10 Principles Regaarding Ethical Clinic and Set of Guidelines on Clinical Research

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Nuremberg Code is a set of 10 sophisticate principles regarding ethical clinical research on human being (Grodin, 1994). It is mainly for protection of subjects’ human right (Shuster, 1997), such as compulsory of informed consent and the equal authority of subjects as the physician-researcher to end the experiment.
1.2 Helsinki Declaration (1964)

Helsinki Declaration is a set of guidelines on clinical research for physician as their responsibility toward protection of their research subjects (Williams, 2008). World Medical Association (WMA) also encourage it is used as reference by other parties in conduction of clinical research (Bădărău, 2013). Compared with the Nuremberg Code, which mainly focuses on safeguard of the subjects, its
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The vile medical crimes during the WW II had raise the awareness on the need of a world body which able to define and promulgate medical ethnics around the world (Tyebkhan, 2003). Thus, the World Medical Association (WMA) was set up in 1947 with 1st Annual Meeting of General Assembly in September 1947, Paris (Human and Fluss, 2001). WMA is an international confederation composed of national medical associations that seek to promote medical ethics and professional standards (Human and Fluss, 2001).

Helsinki Declaration was first developed and promulgated in June 1964 by World Medical Association General Assembly in Helsinki after more than a decade of debate and discussion among the members of WMA (Williams, 2008).

Since the first adoption, revision and amendment were done several times on the Helsinki Declaration for refinement. The Helsinki Declaration had been revised 8 times at meeting of WMA: Tokyo 1957, Italy 1983, Hong Kong 1989, South Africa 1996, Edinburg 2000, Washington 2002, Tokyo 2004, Seoul 2008 and Brazil 2013 (Association, 2013).
3 Importance of Nuremberg Code and Helsinki Declaration

In my opinion, Nuremberg Code and Helsinki Declaration play an important role as guideline in clinical research involving human being. Both Nuremberg Code and Helsinki Declaration protect the clinical subjects in term of their right and safety. By referring to them before performing of the protocol,

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