Sample Solution from
Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections (9th Edition)
9th Edition
ISBN: 9780134296012
Chapter 1
Problem 1CC
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Summary Introduction

To complete: The given map showing a major biological theme.

Introduction: The five major themes present in all biological systems are as follows:

Theme 1: “Evolution is the core theme of biology”.

Theme 2: “Life depends on the flow of information”.

Theme 3:“Structure and functions are related”.

Theme 4: “Life depends on the transfer and transformation of energy and matter”.

Theme 5: “Life depends on interactions within and between systems”.

Expert Solution

Answer

 Fig. 1 shows the completed map of evolution, one of the core themes in biology given in the textbook.

Pictorial representation: Fig. 1 shows the completed map of the core theme of biology: evolution.

images

Fig.1 Evolution as a core theme of biology

Explanation of Solution

(a)

Correct answer: Life

The term biology” is defined as the branch of science that studies life (in Greek: bio= life; -ologia= study of). Hence, the correct answer is life.

(b)

Correct answer: Evolution

Evolution is defined as the continuous process of changes that have occurred over a long time to transform the living beings from their earliest simplest forms to the present-day wide variety of species. It can be summarized as “descent with modification”, that is, all species have evolved from common ancestors through several continuous changes over time. Thus, evolution is the process that has changed life. Hence, the correct answer is evolution.

(c)

Correct answer: Natural selection

Researcher Charles Darwin proposed the phenomenon of “natural selection” as the mechanism for evolution. In a large population of species, individuals show several variations in their traits; out of which, some variations are more favorable for survival, utilization of resources, and better reproductive success of selected individuals. This phenomenon of better adaptation, survival, and reproductive success of selected individuals due to the presence of certain traits or variations is called natural selection. These selected individuals are able to pass their traits to their next generation, and thus their population increases, slowly by transforming the population, leading to evolution. Thus, natural selection is the mechanism that drives evolution. Hence, the correct answer is natural selection.

(d)

Correct answer: Unity of life

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is present in most of the living organisms that help in the flow of information from one generation to the other and changes in which lead to evolution. Thus, it is a proof for unity among all life forms.

Evolution has led to the development of various species from a common ancestor through continuous changes. Thus, it shows unity among all life forms. Genetic code as DNA and evolution show unity of life. Hence, the correct answer is unity of life.

(e)

Correct answer: Domains of life

DNA that encodes the genetic information is present in most of the living organisms classified into various domains of life. There are a large number of organisms of various types from simple single-celled bacteria to highly complex and multicellular animals. The basis of their diversity is the genetic information coded in their genetic material, usually DNA. Differences in DNA sequences cause diversity among organisms belonging to different domains of life. Hence, the correct answer is domains of life.

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