This is proof of the Sumerian architectural abilities. The architecture in Mesopotamia are considered to have been contemporary with the founding of the Sumerian cities, but there was some complexity in the architectural design during this Protoliterate period (c. 3400-c. 2900 BC). This is shown in the design of many religious buildings. Typical temples of the Protoliterate period--both the platform type and the type built at ground level--are, however, much more elaborate both in planning and ornament. The interior was decorated with cones sunk into the wall, covered in bronze. Most cities were simple in structure, but the ziggurat was one of the world's first complex architectural structures.
Ancient Greek architecture dates from around 800 BCE when the site of Delphi first obtained a religious significance. The architecture of Ancient Greece has influenced the architecture of the past two millennia most significantly that of Ancient Rome (Hemingway, 2003). Greek architecture influenced Roman architecture in extensive ways, giving that the Romans adopted and incorporated many Greek methods and elements into their own practice. Although the Romans were inspired by the Greek there are still many differences in their architecture most noticeably through materiality. Although the Greeks constructed many types of buildings the most recognisable “Greek” structure is the temple. (Becker, 2015) As stated by Coleen Hemingway in an article for the Metropolitan Museum of Art “ the Greek temple best exemplifies the aims and methods of Greek Architecture”. Whilst exploring such architecture it is necessary to examine the mentality, religious beliefs and driving forces of each civilization. According to Stierlin “Unlike the Greek temple, essentially a structure for the play of light and shade, with little interior space accommodating a small sanctuary, Roman builders typically used arches, vaults, matching domes
Ancient Greece is considered by many historians to be the cultural foundation of Western Civilization. Many aspects of Western life that remain visible today demonstrate how immensely influential the Ancient Greek civilization was, with one of the most evident areas of influence being Architecture. Ancient Greek Architecture is one of the earliest forms of architectural style. Greek architects provided some of the finest and most extraordinary buildings that showcased their artistic brilliance in terms of construction and design. One of the prime examples of the architectural skills that the Greeks possessed is the Parthenon.
Göbekli Tepe is a very interesting archaeological site that is located at the top of the mountain limestone ridge in Southeastern Turkey near the Syrian border (Banning 620). It is known as the earliest monumental building, or temple, that mankind has ever created and it was built even before the stage of agriculture, which dates back to some 11,600 years ago (Mann 1st page). Göbekli Tepe belongs to the PPN (Pre-Pottery Neolithic) in terms of its chronological context in world prehistory (Banning 620). In fact, the site can be divided into three different stratigraphic levels that are level 3, level 2A, and level 2B (Banning 620). Level 3 is the oldest level which appears to date back to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) (Banning 621). Each of the buildings measured 15 m by 10 m and contained T-shaped monoliths surrounded by a wall made of stone and mortar (Banning 621). Two U-stone shaped entrances could by identified in two of the buildings (Banning 621). However, the most monumental aspect of the Göbekli Tepe can be attributed to the sophisticated carvings of wild animals, such as scorpions and boars, on the pillars which appears in the pillars of level 3 and level 2A (Banning 621). Moreover, Level 2A, which dates to Middle PPNB, has smaller and more rectangular buildings than Level 3 and it contains delicately implemented tiled floors and T pillars without any decorations (Banning 621). Level 2B dates to the time between level 3 and level 2A, however,
[pic]What aspect of Assyrian society is depicted on the bas-relief stone slabs unearthed at Nimrud?
Egypt is also known for its statues depicting various gods and tombs for its numerous pharaohs. Their architectural prowess is a feat marveled at even today. The ability to design and build such grand monuments such as the iconic pyramids of Giza, rivalling even the Mayan and Aztec temples of South and Central America, reveals the true nature of innovation in Egypt. In fact, even without modern tools of measurement, the Great Pyramid, the largest tomb in Egypt, is almost geometrically perfect. For such a large structure, the length of all four sides at its base differ by less than a foot (McKenty 1).
The Similarities and Differences Between the Design, Construction and Environmental Performance of a Typical Mesopotamian ‘Courtyard’ House and a Roman ‘Peristyle’ House.
As the saying goes, great art is mad with its own loveliness. Over the decades, Greek-inspired architecture has been seen all over the world. Ideas are often borrowed while constructing buildings, monuments, and even houses. Greeks mostly used wood, limestone, unbaked bricks, terracotta and metal for construction. Most architecture were inspired by religion, politics, and form of recreation. Of all designs from Greek architecture three of them have withstood the test of time and their application can be seen today. They include Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian order. However, each order is distinct from the other and one cannot differentiate unless trained. This paper will look at Doric and Corinthian orders while comparing and contrasting them. It will also trace their prevalence and popularity throughout history.
During the archaic period, the Greeks stopped using wood as their primary building material. Instead, they used stone, preferable marble, to make their large buildings. Hence the birth of stone in Greek structures. The stone was very durable and had superior strength, unlike the wood. The Greeks cut the stone to form columns. According to Mark Cartwright(2012) from Ancient History Encyclopedia "The columns were an architectural invention, which allowed for the support of ceilings without the use of wood to walls." Without solid walls, the larger buildings would have more sources of light. Columns were used primarily for Greek temples, such as the Parthenon which displayed a great use of columns. The Parthenon primary source of light came from the sun.
The relief, consisted of five panels, functions both as a religious representation as well as imposing the king’s power. Stone Panel in Bas-relief was once lined the inner walls of the Northwest Palace of King Ashurnasirpal II at Nimrud. Nimrud, located on the Tigris River in northern Iraq, was the capital of Assyria during Ashurnasirpal II’s reign. The bas relief visually communicates its viewer by possessing “a more peaceful but equally imposing iconography, depicting Ashurnasirpal’s ritual activities in the company of human attendants and supernatural figures.”
These ideas and precise mathematical measurements are called entasis and were far ahead of the time and still remain a mystery to people today. These visual tricks were intended to make the Parthenon look perfectly symmetrical and aligned to the human eye. Optical refinements have been made in the base/ stylobate of the temple as it curves in the middle but because of the vertical straight lines of the columns and the weight of the temple it looks perfectly straight to the human eye. Because of this all the the columns had to be specially carved so they would align with the base and sit on it flatly. There are also refinements to the columns which lean in slightly and are wider at the bottom than the top and the cella wall which also tilts inwards. Instead of making sure it was perfect mathematically with all the right measurements they ensured that it was perfect to the human eye and although you can slightly tell that there are curves up close, from far away it looks perfect which shows their devotion to the gods of whom would be seeing the temple from a distance so it would look perfect to
The similarities and differences between the design, construction and environmental performance of a typical Mesopotamian ‘courtyard’ and a Roman ‘peristyle’ house
In the deserts of Egypt lie the colossal remains of an ancient civilization. These enormous works of human endeavor are the only member of the Seven Ancient Wonders of the World that time has passed down to us. These are, of course, the great pyramids of ancient Egypt. But these imposing structures were not built to impress civilization millennia down the road. The pyramids in fact had a purpose to the ancient Egyptians. While they seem very simple in nature, as they are simply four-sided pyramids with square bases, they had a meaning for those that had them built. Even by today’s standards, the pyramids of ancient Egypt were an impressive feat of engineering, due to their enormous size, both in building materials and finished product.
Have you ever wondered how ancient civilization built massive structures? Many ancient civilizations built things that served a multitude of purposes. Most of the purposes of these structures are already known but, there still may be unknown uses for the thing these ancient civilizations built. There also many different ancient civilizations like the Greeks, Romans, Chinese, Egyptian, Mayans, and Aztecs. Many of the things built in ancient times influenced the things that we build today. For example, the coliseum influenced the basic designs of modern football stadiums. Also the designs made by these ancient civilizations helped to change the way other civilizations made there monuments. For example, when the romans started to different types of columns and arches the style was adopted, modified, and used in the designs of cathedrals in Europe .There are many parts of these ancient buildings still undiscovered. For example there could still be sealed rooms in the pyramids of Giza. Usually when people start to research architecture made by ancient civilizations, they have to answer how were they built, and what were they built for.
The History of Greek Architecture The architecture of ancient Greece is represented by buildings in the sanctuaries and cities of mainland Greece, the Aegean islands, southern Italy and Sicily, and the Ionian coast of Turkey. Monumental Greek architecture began in the archaic period, flourished through the classical and Hellenistic periods, and