What was it that defined an individual in the United States during the mid-twentieth century? Typically, certain aspects come to one’s mind. Perhaps it would be level of education and character, or maybe a person’s heritage that justified where they stood in the American social classification system. Although these components were thought of, they were not the two standard determining factors. Social standing was reflected upon a person’s financial success, and unfortunately, other “traditional” ideals like the color of one’s skin. The economic classes established the hierarchy of society and this standing determined the opportunities available to the individuals, and furthermore, determined their success. However, in the South, a new version of this social classification had risen, placing blacks at the bottom regardless of their economic standing.
The Granges ultimate goal was to help farmers “gain economic leverage and strengthen the commercial position of the American farmer” (Globalyceum, The Gilded Age and the Progressive Era, 1877-1914). The Labor Unions and the Grange set up social justice for the workers during the Gilded Age. They both built social solidarity and collaborative action, as well as empowered the workers to exercise self-determination, realize their full potential, and fight for what they deserved as workers.
The centuries of prejudice and oppression inflicted upon minorities and women were the precedent for the protests by civil and social groups during the 1960s. These groups formed to promote equality among all US citizens; African Americans especially were craving for this change:
Due to the heightening tensions within the ideas of equality, a fire was ignited and a rebellion had begun. Many argued about the inequality of women and slaves. The arguments came from the disproportion in wealth, the beliefs from christianity and the changing ideas of republicanism. These ideas and thoughts have been spread through many public speakers and writers throughout the 1840’s-1860’s. These speakers included: Frederick Douglass, David Walker, Lucy Stone, Lucretia Mott, the authors of Mechanics' Union Preamble and the Ten-Hour Circular. All of these authors ideas curved together at a crucial time in history.
America: home of the free and land of the brave, a land of hope and prosperity, equality and unity for people. But what if you are colored, do these rules still apply? The United States forgot to mention that this land of prosperity and unity works, but only if you are of the white descendent and fall in the middle to wealthy class system. In the 1950s and 1960s the anger of the past and impractical living of the now made the African Americas break there silence and began to stand up for their freedoms and demand the respect and honor that they felt was deserved. Famous figures and writers such as McKay, Cullen, and Dunbar began writings of the problems that their people faced in pursuit of their efforts of race equality. Many poems and writings
The issues of racial inequalities were evident during the twentieth century, especially during the 1950s and 1960s. The African American community often responded to such inequalities through public movements. One public movement that had a great impact on the Civil Rights Movement is the Children’s March of 1963. The movement began after Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested in Birmingham, Alabama. He wrote his powerful and influential “Letter from Birmingham Jail” and encouraged people of the African American community to carry on fighting against segregation nonviolently, even if it meant that they would be arrested, because children “have been deprived … by callous and discriminatory acts” (Interim report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights). King’s letter inspired the people to continue protesting and fighting nonviolently, eventually resulting in the Children’s March of 1963. “It was as if he was saying, in other words: ‘It’s either me and my nonviolent course or them, the … violent extremists’” (Violence and/or Nonviolence in the Success of the Civil Rights Movement: The Malcolm X–Martin Luther King, Jr. Nexus, pg 7). During this movement, children were included in the stand against racism. “Young people played an essential role in the African American Freedom Struggle, participating in many of the major campaigns of the Civil Rights Movement, as well as initiating personal protests against racial injustice” (The Children's Crusade & the Role of Youth in the African American Freedom Struggle). The Children’s March was viewed as important because it marked a time when “children and teenagers were involved in civil rights campaigns throughout the country, and [a time when] they organized numerous demonstrations, boycotts, strikes, and protests for racial justice” (Documenting the Contributions of Children and Teenagers to the Civil Rights Movement) even though they were often physically attacked with water hoses, clubs, and dogs by the policemen. The actions that were taken during this crusade proved to the United States that the African American community would not stop fighting for their freedom. This public campaign had a great impact on the outcome of the American Civil Rights Movement.
Equality twinkled through in the birth of the civil rights movement. Homogeny was a central point in American life in the 1950's, whether known or not. One may contend that people have a natural preference for their kin, at least at an instinctual level. American immigration policy reflected this on non-European nations, excluding Russia. Americans feared migrants would change the present culture, supplanting the population. This revolution ignites in Brown vs. Board of Education. Overruling Plessy vs. Ferguson, it ended public segregation. African Americans saw "separate but equal" would change, igniting a civil rights movement. For example, the 1957 forced integration of the Little Rock Nine came in the wake of the decision. Nine African-American
and the advancement they had made in the 1960’s was starting to decline. The government has played a role in the intentional discrimination of African Americans such as redlining. Redlining is discriminatory system that created ratings often to blacks only declining them of home loans. In 1990 a study showed that 30% of blacks lived in an area 90% black and 62% live in area 60% black or more (Hodgson 179-180). To better emphasis how much inequality still existed within the government in 1981 to 1993 the average American’s income fell by 5% , the top 5 percent of tax payers income increased by 30% and the income of the top 1% increased by 78% (Hodgson 291).
Income inequality in the 70’s and the 80’s demonstrated a significant difference in comparisons with today’s income inequality. In the 70’s, the top one percent generated 9% total income in US and today, 30 years later it nearly doubled generating at 24% total income in US. A CEO would earn approximately 40 times more than his or her average worker in the 70’snand the 80’s however, in today’s case a CEO earns 500 times more than his or her average worker that’s about 13 times more grossed income of CEO in a span of 30 years. (Frank, preface VIII) In the 70’s and 80’s the ten percent would earn about $1,500 a week and the average middle class would earn about $720 a week. But, today the ten percent earns nearly $2,000 a week and average middle
The Great Depression was an unfriendly time for millions of Canadians, certainly not just Canadians, but those internationally. This decade of despair contributed to not only the negative effects to the economy, but as well as the pessimistic social justice issues. The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) did provide some hope for those who sought out aid and solutions; however, were unable to assist those in need; furthermore, life wasn’t so fun for those of lower-class and or part of religious or ethnic minorities as well.
Jackson shows the complexity of class identities in Harlem through different arguments from social scientists about race and class. Some theorists believe that poverty is due to one’s own actions and if one should “behave properly” (4) such as working harder, stopping devious acts, finding a spouse and producing less offspring; one would be able to overcome one’s poverty. Another popular theory is that it is more difficult for people who do not have “soft-skills”(4) to thrive in the job market because these “soft-skills” provide the upper hand in competing with other candidates for a job. These “soft-skills” are viewed as the separation between the middle class and the under class. Another theory is how we express our behavior in certain locations
Has equality between the sexes changed? Have women enjoyed the same rights and freedoms as men, throughout history? Unfortunately, no they have not. Depending on time period you look at you will quickly notice that, as the societal norms change, women remained oppressed in different ways. Customs have come a long distance since then, and their place in society continued to change. In the 1960s women were not as oppressed as they were once, in the decades before , still they were not given the full rights, opportunities and freedoms that a man would have.
The 1950’s was a time period were men and women came together and started a family with a white picket fence; this is a very inaccurate observation of this time period. One thing we won’t miss about the 1950’s is the gender inequality. During this period women were inferior to men, women didn’t have the same opportunities as men. According to page 31 “ Women who became pregnant specialized in raising children” were as though today women can have children and return back to working, and they also have the same chances as men. The family concept in the 1950’s was something we lack in today’s society, almost everyone was married with children in the 1950’s whereas though is less likely for people to get married today. The economy flourished there
It is important for schools to have written policies that specifically deal with social disadvantage and equality. Marginson (n.d, p.4) encourages leaders to create public policy that aspires to raise the general level of scholastic accomplishment over the entire level of learning achievement across all of society, but especially focusing on students who are socially disadvantaged due to belonging to low income families. This means it is important for each school, whether public or private, to be creating policies that encourage diversity within the education system and aim to help those from the poorest communities. Every state in Australia has suburbs that are classed the most disadvantaged in the state. According to Biddle (2013, p.7) some of the most disadvantaged suburbs in each state are as follows: Broadmedows, Victoria (VIC), Busby, New South Wales (NSW), Riverview, Queensland (QLD), Elizabeth North, (SA), North Mandrua, Western Australia (WA), Risdon Vale, Tasmania (TAS), Gray, Northern Territory (NT) and Namadgi, Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Every one of these disadvantaged suburbs contains at least one public primary school. Upon investigation only two schools contain information on their web pages that displays to the public that the school leaders understand and have addressed some of the challenges faced by being located in a low socioeconomic area. The first school website to contain helpful information was Busby Public School website