12 Biology Gas Exchange

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logy12 Biology Demonstrate understanding of adaptation of animals to their way of life
Gas exchange – Process in which gas is oxygen exchanged for carbon dioxide THE WORM

The worm lives underneath the ground in moist rich humus soil. The worm is Terrestrial- which means it is related to earths or its inhabitants, and is not restricted to moist environments as the worms internal lungs keep it moist. As worms are nocturnal they only are active at night Which gives them less chance to be eaten by birds as birds hunt in the day time. This is an advantage as they will not dry out in the day time. In hot days in summer the worm burrows deeper to avoid drying out and dying. In wet days it is possible that the worm will be brought
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As the water flows through the gills of the fish the lamellae gains oxygen in order for the fish to have efficient gas exchange. Because fish live in the water and not land it is impossible to breathe (inhale/exhale) that’s why they have gills as their main gas exchange organ, unlike mammals with lungs and worms with skin.

Fish excrete in the sea which is important for the ecosystem. An advantage for fish is that the blood flows through the lamellae in the opposite direction to the water flow so their gas exchange process is not interrupted while gas is exhaled. There is also no dead space in the gills as most water that passes over the gills o2 is diffused into the fish blood. Fish have rich blood supply to gills and are highly vascularised. The fish have numerous folds to the gill structure which increases the surface area so efficient gas exchange.

Mammal -Sheep

Comparisons: a tracheal system in mammals would be too heavy as lungs would require large amounts of water to extract sufficient oxygen, both fish and worms have high vascularised blood vessels. Mammals, worms and fish breathe oxygen but in different ways e.g. skin, gills and lung.
Fish, sheep and worms have large surface are to volume ratio to get efficient gas exchange. They all have different habits which make them favourable in their own species as worms can survive in soil unlike mammals and fish, fish can survive in water unlike
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