1.Non-Proliferative Breast Disease. Non-Proliferative Breast

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1. Non-proliferative Breast Disease
Non-proliferative breast disease, the most common lesion, is associated with small increased risk or no effect (relative risk 0.9-1.6) (e.g., fibroadenoma, cysts).
2. Proliferative Breast Disease without Atypia
Women with proliferative breast disease without atypia had about 1.5 to 1.9 fold increased risk (e.g., adenosis, intraductal papilloma).
3. Atypical Hyperplasia
Atypical hyperplasia produced about a 3 to 5 fold higher risk of breast cancer.
Pathology of Breast Cancer
Breast cancers can be classified by different schemes. Each of these aspects influences treatment response and prognosis. Description of a breast cancer would optimally include all of these classification aspects, as well as other
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Patients with a high score benefit from radiotherapy after excision, whereas those of low grade, whose tumor is completely excised, need no further treatment. (Williams, et al., 2013)
Surgical Treatment Options of DCIS
a. Mastectomy for Patients with DCIS
Mastectomy is by far the most effective treatment available for DCIS if the goal is simply to prevent local recurrence. Most mastectomy series reveal local recurrence rates of approximately 1% with mortality rates close to zero.
Mastectomy is an aggressive form of treatment for patients with DCIS. It clearly provides a local recurrence benefit but only an indemonstrable and theoretical survival benefit. It is, therefore, often difficult to justify mastectomy, particularly for otherwise healthy women with screen-detected DCIS, during an era of increasing utilization of breast conservation for invasive breast carcinoma.
Mastectomy is indicated in cases of true multicentricity (multi-quadrant disease) and when a unicentric DCIS lesion is too extensive to excise with clear margins and an acceptable cosmetic result. Genetic positivity to one or more of the breast cancer associated genes (BRCA1, BRCA2) is not an absolute contraindication to breast preservation, but many patients who are genetically positive and who develop DCIS seriously consider bilateral mastectomy. (Kuerer, 2010)
b. Breast Conservation for Patients
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