buttered cracker crumbs, and bake twenty minutes in a hot oven.
|Turnips are best during the fall and winter; towards spring they become corky, and are then suitable only for stews and flavoring. The Ruta-baga, a large yellow turnip, is one of the best varieties; the large French turnip and the small flat Purple Top are also used.
| Mashed Turnip
Wash and pare turnips, cut in slices or quarters, and cook in boiling salted water until soft. Drain, mash, and season with butter, salt, and pepper.
| Creamed Turnip
Wash turnips, and cut in one-half inch cubes. Cook three cups cubes in boiling salted water twenty minutes, or until soft. Drain, and add one cup White Sauce I.
| Turnip Croquettes
Wash, pare, and cut in quarters new French turnips. Steam until tender, mash, pressing out all water that is possible. This is best accomplished by wringing in cheese-cloth. Season one and one-fourth cups with salt and pepper, then add yolks of two eggs slightly beaten. Cool, shape in small croquettes, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in deep fat, and drain.
| Stewed Mushrooms
Brush one-half pound mushrooms. Remove Stems, scrape, and cut in pieces. Peel caps, and break in pieces. Melt three tablespoons of butter, add mushrooms, cook two minutes; sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and add one-half cup hot water or stock. Cook slowly five minutes.
| Stewed Mushrooms in Cream
Prepare mushrooms as for Stewed Mushrooms. Cook with three-fourths cup cream instead of using water or stock. Add a slight grating of nutmeg, pour over small finger-shaped pieces of dry toast, and garnish with toast points and parsley.
| Broiled Mushrooms
Brush mushrooms, remove stems, and place caps in a buttered broiler, and broil five minutes, having cap side down first half of broiling. Serve on circular pieces of buttered dry toast. Put a small piece of butter in each cap, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and serve as soon as butter has melted. Care must be taken, in removing from broiler, to keep mushrooms cap side up, to prevent loss of juices.
| Baked Mushrooms in Cream
Brush twelve large mushrooms. Remove stems, and peel caps. Put in a shallow buttered pan, cap side up. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, and dot over with butter; add two-thirds cup cream. Bake ten minutes in a hot oven Place on pieces of dry toast, and pour over them cream remaining in pan.
| Sautéd Mushrooms
Brush, remove stems, peel caps, and break in pieces; there should be one cup of mushrooms. Put two tablespoons butter in a hot omelet pan; when melted, add mushrooms which have been dredged with flour, few drops onion juice, one-fourth teaspoon salt, a few grains pepper, and cook five minutes. Add one teaspoon finely chopped parsley and one-fourth cup boiling water. Cook two minutes, and serve on dry toast.
| Mushrooms à la Sabine
Wash one-half pound mushrooms, remove stems, and peel caps. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and cook three minutes in a hot frying-pan, with two tablespoons butter. Add one and one-third cups Brown Sauce, and cook slowly five minutes. Sprinkle with three tablespoons grated cheese. As soon as cheese is melted, arrange mushrooms on pieces of toast, and pour over sauce. Garnish with parsley.
| Mushrooms à lAlgonquin
Brush large selected mushrooms. Remove stems, peel caps, and sauté caps in butter. Place in a small buttered shallow pan, cap side being up; place on each a large oyster, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and place on each a bit of butter. Cook in a hot oven until oysters are plump. Serve with Brown or Béchamel Sauce.
| Mushrooms Allamande
Brush mushroom caps, and sauté in butter. Put together in pairs, cover with Allamande Sauce, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper.
| Allamande Sauce. Melt three tablespoons butter, add one-third cup flour, and pour on gradually one cup White Stock; then add one egg yolk and season with salt, pepper, and lemon juice.
| Stuffed Mushrooms
Brush twelve large mushrooms. Remove stems, chop finely, and peel caps. Melt three tablespoons butter, add one-half tablespoon finely chopped shallot and chopped stems, then cook ten minutes. Add one and one-half tablespoons flour, chicken stock to moisten, a slight grating of nutmeg, one-half teaspoon finely chopped parsley, and salt and pepper to taste. Cool mixture and fill caps, well rounding over top. Cover with buttered cracker crumbs, and bake fifteen minutes in a hot oven.
| Mushrooms under Glass I
Cover the bottom of an individual baking-dish with circular pieces of toasted bread. Arrange mushroom caps on toast, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dot over with butter, and pour over a small quantity of hot cream. Cover, and bake twenty minutes.
| Individual dishes with bell-shaped glass covers may be bought at first-class kitchen furnishers. These dishes are sent to table with covers left on, that the fine flavor of the prepared viand may all be retained.
| Mushrooms under Glass II
Cream the butter, add lemon juice drop by drop, salt, pepper, and parsley. Cut bread in circular piece three-eighths inch thick, then toast. Put one-half of the sauce on the under side of toast; put toast on a small baking dish, pile mushroom caps cleaned and pealed in conical shape on toast, and pour over cream. Cover with glass and bake about twenty-five minutes, adding more cream if necessary. Just before serving add one teaspoon Sherry wine.
|2 tablespoons butter||1/4 teaspoon finely chopped parsley|
|1/2 tablespoon lemon juice||Bread|
|1/4 teaspoon salt||1/4 cup heavy cream|
|Few grains pepper||Sherry wine|
| Vegetable Soufflé
Melt butter, add flour, and pour on gradually cream and water; add vegetable, yolks of eggs beaten until thick and lemon colored, and fold in whites of eggs beaten until stiff; then add seasonings. Turn in a buttered baking-dish and bake in a slow oven.
|1/4 cup butter||1 cup cooked vegetables rubbed through a sieve,carrots, turnips, or onions|
|1/4 cup flour|
|1/3 cup cream|
|1/3 cup water in which vegetables were cooked||Yolks 3 eggs|
|Whites 3 eggs|
|Salt and pepper|
| Curried Vegetables
Cook one cup each potatoes and carrots, and one-half cup turnip, cut in fancy shapes, in boiling salted water until soft. Drain, add one-half cup canned peas, and pour over a sauce made by cooking two tablespoons butter with two slices onion five minutes, removing onion, adding two tablespoons flour, three-fourths teaspoon salt, one-half teaspoon curry powder, one-fourth teaspoon pepper, few grains celery salt, and pouring on gradually one cup scalded milk. Sprinkle with finely chopped parsley.
| Macedoine of Vegetables à la Poulette
Clean carrots and turnips and cut into strips or fancy shapes; there should be one and one-fourth cups carrots and one-half cup turnips. Cook separately in boiling salted water until soft. Drain, and add one and one-fourth cups cooked peas. Reheat in a sauce made of three tablespoons butter, three tablespoons flour, one cup chicken stock, and one-half cup cream. Season to taste with pepper and salt, and just before serving add yolks two eggs and one-half tablespoon lemon juice.