1.0 Introduction Plant pathology is a science that studies plant diseases and attempts to improve

1700 WordsApr 23, 20197 Pages
1.0 Introduction Plant pathology is a science that studies plant diseases and attempts to improve the chances for survival of plants when they are faced with biotic and abiotic factors that cause disease. Plants will produce well as long as they get sufficient nutrient and moisture, light for photosynthesis and optimum temperature. However, plants also get sick. Sick plants produce poorly and the symptoms of disease will appear. The agents that cause disease in plants are similar to those causing disease in human and animals. Cocoa plantation needs a healthy and vigorous tree because their life span is more than 25 years in producing pods. The infected cocoa trees by diseases will be partly or entirely weakening, thus unproductive and dead…show more content…
The major diseases on cocoa plants are Vascular-streak dieback caused by Oncobasidium theobromae (Kanae). Cocoa crop is very sensitive to changes in the environment; it requires careful management and good practice culture. Restrict or prevent the onset of the disease is a good way most management. If disease occurs, control measures must be in the early stages of infection. Control on a serious level is usually less effective and costly. Disease is not controlled; it will cause a loss in terms of quantity and quality of cocoa beans produced. Good management practices have to be adopted in the cocoa field to control the development of disease, such as black pod, canker and vascular streak dieback (VSD), all of which can pose a serious threat to the cocoa industry. Root disease can also pose a serious threat, particularly in areas where cocoa is being replanted and/or virgin forest cleared for cultivation. Amongst the Phytophthora diseases, black pod (Ramakrishnan and Thankappan; 1965), stem canker (ChandraMohanan; 1978), Chupon blight and twig dieback (ChandraMohanan et al.; 1979) and seedling dieback (ChandraMohanan; 1979) have been recorded in India. Through 1981, vascular streak dieback was established only in Kottayam and Thrissur regions of Kerala (Chandra Mohanan and Kaveriappa, 1981). 2.1 Vascular-streak Dieback (VSD) of Cocoa The first persons described about the symptoms of VSD are Shaw (1962), and subsequently by Keane et al.

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