POTATOES stand pre-eminent among the vegetables used for food. They are tubers belonging to the Nightshade family; their hardy growth renders them easy of cultivation in almost any soil or climate, and, resisting early frosts, they may be raised in a higher latitude than the cereals.
|Water, 78.9%||Proteid, 2.1%|
|Starch, 18%||Mineral matter, .9%|
|Fat 1.%|| 1|
| They give needed bulk to food rather than nutriment, and, lacking in proteid, should be used in combination with meat, fish, or eggs.
| Potatoes contain an acrid juice, the greater part of which lies near the skin; it passes into the water during boiling of potatoes, and escapes with the steam from a baked potato.
| Potatoes are best in the fall, and keep well through the winter. By spring the starch is partially changed to dextrin, giving the potatoes a sweetness, and when cooked a waxiness. The same change takes place when potatoes are frozen. To prevent freezing, keep a pail of cold water standing near them.
| Potatoes keep best in a cool dry cellar, in barrels or piled in a bin. When sprouts appear they should be removed; receiving their nourishment from the starch, they deteriorate the potato.
| New potatoes may be compared to unripe fruit, the starch grains not having reached maturity; therefore they should not be given to children or invalids.
|Sweet potatoes, although analogous to white potatoes, are fleshy roots of the plant, belong to a different family (Convolvulus), and contain a much larger percentage of sugar. Our own country produces large quantities of sweet potatoes, which may be grown as far north as New Jersey and Southern Michigan. Kiln-dried sweet potatoes are the best, as they do not so quickly spoil.
| Baked Potatoes
Select smooth, medium-sized potatoes. Wash, using a vegetable brush, and place in dripping-pan. Bake in hot oven forty minutes or until soft, remove from oven, and serve at once. If allowed to stand, unless the skin is ruptured for escape of steam, they become soggy. Properly baked potatoes are more easily digested than potatoes cooked in any other way, as some of the starch is changed to dextrin by the intense heat. They are better cooked in boiling water than baked in a slow oven.
| Boiled Potatoes
Select potatoes of uniform size. Wash, pare, and drop at once in cold water to prevent discoloration; soak one-half hour in the fall, and one to two hours in winter and spring. Cook in boiling salted water until soft, which is easily determined by piercing with a skewer. For seven potatoes allow one tablespoon salt, and boiling water to cover. Drain from water, and keep uncovered in warm place until serving time. Avoid sending to table in a covered vegetable dish. In boiling large potatoes, it often happens that outside is soft, while centre is underdone. To finish cooking without potatoes breaking apart, add one pint cold water, which drives heat to centre, thus accomplishing the cooking.
| Riced Potatoes
Force hot boiled potatoes through a potato ricer or coarse strainer. Serve lightly piled in a hot vegetable dish.
| Mashed Potatoes
To five riced potatoes add three tablespoons butter, one teaspoon salt, few grains pepper, and one-third cup hot milk; beat with fork until creamy, reheat, and pile lightly in hot dish.
| Potato Omelet
Prepare Mashed Potatoes, turn in hot omelet pan greased with one tablespoon butter, spread evenly, cook slowly until browned underneath, and fold as an omelet.
| Potato Border
Place a buttered mould on platter, build around it a wall of hot Mashed Potatoes, using nine potatoes, three and one-half inches high by one inch deep, smooth, and crease with case knife. Remove mould, fill with creamed meat or fish, and reheat in oven before serving.
| Escalloped Potatoes
Wash, pare, soak, and cut four potatoes in one-forth inch slices. Put a layer in buttered baking-dish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dredge with flour, and dot over with one-half tablespoon butter; repeat. Add hot milk until it may be seen through top layer, bake one and one-fourth hours or until potato is soft.
| Potatoes à la Hollandaise
Wash, pare, soak, and cut potatoes in one-fourth inch slices, shape with French vegetable cutters; or cut in one-half inch cubes. Cover three cups potato with White Stock, cook until soft, and drain. Cream one-third cup butter, add one tablespoon lemon juice, one-half teaspoon salt, and few grains of cayenne. Add to potatoes, cook three minutes, and add one-half tablespoon finely chopped parsley.
| Chambery Potatoes
Wash, pare, and thinly slice potatoes, using vegetable slicer. Let stand one-half hour in cold water, then drain, and dry between towels. Arrange in layers in a well buttered iron frying-pan, having pan three-fourths full. seasoning each layer with salt and pepper, and brushing over with melted butter. Cook in a moderate oven until soft and well browned.
| Potatoes Baked in Half Shell
Select six medium-sized potatoes and bake, following recipe for Baked Potatoes. Remove from oven, cut slice from side of each, and scoop out inside. Mash, add two tablespoons butter, salt, pepper, and three tablespoons hot milk; then add whites two eggs well beaten. Refill skins, and bake five to eight minutes in very hot oven. Potatoes may be sprinkled with grated cheese before putting in oven.
| Duchess Potatoes
To two cups hot riced potatoes add two tablespoons butter, one-half teaspoon salt, and yolks of three eggs slightly beaten. Shape, using pastry bag and tube, in form of baskets, pyramids, crowns, leaves, roses, etc. Brush over with beaten egg diluted with one teaspoon water, and brown in a hot oven.
| Maître dHôtel Potatoes
Wash, pare, and shape potatoes in balls, using a French vegetable cutter, or cut potatoes in one-half inch cubes. There should be two cups. Soak fifteen minutes in cold water, and cook in boiling salted water to cover until soft. Drain, and add Maître dHôtel Butter.
| Maître dHôtel Butter
Cream three tablespoons butter, add one teaspoon lemon juice very slowly, one-half teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon pepper, and one-half tablespoon finely chopped parsley.
| Franconia Potatoes
Prepare as for Boiled Potatoes, and parboil ten minutes; drain, and place in pan in which meat is roasting; bake until soft, basting with fat in pan when basting meat. Time required for baking about forty minutes. Sweet potatoes may be prepared in the same way.
| Brabant Potatoes
Prepare same as for Boiled Potatoes, using small potatoes, and trim egg-shaped; parboil ten minutes, drain, and place in baking-pan and bake until soft, basting three times with melted butter.
| Anna Potatoes
Wash and pare medium-sized potatoes. Cut lengthwise in one-fourth inch slices, and fasten in fan shapes, with small wooden skewers, allowing five slices of potato to each skewer. Parboil ten minutes, drain, then place in a dripping-pan, and bake in a hot oven until soft, basting every three minutes with butter or some other fat.
| Persillade Potatoes
Wash and pare small potatoes, and cut in shapes of large olives. Cook in boiling salted water until soft. Drain, and let stand to dry off. Turn into hot serving dish, pour over clarified butter, sprinkle generously with paprika, and send to table at once.
| Potato Bells
Select large potatoes, wash, pare, and soak. Shape in balls with a French vegetable cutter. Cook in boiling salted water until soft; drain, and to one pint potatoes add one cup Thin White Sauce. Turn into hot dish, and sprinkle with finely chopped parsley.
| Hongroise Potatoes
Wash, pare, and cut potatoes in one-third inch cubes,there should be three cups; parboil three minutes, and drain. Add one-third cup butter, and cook on back of range until potatoes are soft and slightly browned. Melt two tablespoons butter, add a few drops onion juice, two tablespoons flour, and pour on gradually one cup hot milk. Season with salt and paprika, then add one egg yolk. Pour sauce over potatoes, and sprinkle with finely chopped parsley.
|Shadow Potatoes (Saratoga Chips)
Wash and pare potatoes. Slice thinly (using vegetable slicer) into a bowl of cold water. Let stand two hours, changing water twice. Drain, plunge in a kettle of boiling water, and boil one minute. Drain again, and cover with cold water. Take from water and dry between towels. Fry in deep fat until light brown, keeping in motion with a skimmer. Drain on brown paper and sprinkle with salt.
| Shredded Potatoes
Wash, pare and cut potatoes in one-eighth inch slices. Cut slices in one-eighth inch strips. Soak one hour in cold water. Take from water, dry between towels, and fry in deep fat. Drain on brown paper and sprinkle with salt. Serve around fried or baked fish.
| Lattice Potatoes
Wash and pare potatoes. Slice, using a vegetable slicer which comes for this purpose, and let stand in a bowl of cold water two hours. Drain, and dry between towels. Fry in deep fat, drain on brown paper, and sprinkle with salt.
| Potato Nests
Wash, pare and cut potatoes in thin strips, using same slicer as for Lattice Potatoes. Soak in cold water fifteen minutes, drain, and dry between towels. Line a fine wire strainer of four-inch diameter, and having a wire handle, with potatoes, place a similar strainer, having a two and one-half inch diameter, in larger strainer, thus holding potatoes in nest shapes. Fry in deep fat, taking care that the fat does not reach too high a temperature at first. Keep the small strainer in place during frying with a long handled spoon. Carefully remove nests from strainers. Drain on brown paper, and sprinkle with salt. Fill with small fillets of fried fish or fried smelts.
| French Fried Potatoes
Wash and pare small potatoes, cut in eighth lengthwise, and soak one hour in cold water. Take from water, dry between towels, and fry in deep fat. Drain on brown paper and sprinkle with fat.
| Care must be taken that fat is not too hot, as potatoes must be cooked as well as browned.
| OBrion Potatoes
Fry three cups potato cubes or balls in deep fat, drain on brown paper, and sprinkle with salt. Cook one slice onion in one and one-half tablespoons butter three minutes, remove onion, and add to butter three canned pimentoes cut in small pieces. When thoroughly heated add potatoes; stir until well mixed, turn into serving dish, and sprinkle with finely chopped parsley.
| Potato Marbles
Wash and pare potatoes. Shape in balls, using a French vegetable cutter. Soak fifteen minutes in cold water; take from water and dry between towels. Fry in deep fat, drain and sprinkle with salt.
| Fried Potato Balls
To one cup hot riced potatoes add one tablespoon butter, one-fourth teaspoon salt, one-eighth teaspoon celery salt, and few grains cayenne. Cool slightly, and add one-half beaten egg and one-half teaspoon finely chopped parsley. Shape in small balls, roll in flour, fry in deep fat, and drain.
| Potatoes, Somerset Style
To two cups hot riced potatoes add two tablespoons butter, one-half cup grated mild cheese, yolks three eggs, slightly beaten, one-half teaspoon salt, and a few grains cayenne. Shape in form of birds, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs, insert slices of raw potato cut to represent wings and tail, and cloves to represent eyes. Fry in deep fat and drain on brown paper.
| Potato Fritters
Add cream, wine, and seasonings to potatoes; then add eggs well beaten, having bowl containing mixture in pan of ice-water, and beat until cold. Add flour, and when well mixed, drop by spoonfuls in deep fat, fry until delicately browned, and drain on brown paper.
|2 cups hot riced potatoes||Few gratings nutmeg|
|2 tablespoons cream||Few grains cayenne|
|2 tablespoons wine||3 eggs|
|1 teaspoon salt||Yolks 2 eggs|
|1/2 cup flour|
| Potato Curls
Wash and pare large long potatoes. Shape with a potato curler, soak one hour in cold water, drain, dry between towels, fry in deep fat, drain, and sprinkle with salt.
| Potato Croquettes
Mix ingredients in order given, and beat thoroughly. Shape, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry one minute in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Croquettes are shaped in a variety of forms. The most common way is to first form a smooth ball by rolling one rounding tablespoon of mixture between hands. Then roll on a board until of desired length, and flatten ends.
|2 cups hot riced potatoes||Few grains cayenne|
|2 tablespoons butter||Few drops onion juice|
|1/2 teaspoon salt||Yolk 1 egg|
|1/8 teaspoon pepper||1 teaspoon finely chopped parsley|
|1/4 teaspoon celery salt|
| French Potato Croquettes
Mix ingredients in order given, and beat thoroughly. Shape in balls, then in rolls, pointed at ends. Roll in flour, mark in three places on top of each with knife-blade to represent a small French loaf. Fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper.
|2 cups hot riced potatoes||Yolks 3 eggs|
|2 tablespoons butter||1/2 teaspoon salt|
|Few grains cayenne|
| Potato Apples
Mix ingredients in order given, and beat thoroughly. Shape in form of small apples, roll in flour, egg, and crumbs, fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper. Insert a clove at both stem and blossom end of each apple.
|2 cups hot riced potatoes||Few grains cayenne|
|2 tablespoons butter|| Slight grating nutmeg|
|1/3 cup grated cheese||2 tablespoons thick cream|
|1/2 teaspoon salt|| Yolks 2 eggs|
| Potatoes en Surprise
Makes Potato Croquette mixture, omitting parsley. Shape in small nests and fill with Creamed Chicken, Shrimp, or peas. Cover nests with Croquette mixture, then roll in form of croquettes. Dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again; fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper.
|Bakes Sweet Potatoes
Prepare and bake same as white potatoes.
| Sweet Potatoes, Southern Style
Bake six medium sized sweet potatoes, remove from oven, cut in halves lengthwise, and scoop out inside. Mash, add two tablespoons butter, and cream to moisten. Season with salt and Sherry wine. Refill skins and bake five minutes in a hot oven.
| Boiled Sweet Potatoes
Select potatoes of uniform size. Wash, pare, and cook twenty minutes in boiling salted water to cover. Many boil sweet potatoes with the skins on.
| Mashed Sweet Potatoes
To two cups rices sweet potatoes add three tablespoons butter, one-half teaspoon salt, and hot milk to moisten. Beat until light, and pile on a Vegetable dish.
| Sweet Potatoes, Georgian Style
Season mashed boiled sweet potatoes with butter, salt, pepper, and Sherry wine. Moisten with cream, and beat five minutes. Put in a buttered baking-dish, leaving a rough surface. Pour over a syrup made by boiling two tablespoons molasses and one teaspoon butter five minutes. Bake in the oven until delicately browned.
| Glazed Sweet Potatoes
Wash and pare six medium-sized potatoes. Cook in boiling salted water until soft. Drain, cut in halves lengthwise, and put in a buttered pan. Make a syrup by boiling three minutes one-half cup sugar and four tablespoons water; add one tablespoon butter. Brush potatoes with syrup and bake until brown, basting twice with remaining syrup.
| Sweet Potatoes au Gratin
Cut five medium-sized cold boiled sweet potatoes in one-third inch slices. Put a layer in buttered baking-dish, sprinkle with salt, pepper, and three tablespoons brown sugar, dot over with one tablespoon butter. Repeat, cover with buttered cracker crumbs, and bake until the crumbs are brown.
| Sweet Potatoes en Brochettte
Wash and pare potatoes, and cut in one-third inch slices. Arrange on skewers in groups of three or four, parboil six minutes, and drain. Brush over with melted butter, sprinkle with brown sugar, and bake in a hot oven until well browned.
| Sweet Potato Balls
To two cups hot rices sweet potatoes add three tablespoons butter, one-half teaspoon salt, few grains pepper, and one beaten egg. Shape in small balls, roll in flour, fry in deep fat, and drain. If potatoes are very dry, it will be necessary to add hot milk to moisten.
| Sweet Potato Croquettes
Prepare mixture for sweet Potato Balls. Shape in Croquettes, dip in crumbs, egg, and crumbs again, fry in deep fat, and drain.
Shape cold mashed potato in small cakes, and roll in flour. Butter hot omelet pan, put in cakes, brown one side, turn and brown other side, adding butter as needed to prevent burning; or pack potato in small buttered pan as soon as it comes from table, and set aside until ready for use. Turn from pan, cut in pieces, roll in flour, and cook same as Potato Cakes.
| Creamed Potatoes
Put two cups cold boiled potatoes, cut in dice, in one and one-half cups White Sauce I.
| Potatoes au Gratin
Put Creamed Potatoes in buttered baking-dish, cover with buttered crumbs, and bake on centre grate until crumbs are brown.
| Delmonico Potatoes
To Potatoes an Gratin add one-third cup grated mild cheese, arranging potatoes and cheese in alternate layers before covering with crumbs.
| Potatoes á lAntlers
Cook potatoes with jackets on, drain, and let stand twenty-four hours. Peel, and cut in small cubes. Put into a saucepan with two tablespoons butter to each two cups potatoes. Sprinkle with salt, and generously with paprika. Add one cup cream, and cook slowly, forty minutes.
| Hashed Brown Potatoes
Try out fat salt pork cut in small cubes, remove scraps; there should be about one-third cup of fat. Add two cups cold boiled potatoes finely chopped, one-eighth teaspoon pepper, and salt if needed. Mix potatoes thoroughly with fat; cook three minutes, stirring constantly; let stand to brown underneath. Fold as an omelet and turn on hot platter.
| Sautéd Potatoes
Cut cold boiled potatoes in one-fourth inch slices, season with salt and pepper, put in a hot, well-greased frying-pan, brown on one side, turn and brown on other side.
| Chartreuse Potatoes
Cut cold boiled potatoes in one-fourth inch slices, sprinkle with salt, pepper, and a few drops onion juice, put together in pairs, dip in Batter I, fry in deep fat, and drain on brown paper.
| Lyonnaise Potatoes I
Cook five minutes three tablespoons butter with one small onion cut in thin slices; add three cold boiled potatoes cut in one-fourth inch slices and sprinkled with salt and pepper; stir until well mixed with onion and butter; let stand until potato is brown underneath, fold, and turn on a hot platter. This dish is much improved and potatoes brown better by addition of two tablespoons Brown Stock. Sprinkle with finely chopped parsley if desired.
| Lyonnaise Potatoes II
Slice cold boiled potatoes to make two cups. Cook five minutes one and one-half tablespoons butter with one tablespoon finely chopped onion. Melt two tablespoons butter, season with salt and pepper, and potatoes, and cook until potatoes have absorbed butter, occasionally shaking pan. Add butter and onion, and when well mixed, add one-half tablespoon finely chopped parsley. French Chef
| Oak Hill Potatoes
Cut four cold boiled potatoes and six hard-boiled eggs in one-fourth inch slices. Put layer of potatoes in buttered baking-dish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, cover with layer of eggs; repeat, and pour over two cups Thin White Sauce. Cover with buttered cracker crumbs and bake until the crumbs are brown.
| Curried Potatoes
Cook one-fourth cup butter with one small onion, finely chopped until yellow; add three cups cold boiled potato cubes, and cook until potatoes have absorbed butter, then add from one-half to three-fourths cup White Stock, one half tablespoon each curry powder and lemon juice, and salt and pepper to taste. Cook until potatoes have absorbed stock.