Lifestyle changes to help prevent AD, according to The Alzheimer’s Prevention Foundation International include ‘four pillars of building a better memory”; diet and vitamins, stress management, exercise and pharmaceutical drugs. Diet and vitamins: the brain requires nutrition, blood flow and energy that comes from a diet that is moderate in calories, high in good fats and clean proteins. Stress management: reducing depression and improving your ability to deal with stressful situations. Exercise: mental and physical exercise is essential for brain health. Effective workouts include brisk walking, swimming, and Tai chi mental exercise such as visiting museums, crossword puzzles, reading, taking educational classes, and socializing with friend’s arte all excellent ways to keep your brain in shape. Pharmaceutical drugs: medications such as Aricept, Exelon, Reminyl, and Namenda, taken with the supervision of a physician, can play an important role in delaying the progression of mild memory loss due to Alzheimer’s disease. Natural hormone replacement
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a severe, incurable form of dementia that causes impairment and cognitive deficits such as language, speech, memory and basic motor skills (Buckley, 2011). Currently in the United States, there are 5.2 million individuals living with AD (Alzheimer’s Association, 2013). AD is a deterioration of one’s cognitive functions that prevents the ability for daily function and unfortunately has no known cure or preventative methods (Buckley, 2011).The main deficit that AD has on the brain is the deterioration of different areas of the brain. Not only does a physical toll contribute to patients with AD, but there is also a social stigma that impedes on the normal daily function of life. In this literature review, I will
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive and fatal form of dementia, frequently seen in the elderly altering their cognition, thought process and behavior. AD is reported in about half of patients that have a dementia diagnosis; one study states that about 10.3% of the population over 65 years is affected by dementia with an increase to almost 50% over the age of 8 (Beattie, 2002). Alzheimer’s disease is not a normal part of the aging process in humans, but rather found in a group of diseases that affect the brain leading to a decline in mental and physical control. AD when diagnosed has a very slow and gradual course, initially affecting the individual’s short term memory (Beattie, 2002). Alzheimer’s disease is the 6th leading cause of death, affecting more than five million people in the United States and is also one of the most common forms of dementia. Dementia can be defined as a disorder of progressive cognitive impairment severe enough to affect daily functions of an individual’s life (Fillit, et al., 2002).
Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning which affects an individual’s daily life. Alzheimer’s disease is a form of dementia that slowly destroys memory and thinking and the ability to perform simple tasks. There is some research that suggests cognitive training may slow the progression of dementia. Cognitive training challenges a variety of cognitive functions such as attention, memory and speed, which is different to general brain training that people may come across in their daily life (Kanaan et al., 2014). Various limitations
Non-pharmacological interventions, such as validation therapy, are the first line approach to manage BPSD. However, in emergency cases where there is safety risk for the person with dementia and others, the pharmacological intervention or psychotropic drug are used. Psychotropic drug includes neuroleptics, anxiolytics and antidepressants. Additionally, to improve cognitive function, memory enhancement drugs such as cholinesterase inhibitors are
There is no cure for Alzheimer’s. But drug and non-drug treatments may help with both cognitive and behavioral symptoms
Ritalin, and Adderall, respectively. Although originally developed to treat diagnosed conditions ranging from narcolepsy to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, their off-label use has been reported to increase users’ recall, attention span, and ability to focus on cognitive tasks; in addition, modafinil has been shown to increase wakefulness (Butcher 2003; greely et al. 2008). Some CEDs also seem to enhance users’ “executive function,” or problem-solving ability (Mehlman 2004, p. 484). Beyond the currently available drugs, research into Alzheimer’s disease and other causes of cognitive decline in the elderly is likely to contribute, intentionally or not, to the further
Alzheimer 's disease (AD) is an irreversible and incurable form of dementia characterized by rapid cell death, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuritic plaques (Cavanaugh, Blanchard-Fields, & Norris, 2008). Structures of the brain affected by rapid cell death includes the hippocampus, the cerebral cortex, and the forebrain (Cavanaugh et al., 2008). A definitive diagnosis of AD is made only at autopsy (Cavanaugh et al., 2008). As AD progresses, memory and ultimately self-identity are destroyed, however, interventions can improve the quality of life of older adults (Cavanaugh et al., 2008). Interventions in AD should focus on helping patients make the most effective use of their functioning (Cavanaugh et al., 2008). A non-pharmacological intervention by Bredesen (2014) appears to be restoring some cognitive function in some patients with AD (Dador, 2014). Bredesen (2014) asserts that some of the effects of cognitive decline can be reversed through his therapeutic program. Jimbo, Kimura, Taniguchi, Inoue, and Urakami (2009) also assert the potential of non-pharmacological interventions. They found that aromatherapy has the potential to improve cognitive function. Other non-pharmacological interventions such as exercise or physical activity (PA) have been studied for their effects in cognitive decline (Farina, Rusted, & Tabet, 2014; Tortosa-Martinez & Clow, 2012). This paper explores the effects of non-pharmacological interventions in cognitive decline associated with AD.
Imagine seeing an abusive video, it creates a lot of emotion in people. It brings out another side of them either emotionally or physically making them want to do something about the situation. Now when people start a new job they usually go through some type of training getting them ready for the work. That’s what this experiment is about, but it’s not just your average type of training. In the Article “Increasing Cognitive Readiness Through Computer and Videogame–Based Training” by Jorge Peña and Nicholas Brody, a study was made to see if exposure to emotional or tacticle miltatry videos had an effect on two compents of congnative readiness, emotional regulation and metacognition. Also examining how social identification factors such as
Smith et al. (2013) took a less studied approach to improving cognitive decline by testing the effects of aerobic exercise on adults (60-88 years old) already suffering from cognitive impairment. After 12 weeks of moderate exercise there was an improvement of memory and neural efficiency across all subjects.
Approximately 5.1 million adults in the U.S. who are 65 years or older may have Alzheimer’s disease, the most widely known type of cognitive impairment.
SpNS program: the paperwork and materials for the Tier I review of the Refresher Skills Lite Training were submitted, and the preparation for trainings continues. The SpNS request to hire was approved. CHD Preparedness program: DOH-Leon received technical assistance on their PPHR application; DOH-Hamilton received technical assistance to prepare for a COOP exercise; the plan review is progressing and a template for a report was created; S. McNelis will serve as T&E Tier reviewer replacing L. Ibaugh; the Unit mailbox and calendar were created and planners and managers received information and instructions to use them; the authorization to fill and advertise positions 5467 and 5482 was granted; Dative is up-to-date; purchasing activities progressed.
With the increasing medical pharmacology and non-pharmacology therapies that are available to individuals through early onset of dementia, early diagnosis is prevalent. Through research it suggest that through early diagnosis that pharmacology and non-pharmacology have maximum effect (Milne, 2010).There have been treatments that have been made availability in consideration cholinesterase inhibitors that have been identified to treat dementia, and also improve memory functioning, and minimize anxiety which enhances an individual’s daily living (Milne, 2010). Also early intervention helps to delay or restrict the need to transition to convalescent centers or care homes.
Most types of dementia are treatable with medication and supportive therapies. However, it is irreversible and not curable. The most one can do is to slow down the progressive process. Medications help improve dementia conditions, but negative side effects can potentially bring back unwanted signs. Memory improving medications, such as Cholinesterase inhibitors and Memantine help act as a neurotransmitter; regulating brain cell chemicals to improve the memory function. Validation therapy, where it treats disorientation and confusion will help out Mrs. Jones with her dementia. Cognitive training is recommended. One research shows that “At the end of the training phase, each intervention significantly improved the targeted cognitive ability:
Pharmacological interventions of treating AD are by using anti-dementia drugs. Anti-dementia drugs are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and memantine. AChEIs which are donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine have marketing authorisation in UK for treatment of mild to moderate AD. AChEIs work by preventing acetylcholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine so that the concentration and duration of acetylcholine at neurotransmission sites increase . Donepazil is a reversible, specific AChEI. Galantamine is a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and it can modulate activity at nicotinic receptor. Rivastigmine is a reversible non-competitive inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. AChEI can cause unwanted side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and dizziness. Treatment should be started at low dose and the dose can be titrate up gradually depend on response and tolerability